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Lyceum of Natural History. 

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Lyceum of Natural History 



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Printers, 34 Carmine Street, 




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°$ice-l? residents. 

(Jotiresponding Secretatiy. 

Becordinp, Secretary. 



Committee of publication 









Notes on the Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, N. Y., with descrip- 
tion of a new .Species of Pteropod, (Art. XXVII) 290 


On the Genitalia and Lingual Dentition of Pulrnonata, (Art. IV) 20 


On the Genitalia, Jaw aud Lingual Dentition of certain species of Pul- 
monata, with a note on the Classification of the Achatinellse, 
(Art. XX) 1G6 


Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks, with Descriptions of New 

Species, (Art. VIII) 72 

Notes on the Sub-Generic character of Helix Jamaicensis, Chemn., and 
on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks from Haiti ; with Description of 
a New Species of Helix from Colorado, (Art. XVI) 146 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks, with Description of a New Spe- 
cies of the Genus Amphihulima, (Art XXI) 197 


Index to the Literature of Manganese, (Art. XXIII) 208 


Some Observations on the Birds of Ritchie County, West Virginia, 

(Art. XV) 129 

Some Additional Light on the so-called Sterna Port&andica, Ridgway, 

(Art. XXII) 201 


The Myxomycetes of the United States, (Art. XXX) 378 


Oil a New Species of Anarla, and on an Allied Genus, with a Note on 

the Genus Adila, (Art. XII) 107 

Note on a Name in Entomology proposed by the late Coleman Townsend 

Robinson, (Art. XIV) 128 

Descriptions of New Nocture, with remarks on the Variation of Larval 

Foims in the Group, (Art. XXVIII) 300 

\ Contents. 


Morgan Expeditious. 1870-71. On the Devonian Trilobites and Mol- 

lusks of Erere, Province of Para, Brazil, (Art. XIII) 110 


An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. (Art. I) 1 


A Partial Synopsis of the Fishes of Upper Georgia, (Art. XXIX) 307 


Descriptions of Two New Species of Birds of the Families Tanagridce 

and Tymnnhhv, (Art. VII) 70 

Descriptions of Four New Species of Birds from Costa Rica. (Art. IX).. 88 

Description of a New Species of Jay of the Genus Cyanocilta; also of a 

supposed New Species of the Genus Oyanocorax, (Art. XIX) 163 

Description of a New Species of Bird of the Genus Pitangus, (Art. XXVI) 288 


On an Asphaltic Coal from the Shale of the Huron River, Ohio, contain- 
ing Seams of Sulphate of Biryta, — with a Geological Note by Dr. 
J. S. Newberry, (Art. XI) 105 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science, (Art. XXV) 266 


N.)tes on North American Lepidoptera. (Art. X) 91 


Poissons de 1' lie de Cuba : Especes Nouvelles decrites, (Art. VI) 58 


(see Hartt and Rathbun) 110 


Notes on the Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand, (Art. XXIV) 251 


Observations on Some Irregularities of the Floor of the Coal Measures 

of Eastern Kentucky, (Art. Ill) 18 


Notes on < 'eraurus pleuremnthemus, Green, (Art. XVII) 155 

Description of the Interior Surface ol the Dorsal Shell of Ceraurus pkur- 

emnihmius, (Art. XVIII) 159 


Notes on the Coal Measures of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, (Art. II). 14 
Notes on the Upper Coal Measures of Western Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, (Art V) 46 


Plate I. 

Fig. I. BuUmulus Lobbi, Reeve. Dentition. 

II. " Attoperuvianus, Reeve. Genitalia. 

III. Bulimus foveolatus, Reeve. Dentition. 

IV. Dentition of II. 

V. BuUmulus rhodolarynx, Reeve. Dentition. 
VI. Jaw of I. 
VII. BuUmulus primuiaris, Reeve. Dentition. 
VIII. " Peruviunus, Brug. Genitalia. 

For details, see page 44 of text. 

Plate II. 

Fig. I. PaUifera Welherbyi, Binuey. Jaw. 

II. Same. Dentition. 

III. Oylindretta brevis, Pfr. Genitalia. 

IV. Znnites sculptilii, Bland. Dentition. 
V. Bulimus auris-sileni, Born. Genitalia, 

VI. Helix nudeola, Rang. " 

VII. Oylindretta sanguinea, Pfr. " 

VIII. Strophia iostomq, Pfr. Dentition. 

IX. Helix discolor, Fer. Genitalia. 

For details, see page 44 of text. 

Plate III. 

Figs. A to G, Liguus Viiyineus, Linn. Dentition. 
For details, see page 44 of text. 

xii List of Plates. 

Plate IV. 

Figs. A to D. Orikalicus gallina-sultana, Chemn. Dentition. 

E. The same. Jaw. 

F. The same, Genitalia. 

G. Liguus Virgineus, Linn. Genitalia. 
For details, see page 45 of text. 

Plate V. 

Fig. I. Zonites inornatus, Say. Genitalia. 
II. " friabUis, Binney. " 

III. Helix Troostiana, Lea. 

IV. " clausa, Say. " 

V. " rufo-apicata, Poey. Dentition. 
VI. " Troostiana, Lea. " 

VII. " Pennsylvanica, Green. Genitalia. 
VIII. " nux-dentixiulata, Chemn. " 
IX. " Josephine, Fer, 

X. Geomalacus maculosus, Allm. " 

Plate VI. 

Fig. I. Helix Ciarki, Lea. Dentition. 

II. " Slearnsiana, Gabb. Genitalia. 
HI. Orthalicus obductus, Shuttl. Dentition. 
IV. Helix Traski, Lea. Genitalia, in part. 
V- " Ciarki, Lea. Dentition. 
VI. The same. Genitalia. 

VII " Wetherbyi, Bland. Dentition. 
For details, see page 45 of text. 

Plate VII. 
Mugii BrasUiensis, Agassiz. 

Plate VIII. 

Figs. 1 to 3. Mugii Gaimardianus, Desmarest. 
4 to 8. Mugii Irichodon, Poey. 

Plate IX. 

Figs. 1, 2. Gymnothorax umbrosus, Poey. 
3,4. Neoconger perlongus, Poey. 

Plate X. 
Gymnothorax polygonius, Poey. 

List of Plates. 

Plate XL 

Ceraurus pleurexardhemus, Green, (enlarged). 

A. Transverse' section of thorax at 4th segment. 

B. Interior of dorsal shell. 

C. Longitudinal section at median line. 

D. Longitudinal section of single segment. 
For details, see page 102 of text. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 1. Bulimulus pallidior, Sowb. Genitalia. 

2. Helix aspera, Fer. " 

3. " spinosa, Lea. 

4. Limax montanus, Ing. " 
.">. Helix arrosa, Gould. " 

0. " septemvolva, Say. " 

7. Ariulimax lleinphilli, Binney. 

8. Helix crispata, Fer. 

!). Ariolimax Andersoni, Cooper. " 

Plate XIII. 

Fig. A. Helix ruflcincta, Xewc. Genitalia. 

B. Zonites cerinoideus, Anth. Dentition. 

C. Amphibidima Rawsonis, Bland. Genitalia. 
I). CcncilianeUa Gundlachi, Pfr. Jaw. 

E. Ortkcdicus undaius, Brug. (var.) Dentition. 

F. Helix Jammcensis, Chemn. Genitalia. 

G. Same as D, enlarged. 
II. Same, dentition, in part. 

1. " 

J. Sbrophia incana, Binn. Dentition. 
K. Helix Curpenleriuna, Bland. " 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. A. Helix fringiUa, Pfr. * Dentition. 

B. " Jammcensis, Chemn. " 

C. " Slnderiana, Fer. " 

D. Achatinella venusta, Mighels. " 

E. Amphibidima Raiosonis, Bland. " 

F. Lilamlina truncate/., Say. " 

G. Achatinella textUis, Fer. " 

II- " obesa, Newc. " in part. 

* See Plate XV, fig. A. 

List of Plates. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. A. Helix fringilla, Pfr. * Dentition. 

B. " Carpenter!, Newc. " 

C. " pubescens, Pfr. Jaw. 

D. The same. Dentition. 

E. Palula Oumberlandiana, Lea. " 

F. OylindreUa Poeyana, Orb. " 

G. Helix Dktbloensis, Cooper. " 
See Plate XIV, fig. A. 

Plate XVI. 

Fig. A. Bulimulus limnceoides, Fer. Jaw. 

B. The same. Dentition. 

C. Helix cereolus, Muhlf . " 

D. " exoleta, Binney. 

E. The same, — see page 178. 

F. " rufescens, Penn. " 

G. " dentiens, Fer. " 
H. Trochomorpka Cressida, Gould. " 

I. Nanina radians, Pfr. 

Plate XVII. 

Fig. I. ( ylindretta ornata, Gundl. Dentition. 
II. Binneya nolabilis, Cooper. Jaw. 


The same. Dentition. 


The same. Animal. 


Helix Tryoni, Newc Dentition. 


• Succinea papiMata, Pfr. " 


" pallida, Pfr. " 


Helix I'm/ Nostrandi, Bland. " 


" facta, Newc. Genitalia. 


" Tryoni, Newc. " 


" fallax. Say. " 


" Van, Nostrandi, Bland. " 


" facta, Newc. Dentition. 


" Hopetonensis, Shuttl. Genitalia. 


" altemaia, Say (var.) " 


Endodonta incerla, Mouss. Dentition. 


Patula Huahinensis, Pfr. " 


Helix Biu/eli, Shuttl. Genitalia. 


" tridentata, Say. 

List of Plates. xv 

Plate XVIII. 

Fig.A. Helix Harfordiana, Cooper. Dentition. 

B. " leporina, Gould. " 

C. •' Ingersolli, Bland. " 
1). Limax montanus, Ing. " 

E. Helix auricvlaia, Say. " 

F. Var. castaneus of D. 

G. Ariolimax Anderson). Cooper. " 
H. " HemphiM, Binney. " 

I. A mdli mis, " 

For details of Plates XII to XVIII, see pages 195 and 196 of text. 

Plate XIX. 

Map of Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand. 
Present lake area in blue. 
Ancient extension in yellow. 
T. Outcrop of Tertiary limestone. 
M. Old terminal moraine. 




I. — An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

Read April 8, 1874. 

The following list is based largely upon material collected 
during the field season of 1872, while with the exploring 
and surveying part}', in charge of Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, 
of the U. S. Engineers. In it are enumerated all the birds 
thus for known to have been taken or observed within the 
limits of the territory. To give it additional value as a 
formal list, those known to breed, whether from actual obser- 
vations in the field, or from their known breeding range, are 
indicated.* Notes are also given respecting their relative 
abundance or scarcity. Of the 214 species given, 160 were 
either actually taken or noted by Dr. Yarrow and myself 
during the season. Of the remaining species, 25 not met 
with by us are contained in Mr. Allen's list of birds, col- 
lected in vicinity of Ogden, from September 1st to October 
8th. I am also indebted to Mr. Ridgway for a list of the 
birds noted by him during his collecting trip in this locality, 
including many not contained in either Mr. Allen's paper or 
our own report, and also for assistance in the preparation of 
the list. It may be here stated that no collections have ever 
been made in Utah during the spring months, and thus many 

* A star is prefixed to the names of those knoTn to breed. 
Ju>-e, 1874. 1 Ass. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

2 An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

of the spring migrants have entirely escaped notice. This 
will account for the comparatively small number of species 
mentioned. An entire season's connected observations would 
doubtless add many to the number. 

TURDIDJE. The Thrushes. 
*1. Turdus fuscescens Steph. Tawny Thrush. Summer resident. 
Common on Provo River in summer of 1869. (Ridgway.) 

* 2. Turdus Swainsonii Cab. Olive-backed Thrush. Very common. 
Inhabits the thickets of the mountain streams. (Ridgway.) 

* 3. Turdus Pallasii Cab., var. Atulubonii Baird. Rocky Mountain Her- 
mit Thrush. Less common than the preceding. Inhabits the pine region 
(Ridgway.) Ogden, September. (Allen.) 

* 4. Turdus migratorius L. Robin. Very common. Permanent resi- 

* 5. Oreoscoptes montanus (Towns.). Mountain Mocking Bird. An in- 
habitant of the valleys and plains. Most abundant in the neighborhood 
of settlements. 

* 6. Harporhynchus crissalis Henry. Red vented Thrush. Resident? 
Pound breeding, and nest and eggs obtained by Dr. Palmer at St. George. 
Seen by me in same locality. 

* 7. Galeoscoptes Carolinensis (L.). Cat Bird. Very abundant. In- 
habits the thickets. 

CINCLID^. The Water Ouzels. 
*8. Cinclus Mexicanus Swains. Water Ouzel; Dipper. Very abun- 
dant. Inhabiting the rapid mountain streams. Permanent resident. 

SAXICOL.ID.aS. The Stone Chats. 
*9. Sialia Arctica Swains. Rocky Mountain Blue Bird. Resident. 
Very abundant. "Found breeding at Salt Lake City and Antelope Island 
in May and June." (Ridgway.) 

SYLVIID^. The Sylvias. 

* 10. Begulus calendula (L.). Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Common 
resident. Found breeding high up in the mountains by Mr. Ridgway. 
Winters in the valleys. 

PARID.E. The Titmice. 

* 11. Lophophanes inornatus (Gamb.). Very abundant. Resident. 
Breeds in mountains. Wintering in the cedars of the valleys. 

* 12. ' Parus montanus Gamb. Mountain Chickadee. Abundant. Res- 
ident in the mountains. 

* 13. Parus atricapillus (L.), var. septentrionalis Harris. Long-tailed 
Chickadee. Abundant and resident in vicinity of Provo. Apparently not 
very generally distributed. Not found in mountains. 

An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 3 

* 14. Psaltriparus plumbeus Baird. Lead-colored Tit. Abundant, 
moving in large companies. Breeds in the mountains, and winters in the 

SITTID^. The Nuthatches. 

* 15. Sitta Carolinensis (Gm.), var. aculeata Cassin. Slender billed 
Nuthatch. Apparently not common in the* mountains. Met with on but 
one occasion by us. Resident. 

* 16. Sitta pygmcea Vig. Pigmy Nuthatch. Same as preceding. 

CERTHIIDiE. The Creepers. 

* 17. Certhia familiaris L., var. Americana Bonap. Brown Creeper. 
Bare in the pines of mountains in June. Probably breeds. (Ridgway.) 

*18. Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Lafr.). Cactus Wren. Rare 
in southern parts of state. Several individuals seen in vicinity of St. 
George, Oct. 27. Possibly breeds. 

* 19. Salpinxes obsoletus (Say). Rock Wrdft. Exceedingly abundant 
in rocky localities. 

*20. Catherpes Mexicanus (Sw.), var. conspersus Ridgway. White- 
throated Rock Wren. Rather rare, but generally distributed. Permanent 

*21. Thryothorus Bewickii (Aud.), var. leucogaster (Gould). Bewick's 
Wren. Not uncommon in southern part of territory in fall. Probably 

* 22. Troglodytes cedon Vieill., var. Parkmanii (Aud.). Parkman's 
Wren. Abundant in the mountains. Permanent resident. 

*23. Cistothorus stellaris (Licht.). Short-billed Marsh Wren. Prob- 
ably rare. Not taken, but evidence obtained of its breeding on borders 
of Utah Lake. 

* 24. Cistothorus palustris (Wils.), var. paludicola Baird. Long-billed 
Marsh Wren. Exceedingly abundant in the marshes everywhere. Per- 
manent resident. 

MOTACILLID^. The Wagtails. 

25. Anthus Ludovicianus (Gmel.). Tit Lark. Abundant in the 
marshes. Winter resident. 

SYLVICOLIDiE. The Warblers. 

26. Helminthophaga ruficapilla (Wils.). Nashville Warbler. Appar- 
ently common. Ogden, September. (Allen.) 

*27. Helminthophaga Virginias. Baird. Virginia's Warbler. Frequent 
among the scrub oaks of foot-hills, breeding. (Ridgway.) 

*28. Helminthophaga celata (Say). Orange-crowned Warbler. Breeds 
in mountains from 7,000 to 9,000 feet high. (Ridgway.) Common in Sep- 
tember. Ogden. (Allen.) 

4 An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

*29. Dendroica cestiva (Gm.). Yellow Warbler. Very common in 
neighborhood of settlements. 

*30. Dendroica Audubonii (Towns.). Audubon's Warbler. Abundant, 
especially in fall. " Breeds in the pine region of the Wahsatch." (Ridg- 

31. Dendroica blackbumice (Gm.). Blackburnian Warbler. "Not 
common. Ogden. September." (Allen.) 

32 (?). Dendroica nigrescens (Towns.). Black-throated Gray Warb- 
ler. Ogden. September. (Allen.) 

*33. Geothlypis Philadelphia (Wils.), var. Macgillivrayi (Aud.). Mac- 
gillivray's Warbler. Common in the mountains. 

*34. Geothlypis trichas (L.). Maryland Yellow-throat. Common. 
Distributed generally through the valleys of the territory, in the neigh- 
hood of water. 

* 35. Icteria virens (L.), var. longicaitda (Lawr.). Long-tailed Chat. 
Common. Inhabiting indifferently the thickets of foot-hills and valleys. 

36. Myiodioctes pusillus (Wils.). Wilson's Black Cap. Common as 
a spring and autumn migrant. 

* 37. Setoj)haga ruticilla (L.). Redstart. Rather common as an inhabi- 
tant of the mountains and valleys. 

IIIRUNDINID^E. The Swallows. 

*38. Progne subis (L.). Purple Martin. Quite abundant in the moun- 
tains, frequenting aspen groves. 

*39. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say). Cliff Swallow. Very abundant in 
the mountains. Breeds in large colonies on the cliffs. 

* 40. Hirundo horreorum Bart. Barn Swallow. Common. Builds 
in barns, deserted shanties and caves. 

*41. Tachycineta bicolor (Vieill.). White-bellied Swallow. Abundant. 
Generally distributed. Breeds in the aspen groves in company with the 

* 42. Tachycineta thalassina (Swains.). Violet-green Swallow. Some- 
what rare. Breeds in limestone cliffs, with the White-throated Swift (P. 
melanoleuca) and the Cliff Swallow. (Ridgway.) 

*43. Cotyle riparia (L.). Bank Swallow. Quite common at Provo. 
Breeds in the river banks, in company with the rough winged (S. serri- 

44. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.). Rough-winged Swallow. Far 
more numerous than the preceding, with which it is associated. 

VIREONIDJE. The Greenlets. 

45. Vireo olivaceus (L.). Red-eyed Vireo. Quite common at Ogden 
in September. (Allen.) 

*46. Vireo gilvus (Vieill.), var. Swainsonii Baird. Warbling Vireo. 
Very abundant. Generally distributed. Pound breeding, by Mr. Ridg- 
way, from lowest valleys to altitude of 8,000 feet. 

An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 5 

*47. Vireo solitarius Wils., var. plumbeus Coues. Solitary Vireo. 
Rather rare. 

AMPELID^. The Waxwings. 

48. Ampelis cedrorum (Vieill.). The Cedar Bird. Rather common. 
Ogden, September. (Allen.) 

MYIADESTIN^. The Solitaires. 

*49. Myiadestes Townsendii (Aud.). Townsend's Solitaire. Rather 
rare. Breeds on the mountains and winters in the cedar groves of 

LANIIDiE. The Shrikes, or Butcher Birds. 

50. Colhtrio borealis (Vieill.). Great Northern Shrike. Of frequent 
occurrence in fall. Winter resident. 

*51. Collurio Ludovicianus (L.), var. excubitorides (Swains.). White- 
rumped Shrike. * Quite common. Permanent resident. 

TANAGRIDJE. The Tanagers. 
*52. Pyranga Ludoviciana (Wils.). Louisiana Tauager. Common. 

FRINGILLID.E. The Finches, Sparrows, Buntings, etc. 

*53. Carpodacus frontalis (Say). House Pinch. Very abundant. 
Breeds in the valleys. 

* 54. Carpodacus Cassinii Baird. Cassin's Purple Finch. Abundant. 
Breeds on the mountains. (Ridgway.) 

*55. Ghrysomitris pinus (Wils.). Pine Finch. Breeds abundantly in 
pine regions of mountains. Resident. (Ridgway.) 

*56. Ghrysomitris tristis (L.) Yellow Bird. Common. Permanent 

*57. Chrysomitris psaltria (Say) . Arkansas Finch. Quite common in 
southern part of territory late in fall. " Breeds sparingly near Salt Lake 
City aud to the eastward." (Ridgway.) 

58. Leucosticte tephrocotis Swains. Gray-crowned Finch. Obtained 
near Salt Lake City in winter. (Stansbury.) 

*59. Passerculus savanna (Wils.), var. alaudinus Bon. Lark Spar- 
row. Abundant in marshy localities. 

*60. gramineus (Gm.) var. confinis Baird. Bay-winged Spar- 
row. Very abundant. Frequenting the plains. 

*61. Coturnieulus passerinus (Wils.), var. perpallidus Ridgway. Yel- 
low-winged Sparrow. Rare. 

* 62. Chondestes grammaca (Say). Lark Bunting. Abundant every- 
where on plains and benches. 

*63. Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forst.). White-crowned Sparrow. Breeds 
abundantly in the mouutains. 

6 An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

64. Zonotrichia leucophi'ys (Forst.), var. intermedia Ridgway. Ex- 
ceedingly abundant in fall, and also a winter resident. 

G5. Junco hyemalis (L.). Black Snow Bird. Rare in fall. One speci- 
men only taken in flock of Z. intermedia. 

66. Junco Oregonus (Towns.). Oregon Snow Bird. Common in fall. 
Winters at least in southern part of territory. 

*67. Junco caniceps (Woodh.). Red-backed Snow Bird. Tolerably 
common in the pines of Wahsatch mountains in the breeding season. 

*68. Poospiza bilineata (Cass.). Black-throated Sparrow. Breeds 
abundantly in the vicinity of Salt Lake City. (Ridgway.) 

*69. Poospiza belli (Cass.), var. Nevadensis Ridgway. Bell's Finch. 
Very common, especially as a winter resident, frequenting the sage brush 

*70. Spizella socialis (Wils.), var. Arizonoe Coues. Chipping Sparrow. 
Not common. " Breeds near Salt Lake City." (Ridgway.) 

*71. Spizella pallida (Sw.), var. Breweri (Cass.). Brewer's Sparrow. 
Abundant. Permanent resident. Frequents the sage brush of the 

*72. Melospiza melodia (Wils.), var. fallax Baird. Western Song 
Sparrow. Abundant. Permanent resident. 

*73. Melospiza Lincolnii (Aud.). Lincoln's Finch. Rather uncom- 
mon. Found breeding in Parley's Park, by Mr. Ridgway. 

74. Melospiza palustris (Wils.). Swamp Sparrow. Very rare. A 
single specimen taken in extreme southern part of Utah, Oct. 23. 

*75. Passerella Townsendii (Aud.), var. schistacea Baird. Slate-colored 
Sparrow. Abundant in the mountains. Breeds. (Ridgway.) 

76. Calamospiza bicolor (Towns.). White-winged Blackbird. A 
single specimen obtained in Parley's Park in July, by Mr. Ridgway. A 
few seen by Dr. Yarrow in Snake Valley on the borders of Utah. 

* 77. Hedymeles melanocephala (Swains.). Black-headed Grosbeak. 
Very common. 

* 78. Cyanospiza amoena (Say). Lazuli Finch. Numerous in the 

*79. Pipilo maculatus Sw., var. megalonyx Baird. Long-spurred 
Towhee. Common in the valleys and in chaparral of foot-hills. 

*80. Pipilo clorurus (Towns.). Green-tailed Bunting. Common. Con- 
fined exclusively to the mountains. 

81. Pipilo Aberti Baird. ' Abert's Towhee. Not rare in extreme 
southern portion of Utah. Probably breeds. 

ALAUDID^l. The True Larks. 

*82. Eremophila alpestris (Forst ). Shore Lark. Abundant. Perma- 
nent resident. Var. chrysolwma Wagler. Breeding and found sparingly 
in winter, var. occidentalis, McCall. Predominating in winter. (Ridg- 

An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

ICTERIDiE. The Orioles and Blackbirds. 

*83. Molothrus pecoris (Gra.). Cow Bunting. Not very common. 

* 84. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (L.). Bobolink. Rather common through 
the meadows. 

*85. Xanthocephalns icterocephalus (Bonap.). Yellow-headed Black- 
bird. Very numerous. Breeding in large companies. Winters in 
small numbers. 

*86. Agelceus phceniceus (L.). Redwinged Blackbird. Common resi- 

*87. Sturnella magna (L.), var. neglecta (Aud.). Western Meadow 
Lark. Very abuudant. Permanent resident. 

*88. Icterus Bullockii (Swains.). Bullock's Oriole. Abundant. Fre- 
quenting the vicinity of the settlements. 

*89. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.). Brewer's Blackbird. 
Most abundant of the Blackbirds. Permanent resident. 

CORVID^. The Crows and Jays. 

*90. Corvus corax L., var. carnivorus Bartr. Raven. Very abund- 
ant. Permanent resident. 

*91. Corvus Americanus Aud. Common Crow. Apparently not com- 
mon. Seen in vicinity of Provo, in July. Of recent occurrence. 

*92. Picicorvus columbianus (Wils.). Nutcracker. Very common in 
fall. Inhabits exclusively the mountains. Permanent resident. 

*93. Gymnokitta cyanocephala Pr. Maximilian's Jay. Abundant in 
the cedars. Permanent resident. 

*94. Pica caudata Flem., var. Hudsonica (Sabine). Magpie. Numer- 
ous and generally distributed. Resident. 

*95. Cyanura Stelleri (Gmel.), var. macrolophus Baird. Long-crested 
Jay. Common. Found only in the mountains. Resident. 

*96. Cyanocitta Floridana (Bartr.), var. Woodhousei Baird. Wood- 
house's Jay. Numerous. Resident. Not found in the mountains. 

97. Perisoreus Canadensis (L.), var. capitalis Baird. Gray Jay. Wah- 
satch mountains. (Allen.) 

TYRANNISE. The Tyrant Flycatchers. 
*98. Tyrannus Carolinensis (L.). The King Bird. Quite common 
near the settlements. 

* 99. Tyrannus verticalis Say. Arkansas Flycatcher. Common. 

* 100. Myiarchus cinerascens Lawr. Rare in Parley's Park. (Ridgway.) 

* 101. Sayornis Sayus (Bon.). Say's Flycatcher. Rather common. 
Found in the valleys and rocky canons. (Ridgway.) 

* 102. Contopus borealis (Swains.). Olive-sided Flycatcher. Rare in the 

* 103. • Contopus virens (L.), var. Bichardsonii (Swains.). Short-legged 

8 An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

* 104. Empidonax flaviventris Bel., var. difficilis Baird. Western Yellow- 
bellied Flycatcher. Rare in pine woods of the mountains in July. 

* 105. Empidonax obscurus (Swains.) Wright's Flycatcher. Common. 
Chiefly confined to the mountains. 

* 106. Empidonax Hammondii Baird. Hammond's Flycatcher. Less 
common than the preceding. Occurring in the fall. 

* 107. Empidonax Trailii (Aud.), var. pusilhis Swains. Little Fly- 
catcher. Especially abundant in the valleys, frequenting the willow 
thickets along the streams. "Breeds on the mountains up to 7,000 feet." 

ALCIDINID^. The Kingfishers. 

* 108. Ceryle alcyon (L.). Kingfisher. Common on all the streams. 
Found by Mr. Ridgway in the mountains up to 7,000 feet. 

CAPRIMULGID.E. The Goatsuckers. 

* 109. Chordeiles popetue (Vieill.), var. Henryi Cass. Western Night 
Hawk. Very abundant in the valleys, and breeding in mountains up to 
7,000 feet. 

*110. Antrostomus Nuttalli (Aud.). NuttalL's Whippoorwill. Same 
range as preceding, though much less numerous. 

CYPSELID^. The Swifts. 

* 111. Panyptila saxatilis (Woodh.). White-throated Swift. Not un- 
common. Builds its nest in holes in limestone cliffs. 

TROCHILIDJE. The Humming Birds.* 

* 112. Trochihis Alexandri Bourc. and Muls. Alexander's Humming 
Bird. Numerous in the valleys. "Breeds up to 8,000 feet." (Ridgway.) 

* 113. Selasphorus platycercus (Swains.). Broad-tailed Humming Bird. 
Common at Ogden in September. (Allen.) Exceedingly abundant in 
Wahsatch mountains, from May to August. (Ridgway.) 

CUCULID^. The Cuckoos. 

114. Coccyzus Americanus (L.). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Heard in 
July at Provo. As the species breeds abundantly in Arizona (Tucson, 
Bendire), as well as in Nevada and Sacramento Valley (Ridgway), it 
doubtless nests in portions of Utah also. The season at which it was 
noted renders this supposition most probable. 

* Stellula calliope Gould. The Star-throated Hummer doubtless occurs in the moun- 
tains of Utah, since it was observed plentifully by Mr. Ridgway in the East Hum- 
boldt mountains, in the eastern portion of Nevada, in August and September. 

An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 9 

PICIDiE. The Woodpeckers. 

* 115. Picus villosus (L.), var. Harrisii (Aud.). Harris' Woodpecker. 
Common. Confined generally to the mountains. Permanent resident. 

* 116. Picus ptibescens (L.), var. Gairdneri Aud. Gairdner's Wood- 
pecker. Rare. Our specimen noted at Provo in November. A few in- 
dividuals seen by Mr. Ridgway in Wahsatch mountains in July. 

* 117. Sphyrapicus thyroideus (Cass.). Brown-headed Woodpecker; 
Black-breasted Woodpecker; Williamson's Woodpecker. Rare in the 
pine region. (Ridgway.) 

118. Melanerpes erythrocephalus (L.). Red-headed Woodpecker. A 
single individual observed at Salt Lake City in June. (Ridgway.) 

* 1 19. Melanerpes torquatus (Wils.). Lewis' Woodpecker. Not very 
common, but generally distributed. Resident. 

* 120. Colaptes Mexicanus Swains. Red-shafted Flicker. Very com- 
mon everywhere. Resident. 

STRIGIME. The Owls. 

* 121. Speotyto hypogcea Bonap. Prairie Owl. Not very common. 

* 122. Bubo Virginianus (Gmel.), var. Arcticus (Swains). Great horned 
Owl. Common in the wooded portions. Resident. 

* 123. Otus vulgaris Flem., var. Wilsonianus (Less.). Long-eared Owl. 
Exceedingly abundant in the thick brush along the streams. Resident. 

FALCONID^. The Hawks, Eagles, etc. 

* 1 24. Falco communis Gmel., var. anatum Bonap. Duck Hawk. 
Rather common. Resident. 

* 125. Falco polyagrus Cassin. Prairie Falcon. Somewhat common 
on the plains. Resident. (Ridgway.) 

*126. Hypotriorchis columbarius L. Pigeon Hawk. Rather frequent. 
Generally distributed. Resident. 

* 127. Tinnunculus sparverhis (L.). Sparrow Hawk. Very common 
everywhere. Resident. 

* 128. Pandion haliaetus (L.), var. Carolinensis Gm. Fish Hawk. 
Rather rare. Resident. 

* 129. Haliaetus leucocephalus (Briss.). White-headed Eagle. Rather 
common. Resident. 

*130. Aquila chrysaetos L., var. Canadensis (L.). Golden Eagle. 
Rather common in the mountains. Resident. 

* 131. Archibuteo lagopus (Brunn.), var. sancti-joliannis Penn. Black 
Hawk. Exceedingly abundant in the vicinity of Provo Lake in winter. 

* 132. Archilmteo femujineus (Licht.). California Squirrel Hawk. The 
eggs of this species, together with the parent birds, collected in the 
vicinity of Ogden, are in the Smithsonian collection. 

10 An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

* 133. Buteo borealis (Grael.), var. calurus (Cass). Common. Resident. 

* 134. Buteo Sioainsonii Bonap. Swainson's Buzzard. Very abundant 
in the mountains. (Ridgway.) 

* 135. Accipiter Cooperii Bonap. Cooper's Hawk. Rare. Generally 
distributed, but chiefly seen in the mountains. ■ Resident. (Ridgway.) 

* 136. Accipiter fuscus (Gm.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. Common. Resi- 

* 137. Circus cyaneus (L.), var. Hudsonicus (L.). Marsh Hawk. Ex- 
ceedingly abundant in the low lauds. Resident. 

CATHARTIME. The American Vultures. 

? 138. Cathartes Californianns Cuv. Califoruian Vulture. Very rare. 
Two individuals seen near Beaver, Nov. 25. 

* 139. Cathartes aura (L.). Red-headed Vulture; Turkey Buzzard. 
Common. Resident. 

COLUMBID^. The Doves or Pigeons. 

* 140. Zenaidura Carolinensis (L.). Carolina Dove. Abundant in the 
valleys. Breeds up to 8,000 feet. (Ridgway.) 

TETRAONID^. The Grouse. 

* 141. Tetrao obscurus Say. Dusky Grouse. Abundant. Resident. 
Confined exclusively to the mountains. 

142. Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonap.). Sage Hen. Very abund- 
ant, principally upon the plains, but found in the valleys of the moun- 
tains up to 7,000 feet. 

* 143. Pediocaztes phasianellus (L.), var. columbianus (Ord.). Sharp- 
tailed Grouse. A single company seen about the middle of September in 
grassy foot-hills near Meadow Creek. (Yarrow.) Resident. 

* 144. JBonasa umbellus (L.), var. umbelloides (Douglas). Ruffed 
Grouse. Occurs sparingly in the mountains near Ogden. (Allen.) Also 
near Salt Lake City. (Ridgway.) Resident. 

PERDICIDiE. The American Quails. 

*145. Ortyx'Virginianus (L.). Quail; Bob White. Introduced near 
Ogden and Provo. (Allen.) 

* 146. Lophortyx Califomianus (Shaw). Californian Quail. Intro- 
duced near Ogden. (Allen.) 

* 147. Lophortyx Gambelii Nutt. Gambel's Quail. Very abundant in 
southern part of territory. Resident. 

CHARADRIID^. The Plovers. 

* 148. JEgialitis vociferus (L.). Kildeer Plover. Very numerous. 

An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 11 

* 149. JEgialitis nivosxis Cassin. Snowy Plover. Very abundant on 
shores of Salt Lake in May. (Ridgway.) 

SCOLOPACIDJ3. The Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. 

150. Gallinago Wilsonii (Temra.). English Snipe. Abundant. Found 
in Parley's Park during the entire summer. Probably breeds. (Ridgway.) 

151. Macrorhamphus griseus (Gm.). Red-breasted Snipe. Abundant 
during the fall. Probably breeds, as it was obtained at Provo in July, in 
full summer dress. 

152. Tringa alpina L., var. Americana Cass. Red-backed Sandpiper. 
Common at Ogden in September. (Allen.) 

153. Actodromas minutilla (Vieill.). Least Sandpiper. A few seen 
about July 26, at Provo. Not common at Ogden. (Allen.) 

154. Ereunetes pusillus L. Semipalmated Sandpiper. Abundant dur- 
ing the fall migrations. 

155. Symphemia semipalmata (Gmel.). Numerous on south shore of 
Salt Lake. Breeding. (Ridgway.) 

156. Totanus melanoleuca (Gmel.). Greater Yellow Legs. Abundant 
during the fall migration. 

157. Totanus flavipes (Gmel.). Summer Yellow Legs. Not common. 
Ogden, September. (Allen.) 

158. Bhyacophilus solitarius Bonap. Not common. Ogden, Septem- 
ber. (Allen.) 

* 159. Tringoides macularius (L.) . Spotted Sandpiper. Common along 
the streams and lakes. 

* 160. Actiturus Bartramius (Wils.). Bartram's Field Plover. Rather 
common on Kamas prairies in July. (Ridgway.) 

* 161'. Numenius longirostris Wils. Long-billed Curlew. Breeding 
abundantly on shore and islands of Salt Lake, in May and June. (Ridg- 
way.) Abundant during the fall migration. 

RALLID^. The Rails, Gallinules and Coots. 

162. Ballus elegans Aud. King Rail. Said to be uncommon. Ogden. 

* 163. Ballus Virginianus L. Virginia Rail. Common in the marshes. 

* 164. Porzana Carolina (L.). Carolina Rail. Not so common as 
preceding. Winters ? 

* 165. Porzana Jamaicensis (Gm.). Little Black Rail. Occasional in 
summer. Parley's Park, June, July and August. (Ridgway.) 

* 166. Fulica Americana Gm. Coot. Very abundant. Resident. 

PHALAROPID^. The Phalaropes. 

* 167. Phalaropus Wilsonii Sab. Wilson's Phalarope. Common at 
Salt Lake. 

12 An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 

RECURVIROSTRIDiE. The Avocets and Stilts. 

* 108. Becurvirostra Americana Gm. American Avocet. Abundant. 
Breeding at Salt Lake in June. (Ridgway.) 

* 169. Himantopus nigricollis Vieill. Black-necked Stilt. Same as 

GRUIDiE. The Cranes. 

* 170. Grus Canadensis (L.). Sand Hill Crane. Not uncommon. 

TANTALID^E. The Ibises. 

171. Tantalus loculator L. Wood Ibis. Rather common visitant. 

* 172. Ibis Ordii Bonap. Glossy Ibis. Common. 

* 173. Ibis alba (L.). White Ibis. A few seen at Ogden, Sept. 
(Allen.) Probably breeds in considerable numbers. 

ARDEID^. The Herons. 

* 174. Ardea herodias L. Great Blue Heron. Common. Resident. 
175. Herodias egretta (Gmel.). White Heron. Not uncommon in 

the fall. 

* 176. Botaurus lentiginosus Steph. Bittern. Common in all parts of 
the territory. Resident. 

* 177. Nyctiardea grisea (L.), var. ncevia (Bodd.). Night Heron. 
Very common. Resident. 

ANATID^:. The Swans, Geese and Ducks. 

178. Cygnus Americanus Sharpl. Whistling Swan. Jordan River, 
March. (Stansbury.) • 

179. Anser hyperboreus Pal. Snow Goose. Common winter resident. 

* 180. Branta Canadensis (L.). Canada Goose. Immense flocks 
pass through the territory in fall, and large numbers winter. 

* 181. Anas boschas L. Mallard. One of the most common ducks. 
Breeding abuudantly, and wintering in large numbers. 

182. Anas obscurus Gm. Black Duck. A few seen at Rush Lake in 
Nov. (Yarrow.) 

183. Dafila acuta (L.). Pin-tail. Common in fall. 

* 18-i. Nettion Carolinensis (Gm.). Green- winged Teal. .Very abun- 

185. Querquedula discors (L.). Blue- winged Teal. Not nearly as 
abundant as preceding. Perhaps breeds. 

* 186. Querquedula cyanoptera (Vieill.). Red-breasted Teal, Com- 
mon summer resident. Breeding abundantly in the marshes. 

187. Spatula clypeata (L.). Shoveller. Very common in the fall. 

* 188. Chaulelasmus streperus (L.). Gadwall. Very abundant. But 
few winter. 

*189. Mareca Americana (Gm.). American Widgeon. Abundant. 

An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. 13 

190. Aix sponsa (L.). Summer Duck. Common. Ogdeu, Sept. 

191. Fulix marila (L.). Big Black Head. Common in fall. 

192. Fulix affinis (Eyton). Little Black Head. Autumn migrant. 
Utah Lake. (Captain J. H. Simpson.) 

* 193. Fulix collaris Donovan. Ring-necked Duck. Common. 

194. Aythya ferina (L.), var. Americana (Eyton). Numerous in fall. 

195. Bucephala Americana Bon. Golden Eye. Abundant in fall 
and winter. 

196. Bucephala islandica (Bd.). Barrow's Golden Eye. Perhaps 
not uncommon in fall and winter. A pair were taken in Provo Kiver, 
December 1. 

197. Bucephala albeola (L.). Butter Ball. Very common in fall 
and winter. 

*198. Erismatura rubida (Wils.). Ruddy Duck. Common. 
199. Mergus merganser L., Cass. Sheldrake. 

* 200. Mergus serrator L. Red-breasted Merganser. Abundant. 

201. Lophodytes cucullatus (L.). Hooded Merganser. Common in 


PELECANID^E. The Pelicans. 

*202. Pelecanus erythrorhynchus Gm. American Pelican. Common 
upon the lakes. Although no longer breeding upon Great Salt Lake, it 
undoubtedly does so within the limits of the territory. 


*203. Graculus dilophus (Sw.). Double Crested Cormorant; Black 
Shag. Common at Salt Lake. 

LARID^. The Gulls and Terns. 

*204r. Larus Californicus (Lawr.). California Herring Gull. Common 
summer resident. (Ridgway.) 

205. Larus Delawarensis Ord. Ring-billed Gull. Rather common 
Winter resident. 

206. Chroecocephalus Philadelphia (Ord). Ogden, Oct. 1. (Allen.) 

207. Xema Sabinei (Sab.). Fork-tailed Gull. One taken at Ogden, 
Sept. 28. (Allen.) 

*208. Sterna regia Gambel. Royal Tern. Not uncommon in summer. 

*209. Sterna Forsteri Nutt.' Forster's Tern. Abundant. " Breeds in 
marshes of Salt Lake." (Ridgway.) 

* 210. Hydrochelidon fissipes (L.). Short-tailed Tern. Rather uncom- 
mon. "Breeds in marshes of Salt Lake." (Ridgway.) 

COLYMBID.E. The Loons. 
211. Colymbus torquatus Bruun. Great Northern Diver. Probably 
not of infrequent occurrence. 

14 Notes on the Coal Measures of 

PODICIPID^. The Grebes. 

212. Podiceps occidentalis Lawr. Western Grebe. Common. Prob- 
ably breeds. 

213. Podiceps comutus (Gm.). Horned Grebe. Rather common in 

214. Podilymbus podiceps (L.) . Carolina Grebe. Common in fall. 

II. — Notes on the Coal Measures of Beaver County, Penn- 

by j. c. white. 

Read March 16th, 1874. 

The observations on which this paper is based have been 
confined almost entirely to the northern half of Beaver 
county, and that portion which lies along the Beaver River. 
This river flows along a nearly central line through this part 
of the county, and empties into the Ohio at Rochester. Its 
banks are frequently precipitous and afford excellent expo- 
sures of the strata.* 

The city of New Brighton is on the left bauk of the river, 
about three miles from its mouth, and almost directly oppo- 
site is the town of Beaver Falls, Seven miles above New 
Brighton, at the junction of the Pittsburg and Erie railroad 
with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad, we 
find the village of Home wood. The line of section begins 
at Homewood and follows the Beaver River to Rochester. 
The strata here exposed extend from the Mahoning sand- 
stone to the base of the Tionesta sandstone, and dip south- 

* Beaver county occupies a nearly ceutral position in the tier of counties which 
form the western border of Pennsylvania. The Ohio River, flowing nearly due west 
through the greater part of the county, divides it into two subequal portions, a north- 
ern and a southern ; the former of these abuts against the Ohio state line, the latter 
against that of West Virginia, at the narrow end of the " Pan Handle." The Beaver 
River flows into the Ohio in a nearly southerly course, and thus divides the northern 
half of the county into an eastern and a western portion. 

Beaver County, Pennsylvania. 15 

eastwamly at the rate of little more than twenty-five feet 
per mile. 

•The section as obtained along this line is as follows : 

21. Sandstone, "Mahoning" 30-75 feet. 

20. Shale 0-8 " 

19. Coal, " Upper Freeport " 2-4 " 

18. Fireclay 3-4 " •) Interval 

17. Limestone "Freeport" 2^—4 " i- 25-68 

10. Shale and Sandstone 20-GO " J feet. 

15. Coal 1|-1J " 

14. Shale 15-20 " 

13. Coal, " Lower Freeport " lj-4 " 

12. Shale and Sandstone 25-30 •' 

11. Coal, "Kittanning" 2-3 " 

10. Shale 25-30 " ' 

9. Shale 15-25 " Interval 

8. Limestone, " Ferriferous " 1-8 " \ 53-79 

7. Shale 8-10 " feet. 

6. Sandstone 4-6 " 

5. Coal, " Clarion " 1J-1J " 

4. Sandstone and shale 20-25 " 

3. Coal, " Brookville " 6 in-2 " 

2. Shale 15-20 " 

1. Sandstone, "Tionesta" 60-70 " 

The Mahoning Sandstone is usually a massive rock, and is 
seen capping the hills in the vicinity of New Brighton, 
where it rests directly upon the Upper Freeport coal. The 
decomposing pyrites of the coal, acting upon the base of 
this stratum, forms alum, so that in some portions of the 
county the mass is known as the "Alum Rocks." This 
sandstone shows the fantastic forms of weathering so charac- 
teristic of it. It presents marked irregularities in thickness, 
and its composition is not persistent. At some localities it 
occurs in sandstone bluffs seventy-five feet high, while in 
others it is simply a mass of shale. 

The Upper Freeport Goal, owing to its impurity, as well 
as to its abrupt variations in thickness, is of little impor- 
tance. It contains a very large proportion of pyrites, and 
within a few hundred feet will vary from one to three feet in 
thickness. It is occasionally mined for domestic use by 
those living on the hills near its outcrop, and it is the source 

16 Notes on the Coal Measures of 

of supply for some distance along the Darlington road. It 
is rarely used where other coals are accessible. 

The Freeport Limestone is here a pure white limestone, 
and very persistent. It would burn into lime of excellent 
quality, but is not employed for that purpose, or indeed for 
any other. The original settlers discovered the impure 
Ferriferous limestone and burned that. Their descendants 
have continued to use that rock in preference to the Free- 
port ; for what reason, it is difficult to say. 

The lower portion of No. 16 is fossiliferous, and yielded 
large numbers of individuals belonging to the following 

o © © © 

species : Productus semi-reticulatus, P. JVebrascensis, P. cos- 
tatus (?), P. Prattenianus, Spirifer plano-convexus, Athy- 
ris subtilita, and spines of Zeacrinus muerospinus. 

The thin coal, No. 15, is a persistent member of the 
group, but is not mentioned in Rogers' report. It is of fair 

The shale No. 14 is quite rich in vegetable remains, prin- 
cipally of the genera Pecopteris, Sphenophyllum, JSfeurop- 
teris, Hymenophyllites, Catamites, and Sigillaria. 

The Lower Freeport Coal nowhere attains workable thick- 
ness along the line of section, excepting at one locality on 
Trough Run, where it suddenly expands to four feet, and be- 
comes an impure canuel of little value. 

The Kittanning Coal is the important bed in this portion of 
the county, and is mined somewhat extensively, not only to 
supply the home demand, but also for shipping. It is quite 
pure, is an excellent gas coal, and cokes readily^ It is rarely 
more than thirty-two inches thick, and never more than three 
feet, in this region, yet owing to its quality it is profitably 
mined for shipment on a large scale. At Clinton, ten miles 
above New Brighton, the Crawford mine yields two hundred 
tons daily, and there are others almost as productive. In 
the vicinity of New Brighton and Beaver Falls, the seam 
shows the same thickness and is of equally good quality, 
but is mined neither extensively nor intelligently. No more 

' Beaver County, Pennsylvania. 17 

is taken out than suffices to supply the needs of those min- 
ing ; and when from any cause it becomes inconvenient to 
work at an opening any longer, it is deserted and allowed 
to fall down, to the great detriment of the property. 

The Ferriferous Limestone is of interest, both because of 
its fossils and of the variations in its thickness and quality. 
On Trough Run it is only eight inches thick; two miles 
below, on Rippling Run, it is eight feet; while on the other 
side of the river, and directly opposite the latter locality, it is 
only one foot. Traced northward, fifteen miles from New 
Brighton, it is found to be twentj^-five feet thick at Wam- 
pum. Opposite the bridge over Block House Run, near 
New Brighton, it is seven feet thick. From it, at this 
locality, a very good hydraulic cement was manufactured by 
the Pittsburg and Eric Canal Co., which was used by them 
in building their locks. At Wampum it is extensively 
quarried to supply the iron-furnaces at Pittsburg, Alleghany, 
and other cities in the vicinity. Everywhere it is richly 
fossilifcrous, and from various localities the following species 
have been obtained : Productus Nebrascensis, P. semi-retic- 
ulatus, P. longispinus, Spirifer linealus, Spirifer sp. ( ?) , 
Atltyris subtilita, several species of Platyceras, Pleurotomaria 
turbinella, P. Grayvilliensis, P. perliumerosa, Polyphemop- 
sis peracuta, Polyphemopsis sp. (?), Euomphalus rugosits, 
Lophophyllum proliferum. 

The Clarion Coal is finely exposed in the vertical cliffs 
above New Brighton and below Trough Run, presenting a 
black band, which is conspicuous for some distance along 
the river. It never exceeds eighteen inches in thickness, 
but is said to be of remarkably fine quality. 

The Brookville Coal is traceable with some difficulty. In 
a small gully, emptying into the Beaver River, opposite New 
Brighton, this seam is double, the two parts separated by 
four feet of shale. The bed is of no economic value. 

The Shale, No. 7, is fossiliferous. On Trough Run I ob- 
tained from this stratum the following species : Productus 

July, 1874. 2 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

18 Irregularities of the Floor of the 

ATebrascensis, Chonetes mesoloba, Hemipronites crassus, 
Spirifer plano-convexus, Athyris subtilita, Aviculopeclen 
Whilei (?), JVucula ventricosa, Nucula (?) anodontoides, 
Nuculana bellislriala, Bellerophon Montfortianus, Bellero- 
phon Stevensanus, Bellerophon percarinatus, Pleurotomaria 
Grayvilliensis, Pleurotomaria ca7'bonaria, and Nautilus occi- 
dentalism together with many fragments of crinoidal stems. 
On a small run entering the Beaver, about three miles above 
New Brighton, the lower portion of this stratum is made up 
almost entirely of Aviculopeclen Whitei, and attached to 
these shells are Spirorbis carbonarius in countless numbers. 
The latter fossil occurs at this locality only. This shale 
seems to disappear entirely where the overlying limestone 
attains considerable thickness. 

In the /Shale No. 3 are vast numbers of vegetable remains, 
for the most part so imperfect that anything beyond mere 
generic determination is impossible. 

The Tionesta Sandstone is a very hard, coarse, white 
rock. It is quarried extensively at Homewood, by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Co. It is there fifty feet above the 
river, but passes under the river opposite New Brighton. 

III. — Observations on some Irregularities of the Floor of the 
Coal Measures of Eastern Kentucky. 

Read October 27, 1873. 

During a late trip to the Cumberland Mountains, I ap- 
proached them via the Knoxville Branch of the Kentucky 
Southern Railroad. 

At Mount Vernon, Rockcastle Co., and in that vicinity, the 
sub-carboniferous limestone is 300 feet thick (by estimate). 
Thence the railroad runs eastward to Rockcastle River, and 

Coal Measures of Eastern Kentucky. 19 

after reaching the summit at the head of Rough Rock Creek 
(a tributary of the former) has a descending grade eastward 
of fifty feet to the mile. 

In the first five miles, the limestone, which at Mount Ver- 
non is 250 feet above the grade, has at Pine Hill descended 
to the grade, and even below it. 

At Pine Hill is the first workable coal. The coal measures 
here rest upon the sub-carboniferous limestone without the 
intervention of the conglomerate. 

Immediately across the first intervening valley the lime- 
stone rises above the grade of the railroad 30 feet ; and piled 
upon it are some eighty or ninety feet of coarse siliceous 
conglomerate, reaching to the tops of the high hills bordering 
the railroad. Here, at the 136th mile post, is an anticlinal. 
The eastward dip of the limestone is 2£°, and the westward 
dip 50° ; and through it are cut two tunnels. 

Passing on eastward to the 137th mile post, the limestone 
has sunk beneath the railroad, and the conglomerate is at the 
grade. Half a mile farther, the conglomerate is replaced in 
part by sandstone. 

At the 138th mile-post, and at the first crossing of Rough 
Rock Creek, the limestone is in the bed of the creek ; over 
it are ten to twelve feet of sandstone, then thirty to forty 
feet of black and purple shale, with a few feet of sandstone ; 
and over these, coal measures. The lower vein of coal 
appears a little farther on, in the left bank of the stream. 

At the 139th mile post, sandstone replaces the colored 
shales ; but in the distance of a few rods they come in again 
and continue to Livingstone, where sandstone appears with 
thin conglomerate bands, in place of the large volume of 

At the termination of the railroad, a few rods be} 7 ond the 
depot, sands and pebbles begin to be cemented with lime ; 
and at Goodin's Mine, limestone for ninety feet replaces the 

20 Genitalia and Lingual 

Across Pond's Hollow, the limestone rests upon a sand- 
stone, in its normal condition. 

All these changes take place in the distance of five miles. 

We have here the evidence of the following series of con- 
ditions ; — first, two miles of strong currents, bringing in 
coarse gravel ; next, gentler currents for one mile, bringing 
in fine sand ; then a quiet bayou, a mile broad, receiving 
deposits of carbonaceous mud ; then for another mile, 
stronger currents again, carrying sands and pebbles ; and 
finally at the Rockcastle River, tearing up the limestone and 
giving instead of it a mixed deposit of lime, sands and peb- 
bles. All these changes, looking at them with reference to 
the coal above, are in one common horizon. 

IV. — On the Genitalia and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonala. 
by w. g. binney. 

With Plates I-VI. 
Read May 25th, 1874. 

It will be noticed that in the following descriptions of the 
genital system, I have followed Dr. Leidy (Terr. Moll. U. 
S., I) in applying the terms ovary and oviduct. I am aware 
of other names being applied to the organs by other authors. 

I take this opportunity of strongly urging upon concholo- 
gists the study of the genital system as a most reliable spe- 
cific character, in the terrestrial Pulmonata. 

For the species extralimital to the United States, I am 
indebted to my friend, Mr. Thomas Bland, as well as for their 
identification. The most interesting of them were collected 
by Prof. Orton, in his late journey in northern Peru. 

Limax flavus, Linn. 
A few days since a coloivy of this species was discovered 
by a friend in the cellar of his house in Burlington, N. J. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 21 

The specimens agree perfectly with the description and fig- 
ures in the "Terrestrial Mollusks of the United States.'^ 
The genital system is also the same as figured by Leidy in 
the same work, and by Moquin-Tandon (Moll. Terr, et Fluv. 
de France). There can be no doubt, therefore, of the iden- 
tity of the species. 

The figure of the dentition of this species given by me in 
L. and F. W. Shells N. A., I, p. 63, f. 105,"is drawn from 
some other species. 

The true L.flavus now examined by me has central teeth with subobso- 
lete side cusps, bearing no cutting points, central cusp short, with a 
short, bluntly pointed cutting point. Laterals like the centrals, but un- 
syinmetrical. Marginals aculeate, the extreme oues bifurcated. Teeth 
in the lingual examined over fiO-l-GO. 

The figure by Dr. Leidy published by Mr. Bland and 
myself (Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., IX, 285) though 
unsatisfactory, was, no doubt, drawn from this species. 

The lingual membrane examined by me agrees with the 
figures given by Heynemaun* of the dentition of L. Jlavus. 

Limax agrestis, Linn. 

Specimens from Burlington, N. J., of this species, of un- 
doubted identity, agreeing externally and anatomically with 
the figures in the "Terrestrial Mollusks of the United States," 
furnished the lingual membrane here described. 

Teeth 50-1-50, with 14 perfect laterals. Centrals long, narrow, with a 
middle long cusp, extending to the lower edge of base of attachment, and 
bearing a long, acute cutting point, extending far below the lower 
edge; side cusps subobsolete, but bearing well-developed, triangular 
cutting points. Laterals like centrals, but unsymmetrical by the changed 
form of the inner cutting poiut. Marginal teeth aculeate, the extreme 
ones do not appear to be bifurcate. 

Jaw wide, low, slightly arcuate, with broad median projection. 

* See Mai. Blatt, X. 

22 Genitalia and Lingual 

Limax Hewstoni, I. G. Cooper. 
The specimens examined are from the state collection of 
California, presented by Dr. J. G. Cooper. 

These specimens are not in good condition for anatomical examination, 
but I am able to state that both testicle and ovary are large. The ovi- 
duct is long and greatly convoluted. The prostate is well developed. 
The vagiua is very short, the very short duct of the genital bladder enters 
at about its middle. The last named organ is large, globular. The penis 
is small, short, cylindrical, expanded and bulbous at its apex, where the 
vas deferens enters. I could detect no accessory organs in the single 
specimen imperfectly examined. 

The genitalia are somewhat of the same type as those of L. flavus (see 
Terr. Moll. U. S., I), Linn., but the dentition of the latter is quite dis- 
tinct (see above). There is a still stronger resemblance to the genitalia 
of Amalia gagates as figured by Semper (Phil. Archip., pi. xi, fig. 9), so 
far as the penis and genital bladder are concerned. 

The species certainly belongs to the section Amalia, as 
understood by Semper (1. c. p. 84) and Heynemann (Mai. 
Blatt., X, 200) as shown by the dentition of the lingual 
membrane. I have already, in connection with Mr. Bland 
(Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. H., X, 349), described the dentition. 
It is necessary, however, to be more explicit in the descrip- 
tion, as several types are found in the genus Limax (in the 
broad sense usually adopted). 

Dr. Cooper's type now before me has the lingual membrane long and 
narrow. There are about 50-1-50 teeth. The centrals are tricuspid, the 
middle cusp is stout and reaches to the lower edge of the base of attach- 
ment, the side cusps are not well developed ; all three cusps bear a cutting 
point. The base of attachment is almost as broad as high. The lateral 
teeth, about 22 or 25 in number, are of the same type as the centrals, 
equally tricuspid, and so symmetrical as to be with great difficulty distin- 
guished from the central tooih, excepting the outer ones, which lose the 
inner cusp. The marginal teeth are aculeate, not bifid, and are generally 
short and stout, but in some specimeus are long and slender. 

So far as outward appearance goes, the species somewhat 
resembles Amalia marginata, Drap., as figured by Lehmann 
(Lebenclen Schnecken, etc., pi. v, fig. B). It is, however, 
by no means certain that it was introduced into San Fran- 
cisco, as Mr. H. Hemphill has sent me specimens of an 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 23 

Amalia from Los Angeles. His species had about 48 teeth 
in each row, 16 being laterals, the balance marginals, a dif- 
ference of arrangement which may fairly be considered to 
show a specific difference between his specimens and the San 
Francisco form, though his discovery leads us to consider 
Amalia as native to California. 

Limax maximus, Linn. 
I have also reexamined the lingual of this species from 
specimens collected in Newport, R. I. (see my edition of 
Gould's Invertebrata of Mass., p. 407, fig. 669) and find it 
to agree with the descriptions and figures of Lehmann and 
Heynemann. I am preparing an exhaustive paper on the 
dentition of our land shells, in which more particular de- 
scriptions of the dentition of all our species will be given. 
I will here say, however, that in the specimen examined by 
'me the bifurcation of the marginals commences nearer the 
median line than is described by Heynemann. There are 
but twelve marginals without bifurcation in my specimen, 
that is, the bifurcation commences at about the thirtieth tooth 
from the central line. Heynemann gives the commencement 
of the bifurcation at the sixty-fifth tooth. There are 76-1-76 

Limax campestris, Binney. 

To complete the series of North American Limaces, I 
subjoin a summary of the characters of this species, the only 
one now known to be native to eastern North America. 
There are 36-1-36 teeth, 11 being perfect laterals, and 25 
beins: marginals. Of the latter about one-half are bifid. 
The centrals and laterals are of the same type as in L. 

Judging from dentition alone, L. maximus and flavus 
would be placed in Ileynemannia , a subgenus of Limax; 
agrestis in s. g. Agriolimax; campestris in s. g. Malacoli- 
max; while Hewstoni would be in the genus Amalia. (See 
Heynemann, Nachr. Mai. Gescll., II, 163.) 

24 Genitalia and Lingual 

Limax Weinlandi, Heynemann (Mall. Blatt., X, 212), I 
do not know. The figure given by Heynemann (1. c. pi. ii, 
fig. 1) of its dentition does not agree with that of L. cam- 

Limax campestris differs widely in its genitalia from Limax 
agrestis, as will be seen by Leidy's figures in Terr. Moll. IT. 
S., I, pi. ii, figs. 6, 8. 

Zonites capnodes,* W. G. Binney. 

Jaw as usual in the genus. 

Lingual membrane broad, with numerous rows of about 66-1-6G teeth. 
Centrals long, with a long, slender, median cusp, reaching the base of 
attachment and bearing a long, slender point projecting beyond it. Side 
cusps subobsolete, but represented by the cutting points, which are 
greatly developed, triangular, stretching beyond the sides of the base of 
attachment. Lateral teeth of same type as centrals, but bicuspid ; there 
are about nine perfect laterals. Marginals aculeate, as usual in the 

I have not been able to observe the complete genital sys- 
tem of the species. The penis has the same arrangement as 
in Z. Imvigatus. The external orifice is quite under the 
edge of the mantle. 

In the Land Mollnsken of the "Archip. der Philippinen" 
(p. 78, pi. iii, fig. 27 ; pi. v, tig. 21), Semper describes and 
figures the genital system, jaw and lingual dentition, which 
he refers to Z. lucubratus, Say. The specimen examined by- 
him was from Tennessee. It is difficult to decide from what 
species Semper drew his description. It certainly was not 
the true lucubratus, which is a Mexican species. A com- 
parison of my descriptions and figures of laevigatas, inor- 
nalus, fuliginosus and friabilis shows that neither of those 
species could have been before Semper. His description of 
the lingual membrane would better apply to capnodes. I 
have not been able to examine the whole of the genital 
system to see how nearly that also agrees with his figures. 

* Formerly erroneously spelt Kopnodes. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 25 

Zonites friabilis, W. G. Binney. 
Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

Jaw as usual in the genus. 

Lingual membrane similar to that above described of Z. capnodes. 
Teeth about 57-1-57, with six perfect laterals. 

The genital system is figured on pi. V, fig. n. The ovary (11) is stout, 
light-brown, and blunt. The oviduct (8) is short. The vagina is long 
and narrow, with a yellow prepuce-like expansion at the entrance of the 
duct of the genital bladder, which is near the base. The genital bladder 
(9) is large, oval, on a duct of about equal length and size as the vagina- 
The penis sac (5) is long and slender, and peculiarly characterized by a 
lateral bulbous expansion near its base, bearing the retractor muscle (C). 
Beyond this bulb the sac is narrow, but gradually expands, and towards its 
end again very gradually tapers towards the apex, where the vas deferens 
(7) enters. Its orifice is side by side with that of the vagina. 

I found no dart in the bulb-like organ attached to the penis. It prob- 
ably is a form of prostate. The external orifice is under the mantle. 

Zonites inornatus, Say. 

The genitalia (pi. V. fig. i) have the same general arrangement as in 
Z. friabilis, herewith described. The ovary (11), however, is very much 
more developed, being in this species the most conspicuous organ in the 
system ; the epididymis (2) is less convoluted, the oviduct (8) is longer, 
the vagina shorter, the genital bladder (9) more clavate, with a shorter 
duct (1G), and there is a small globular vaginal prostate (13). 

Zonites sculptilis, Bland. 

Tennessee. Miss Annie E. Law. 

■ Jaw as usual in the genus. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth about 40-1-40, with four 
perfect laterals. Centrals tricuspid, laterals bicuspid, the side cusps of 
each being almost obsolete, but surmounted by a triangular sharp point. 
Marginals aculeate. The dentition is of the same type as in Z. capnodes, 
see above. (PI. II, fig. IV.; Fig. b represents the two extreme marginal 

Zonites Elliott!, Redfield. 

Hayesville, N. C. Miss Annie E. Law. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the genus. It will be noticed that there 
are not any well developed side cusps to the centrals and laterals, though 
there are well developed cutting points. Teeth about 32-1-32, with six 
perfect laterals. 

26 Genitalia and Lingual 

The character of the dentition, as well as the caudal mucus pore, proves 
the species to be a true Zonites, and not a Macrocyclis, in which genus it 
is placed by Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch., II, 24G. 

The existence of the dart sac and dart has already been published. 

Zonites interims, Say. 

An examination of the animal by Mr. Bland shows the existence of a 

Helix rufo-apicata, Poey. (Hemitrochus.)* 

Cuba. Mr. Arango. 

Jaw slightly arcuate, ends but little attenuated, blunt; anterior surface 
without ribs; cutting edge with a broad, blunt, median projection. 

Lingual membrane (pi. V, fig. v) long and narrow. Centrals long and 
narrow with one median stout cusp, bearing a short, bluntly pointed 
cutting point, the side cusps subobsolete. Laterals like the centrals, but 
unsymmetrical. Marginals subquadrate, with one very broad, oblique, 
acutely trifld cutting point, the central division the largest. 

The figure a gives one central tooth with two adjacent laterals, b gives 
two extreme marginals. 

The dentition has the same general chai'acter as the other species of 
Hcmitrochits, examined by me, viz., gallopavonis, graminicola, varians and 

Helix badia, Fer. (Dentellaria.) 


For jaw and dentition see Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc, Phila., 1874, p. 52. 
Genital system resembling that of H. Josephines, herewith described. 

Helix nuxdenticulata, Chemn. (Dentellaria.) 

For description of jaw and lingual dentition see Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 
Phila., 1874, p. 52. 

The genital system is figured on pi. V. fi™. vm. The ovary (11) is 
short, stout. The oviduct (8) is wide, sac-like. The vagina is short, 
small, with a bulbous expansion near its top ; the duct of the genital 
bladder enters at about the middle of its length, the sac of the penis near 
its base. The penis sac (5) is very prominent. It is as long as the 

*Mr. Bland anrl I have elsewhere (Ann. of Lye. of Nat. Hist, of N. Y., X, 341) 
pointed out the great difference in the lingual dentition of Helix muscarum, Lea, the 
type of the sub.?3iius Polgmita, and the other species referred to the subgenus by 
von Martens. Wo have suggested using for the latter the name Hemi.'rochus. We 
havo also shown that H.phta belongs to the true Polymita, sharing the peculiar den- 
tition of muscarum. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 27 

oviduct, narrowed at its base, along the remainder of its course quite 
stout, but with a subcentral contraction, and a blunt apex, where the re- 
tractor muscle (C) is attached, and where the vas deferens (7) enters, the 
latter swollen at this point. The genital bladder (9) is small, oval; its 
duct (IG) is long, irregular, narrowed above and below, but very much 
swollen along the middle three-fifths of its length. As with the penis, the 
duct of the genital bladder forms a conspicuous feature of the system. 

Helix nucleola, Rang. (Dentellaria.) 

Lingual membrane and jaw already described by me (Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sc., Phila., 1874, p. 52). 

Genital system figured on pi. II, fijj. vi. The ovary (11) is long and 
narrow. The oviduct (8) is long, rather stout, but little convoluted. 
The vagina is narrow, about one-third the length of the oviduct; just 
below the middle of its length it has a bulbous expansion, which receives 
the long, slender duct (16) of the small, oval genital bladder (9). The 
penis sac (5) enters the vagina near its base; it is very long, cylindrical, 
slender, with the vas deferens (7) and retractor muscle entering at its 

Helix Josephinse, Fer. (Dentellaria.) 

For description of jaw and lingual membrane, see Ann. Lye. N. H. of 
N. Y., X, 300. 

Genital system figured on pi. V, fig. ix. The testicle (1) is composed 
of white ca;ca tipped with brown. The epididymis is greatly convoluted 
near the ovary. The latter organ (11) is broad. The oviduct (8) is long. 
The vagina is long and narrow; it receives the long slender duct (1G) of 
the small globose genital bladder (9) near its top. The penis sac (5) is 
long and slender, its opening being by the side of that of the vagina, 
rather than actually into the latter organ, its apex rapidly narrowing to 
an acute point, near which enters the vas deferens (7). 

Helix discolor, Fer. (Thelidomus.) 

Jaw and lingual membrane already described by me (Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sc. Phila., 1874, p. 51). 

Genital system short and stout in its various parts, excepting the ovary 
(11) which is long, slender, acutely pointed. The epididymis (2) is long, 
convoluted at the end near the oviduct. The oviduct (8) is stout, sac-like. 
The genital bladder (9) is as long as the oviduct, clavate, stout, with no 
distinct duct, but gradually tapering to its entrance into the vagina, 
which is at the upper end of the latter. The penis sac (5) is the most 

28 Genitalia and Lingual 

prominent organ. It enters the vagina at its base. It is as long as 
the whole system, stout, especially in its lower half, abruptly terminating 
in an acute point above, where it receives the vas deferens. The latter 
organ (7) is enlarged for some distance after leaving the penis sac. The 
retractor muscle (0) of the penis is inserted on the side of the sac, at the 
lower third of its length. PI. II, fig. IX. 

Helix Troostiana, Lea. (Polygyra.) 
Kentucky, Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

Jaw as usual in the sub-genus Polygyra, with about ten, broad, crowded 
ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane (pi. V, fig. VI) long and narrow. Teeth about 25- 
1-25. Centrals and laterals quadrate, the former tricuspid, the latter 
bicuspid, the cusps stout: all the cusps with cutting points. Marginals 
low, wide, with one inner, oblique, stout, short, bluntly bifid cusp, and 
one outer, shorter, bluntly bifid cusp. 

Genital system (pi. V, fig. Ill) long and slender, especially the ovary 
(11), and oviduct (8); vagina long, receiving the duct of the genital 
bladder below its middle, and the sac of the penis still lower down; penis 
long, tubular, of about same width as the vagina, with a prominent bulb 
at its apex, into the end of which is inserted the vas deferens (7) and at 
the side of which the retractor muscle (6) is attached ; genital bladder (9) 
moderate, oval, on a duct (1G) of about equal length and size as the vagina. 

Helix obstricta, Say. (Triodopsis.) 

Ohio, Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

The genital system resembles exactly that of II. palliata, Say, as figured 
by Dr. Leidy in Terr. Moll. U. S., I, pi. vii, fig. 8. 

Helix Clarki, Lea. {Triodopsis? Mesodon?) 
Hayesville, N. C, Miss Annie E. Law. 

Jaw as usual, arcuate, ends attenuated, blunt; anterior surface with 
about fourteen stout, separated ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth about 35-1-35. Centrals 
with a stout, short, median cusp, bearing a very short, blunt, cutting 
point, the outer cusps subobsolete. Laterals like the centrals, but un- 
symmetrical. Marginals wide, low, with one, inner, short, broad, sharply 
bifurcated cutting point, and one shorter, outer, bifurcated cutting point. 
PI. VI, fig. I. 

The genital system (pi. VI, fig VI) is peculiar in several respects. The 
ovary (11) is very slender, and equals about one-half the length of the 
oviduct. The epididymis (2) is highly developed, greatly convoluted, 
stout, four times the length of the ovary. The oviduct (8) is convoluted. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 29 

The prostate (4) is greatly developed. The penis sac (5) is short, cylin- 
drical, entering the vagina near its base, and receiving both vas deferens 
(7) and retractor muscle (6) at its apex. Tlie genital bladder (0) is 
small, oval, with a short duct (16) entering the vagina about the middle 
of its length. The vas deferens (7) is swollen on leaving the prostate. 
Testicle not observed. 

The marginal teeth of the lingual membrane are more of the type of 
Triodopsis than Mesodon, as known to us at present. I am in doubt, 
therefore, of the subgeneric position of the species. 

Helix Wheatleyi, Bland. (Mesodon.) 
Hayesville, N. C, Miss Annie E. Law. 

Jaw as usual in the subgenus, with about twelve ribs. 

Lingual membrane long. Teeth about G7-1-67. Centrals and laterals 
as described under //. Clavld. Marginals high, narrow, with one very 
long cutting point to the single cusp. Outer marginals about as high as 
wide, with one long inner, obtusely pointed, cutting point, and one 
shorter, outer cutting point. 

The tirst marginal teeth resemble those of //. thyroides in the single, 
greatly produced cutting point. The extreme marginals, however, are 

The genital system in the specimens received was too decayed to allow 
of complete examination. The penis, however, was in perfect condition. 
It forms the peculiar feature of the system on account of its enormous 
development. It is short, cylindrical, with blunt ends, very stout, three 
or four times as large as the oviduct, with retractor muscle, and vas 
deferens at its apex. 

Helix Pennsylvanica, Green. (Mesodon.) 

The upper portions of the genital system (pi. V, fig. VII) not observed. 
The penis sac (5) is long and slender, with the vas deferens (7) and retractor 
muscle (6) entering its apex, and its orillce entering the vagina near its 
base. The genital bladder (9) is lung, stout, cylindrical, with a median 
contraction; its duct (16) is hardly distinct from it, with an entrance 
opposite that of the penis sac. The prostate (4) is very large. 

Helix clausa, Sav. (Mesodon.) 


PI V, fig. iv. The penis sac (5) is the conspicuous feature of the system : 
it is longer than the oviduct, and almost as stout, of about equal size 
throughout; it has the entrance of the vas deferens (7) and retractor 
muscle (6) at its blunt apex. The genital bladder (9) is small, length- 
ened oval, with a long, slender duct (16). The prostate (4) is narrow, 
stout, prominent, cord like. The vas deferens (7) is large. The other 
organs present no peculiar features. 


30 Genitalia and Lingual 

Helix Traski, Newc. (Arionta.) 

Specimens from the mouth of San Tomas River, Lower 
California, collected by Mr. Henry Hemphill. 

The genital system resembles very nearly that which I have figured 
of Helix Nickliniana, Leu (Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1874, 41, pi. iv. 
fig. in). The duct of the genital bladder in this species is, however, very 
much longer, its accessory duct shorter in proportion, the flagellum of 
the penis sac longer. There is also a peculiar feature in the genitalia of 
H. Traski, a globular organ of about equal diameter with the vaginal 
prostate, attached laterally to the flagellum of the latter, before it becomes 
bifurcated. The bulbous expansions on the two branches of the flagellum 
are also much larger in H. Traski. It is figured in pi. VI, fig. IV. 

Helix Stearnsiana, Gabb. {Arionta?) 
To the kindness of Mr. Henry Hemphill I am indebted 
for living specimens of this species from Todos Santos Island 
and the mouth of the San Tomas River, Lower California. 
The result of the examination of the genitalia and lingual 
dentition establishes its specific distinction from the Cata- 
lina Island form (H. Kelletti, Forbes) to which it is nearly 
related by the characters of its shell. (See L. and F. W. 
Shells N. A., I, 176, 177). 

The genitalia (pi. VI, fig. n) resemble very nearly those of II. Kelletti 
(Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1874, pi. iii, tig. 4, p. 39). 

A comparison of the figures, however, will show considerable difference, 
especially in the dart sac (14). In the species before me there is a long 
thread like duct (14 d ) leading from the base of the dart sac (14) to a large 
globular organ, whose character is unknown to me. Opposite the en- 
trance of this duct a corresponding duct (14 c ) branches out, but instead 
of ending in a globular organ it becomes much enlarged in size and ends 
in enveloping the prepuce (12). The dart sac (14) contained a small 
dart of the form figured by Leidy (Terr. Moll. U. S., I) for Tebenno- 
phorus Caroliniensis. 

The oviduct was closely and spirally wound around the duct of the 
genital bladder. The testicle (I) and ovary (11) are yellow. 

The jaw is thick, arched, ends blunt, but little attenuated; anterior 
surface with six stout, separated ribs denticulating either margin, and 
several less developed, interstitial ribs. 

The lingual membrane is long and narrow with about 50-1-50 teeth. 
The centrals are of the form of those of H. Californiensis (L. and F. W. 
Shells N. A., I. fig. 297). The cusp with its cutting point, however, is 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 31 

very much shorter, reaching only about half way to the lower edge of the 
base of attachment. Laterals of same type. Marginals low, wide, very 
variable in the denticles, but usually with one long, broad, sharply bifid 
inner denticle (the inner point much the smaller), and one short sharp, 
rarely bifid outer denticle. 

The Catalina Island H. Kelletli has same type of dentitiou. The mar- 
ginals, however, seem much more broadly denticulated. 

Strophia iostoma, Pfr. 
Inagua, Bahamas. 

Jaw strongly arched, ends but little attenuated, bluntly rounded. An- 
terior surface without ribs. Cutting edge witli a decided, blunt, median 

Lingual membrane (pi. II, fig. vni) long and narrow. Teeth about 
29-1-29. Centrals but little longer than broad, tricuspid, the middle cusp 
short and stout, with a short, bluntly rounded cutting point; side cusps 
slightly produced, with a short, sharp point. Lateral teeth like the cen- 
trals but bicuspid. Marginal teeth a simple modification of the laterals, 
with one short, bluntly pointed inner cusp, and one still shorter, bluntly 
pointed outer cusp. Fig. a represents the central and lateral teeth, b a 
marginal tooth, c an extreme marginal. 

G-eomalacus maeulosus, Allm. 

England. Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys. 

The genital system is figured on pi. V, fig. x. For a description of it 
and of the jaw and dentition, see Ann. Lye. Nat. Higt. N. Y., X, 308. As 
there stated, the vas deferens is conspicuous by its great length, and the 
penis sac has attached to its apex a singular globular organ, which is a 
conspicuous feature of the system. 

Pallifera Wetherbyi, n. sp. 

From near the mouth of Laurel River, Whitley Co., 
Kentucky, Mr. A. G. Wetherby collected many specimens 
of what appeared to be a small species of Tebennophorus. 
It was readily distinguished from the numerous young of 
T. Caroliniensis found in the vicinity by the arrangement 
of the blotches of color, they being in irregular, interrupted, 
transverse bands, instead of running longitudinally as in 
that species. The anterior portion of the body seemed also 
to be more swollen, and the posterior extremity to taper 
more rapidly than in Caroliniensis. On examining the jaw 

32 Genitalia and Lingual 

I found it to be ribbed, :i character placing the slug in the 
genus Pallifera. The presence of ribs was verified in four 
individuals. Small specimens of T. Garoliniensis from the 
same locality had the usual rihless jaw of Tebennophorus. 
It appears, therefore, that the slug must he considered a new 
species of Pallifera.* It may be called after its discoverer. 
It is difficult to draw more satisfactory specific characters 
from specimens preserved in alcohol. One of them in its 
contracted state measures 12 millimetres in length. 

Jaw (pi. II. fig. i) arcuate, ends blunt, but little attenuated; anterior 
surface with decided, separated, unequal ribs, denticulating either margin, 
about 15 on one Specimen, those at the ends being less developed than on 
the balance of the jaw; cutting edge with a decided, short, blunt, median 

Lingual membrane (pi. II, fig. n) long and narrow. Teeth about 35- 
1-35. Centrals long, expanding towards the base, cusp stout, with a 
stout blunt cutting point not reaching the lower margin of the base of 
attachment, side cusps obsolete. Laterals same as centrals, but unsym- 
metrical. Marginals (b) low, wide, with one inner, long, oblique, blunt 
cusp, and one outer, short, usually bluntly bifid cusp. 

Bulimus foveolatus, Rve. (Orphnus.) 
Northern Peru. Prof. Orton. 

This and the other species collected by Prof. Orton were 
determined by Mr. Bland. 

Jaw slightly arched, wide, low. thin, with over 50 delicate ribs of the 
kind herewith described under. Bulimulus Lobbi : ends but slightly at- 
tenuated, blunt. 

Lingual membrane (pi. I, fig. in) long and narrow, composed of very 
numerous rows of about 34-1-34 teeth each. Teeth as usual in the Heli- 
cidce. The centrals (a) with one short cusp, the side cusps being obso- 
lete, cutting point short, bluntly pointed. Laterals like the centrals, but 
unsymmetrical, and with a more developed outer side cusp. Marginals 
b, a simple modification of the laterals, smaller, higher than wide, with 
the cutting point longer. The plate gives one central with its adjacent 
lateral, a, and three* extreme marginals, b. 

The membrane is very thick and strong, and of equal width throughout 
its length, the ends being bluntly truncated. 

*lts dentition is more related to Tebennophorus than to Pallifera by the absence of 
side cusps and cutting points to the central and lateral teeth. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 33 

The genus Bulimus seems to be characterized by marginal 
teeth to its lingual membrane of the same type as the laterals, 
being simply a modification of the latter. Thus far we know 
the dentition of the following species : B. porphyroslomus, 
scarabus, odontostomus, glaber, auris-sileni, multicolor, egre- 
gius, oblongus, ovatus, magnificus, Hanleyi, marmoratus, 
and aidacostylus. B. auris-sciuvi (which appears to be a var. 
of B. glaber) , figured by Gnppy and Hogg, may not agree 
with these, but the figure is too bad to judge from. 

Bulimus auris-sileni, Born. (Pelecychilus.) 
St. Vincent. 

For description of jaw and lingual dentition, see Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., X, 222. For figure of latter, see Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1874, 
pi. vi, fig. 4. 

The genitalia are figured at natural size as they appear suspended in 
water. The whole system is very long and slender. The testicle (1) is 
embedded in the upper lobe of the liver; it is composed of long caeca. 
The epididymis (2) is convoluted along the half nearer the oviduct. The 
accessory gland (3) is composed of prominent aciniform caeca. The 
ovary (11) is short and stout, much broader than the oviduct, lobulated. 
The oviduct (8) is long, narrow, greatly convoluted. The vagina is long, 
very narrow. The external orifice is behind the right eyepeduncle. The 
penis sac (5) is the most prominent organ. It is extremely long, exceed- 
ing the length of the whole system. It is tubular, of about equal length 
along three-fourths of its course, where it receives the vas deferens (6) 
and commences to taper gradually towards the apex, merging into a 
long, delicate flagellum or lengthened retractor muscle, said muscle being 
attached to the end. The penis sac does not appear actually to enter the 
vagina ; the two organs terminating side by side. 

The genital bladder (9) is small, globular, its duct (16) is almost as 
long as the oviduct, of very unequal breadth. For two-fifths of its length 
beyond the bladder it is delicate, then rapidly expands into a tube as 
wide as the ovary, then, tapering, becomes again narrow at the com- 
mencement of the last fifth of its course, but again widely expands before 
entering the vagina at the upper third of the length of the latter organ. 
PI. IV, fig. v. 

Bulimus glaber, Gmel. (Pelecychilus.) 

Island of Grenada. 

Jaw as in Bulimulus, Cylindrella, etc. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth as usual in the Hdicince, 
long and narrow, centrals tricuspid, laterals bicuspid, marginals a simple 
Jult, 1874. 3 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

34 Genitalia and Lingual 

modification of the laterals, with one large, long, inner, pointed cusp, and 
two outer, small points. See Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sc, 1874, pi. vi, fig. 6. 

Cylindrella sanguinea, Pfr. 

The genital system (pi. II, fig. vn), as would be inferred from the shape 
of the shell, is very much lengthened in all its organs. The testicle (1) 
is in a globular mass lying close to the oviduct. The epididymis (2) is 
short. The oviduct (8) is very long and narrow. The vagina is two- 
thirds the length of the oviduct, it is narrow, with a bulbous expansion 
at the insertion of the duct of the genital bladder, above its centre. The 
genital bladder (0) is very small, globular, on a very narrow, long duct 
(16), which expands at its entrance into the vagina. The penis sac (5) is 
short, thick as the oviduct, bluntly terminating above, where the vas 
deferens (7) and retractor muscle (6) are inserted. The ovary (11) is 
short and stout. 

Cylindrella brevis, Pfr. 

The genitalia have the same arrangement as in C. sanguinea, herewith 
described. The duct of the genital bladder (16) in this species is much 
more expanded before it enters the vagina, and the latter organ below the 
junction is expanded to a greater size than the oviduct. The penis sac 
(5) is shorter and stouter in brevis than in sanguinea, PI. II, fig. in. 

Bulimulus AltoperuYianus, Rve. (Drymmus.) 
Between Balsas and Cajamarca, Peru, Prof. Orton. 

Genitalia (pi. I, fig. n) of the same general form as I have herewith de- 
scribed for those of Bulimulus Lobbi. The ovary (11) is smaller in pro- 
portion, the oviduct (8) more developed. The duct of the genital bladder 
(16) enters lower down upon the vagina. The testicle (1) is farther 
removed from the ovary, lying in the apex of the shell. It is composed 
of short, stout, blunt caeca. The ovary is of a dark slate color, the rest of 
the genital system is white. The external orifice is behind the right eye 
peduncle. The edges of the ovary are very deeply scalloped. 

The jaw has thirty-one ribs. It is of same type as that herewith de- 
scribed of Bui. Lobbi. Lingual membrane (pi. I, fig. iv) of same type as 
herewith described and figured for Bui. Lobbi as far as centrals and lat- 
erals (a) are concerned. The marginal teeth, however, are quite different 
from those of that species. They are quite like the laterals, excepting 
that the cutting point is very much more produced, and somewhat curved 
towards the central line of the membrane. 

These peculiar marginal teeth remind one of those of Helix Ghiesbreghti 
as figured by Messrs. Fischer and Crosse. In that species, however, the 
notch is on the outer, not the inner, side of the cutting point. 

Dentition of Pulmonala. ^ 35 

It will be noticed that the cutting point on the central tooth of B. 
Altoperuvianus is more produced than in B. Lobbi, to which I have com- 
pared the dentition. 

Bulimulus Feruvianus, Brug. (Plectostylus.) 

Talcahuana, Peru. Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

Jaw and lingual dentition already described by me. (Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sc. Phila., 1874, 53, pi. V, fig. 2.) 

The genital system is figured on pi. I, fig. vm. The testicle (1) is 
extremely large, apparently composed of aciniform caeca. The epidid- 
ymis (2) is long, very thick, and greatly convoluted in its whole course. 
The ovary (11) is long and slender. The oviduct (8) is long and narrow. 
The vagina is short. The short duct (16) of the genital bladder (9) 
enters at its upper end. The genital bladder is very stout, almost as 
thick as the oviduct, tapering above gradually to a long flagellate point. 
The penis sac (5) enters the vagina near its lower end. It is smaller than 
the genital bladder, cylindrical, tapering gradually towards the apex, 
where it has a flagellate appendix, into the end of which, perhaps, is 
inserted the retractor muscle. The vas deferens enters the penis sac at its 
upper end. The external orifice of the generative organs is behind the 
right eyepeduncle. 

Bulimulus Lobbi, Rve. (Drymceus.) 
Between Balsas and Cajamarca. Prof. Ortou. 

The genital system is quite similar to that which I have figured of B. 
Altoperuvianus (pi. I, fig. n), the ovary (11), however, is much larger 
than in that species. The testicle (1) is composed of short, blunt caeca; 
it lies near the ovary. The epididymis (2) is short. The accessory 
gland (3) is composed of several long, threadlike caeca. The ovary is 
long, equalling one-third of the oviduct, and twice as broad. The oviduct 
(8) is long, convoluted, narrow, with deeply scalloped edges. The vagina 
is short, tubular, receiving the duct of the genital bladder near its top, 
and the opening of the penis sae just above its base; between the two 
there is a short decided expansion of the vagina. The penis sac (5) is 
long and slender, with a long, flagellate extension, on the end of which 
the retractor muscle (6) is attached. The vas deferens (7) enters the 
penis sac at about the middle of its length. The genital bladder (9) is 
small, globular, on a delicate duct (16) equalling in length the vagina and 
oviduct combined. The external orifice of generation is behind the right 

The jaw (pi. I, fig. vi) is arcuate, with attenuated, blunt ends, thin, 
transparent, of the same type as is common to Bulimulus, Cylindrella, 
Amphibulima, Gceotis, etc., i. e., with narrow, distant ribs, running ob- 

36 Genitalia and Lingual 

liquely towards the median line, so that those of the centre converge 
before reaching the bottom of the plate. These ribs serrate the upper 
and lower margins. They increase in thickness gradually on their outer 
edge. There are twenty-one ribs on the specimen examined. The ma- 
terial of the jaw is so thin on the outer edge of the ribs that it separates 
into distinct plates at these points, when macerated. In some specimens 
examined the ribs appear to be formed by an actual overlapping of distinct 
plates. I have no doubt, however, of the jaw being in one single piece, 
divided by these delicate ribs into numerous plate-like compartments. It 
is not composite as formerly believed by most authors. 

The lingual membrane (pi. I, fig. 1) is broad, very delicate in texture and 
difficult to handle. There are numerous rows of about 90-1-90 teeth each. 
The centrals have a base of attachment longer than wide, with lower lat- 
eral expansions. The reflection has one stout median cusp, the side cusps 
being obsolete ; this cusp bears a short, rapidly attenuated, sharp cutting 
point, not reaching the lower margin of the base of attachment. The lat- 
erals are of same type as centrals, but unsyinmetrical, the cutting point, 
however, is very different from that of the centrals, being very broad, 
bluntly rounded at its end, oblique, extending far below the base of at- 
tachment, and having on its inner margin, near the blunt end, a promi- 
nent blunt notch. The marginals are a modification of the laterals, but 
lower, with a much more oblique cusp, bearing a much broader trifld 
cutting point, the middle division very much more produced than the outer 

The figures represent a one central with its adjacent lateral teeth, and 
b, two marginal teeth. 

The lateral teeth are a modification of the usual Helicidce type not before 
observed by me. The marginal teeth are somewhat like those seen in 
many species of Bulimulus, such as laticinctus, Bahamensis, auris-leporis, 
papijraceus, Jonasi, membranaceus. They only approach, however, the 
teeth of those species in form. 

Bulimulus rhodolarynx, Eve. (Scutalus.) 
Northern Peru. Prof. Grton. 

The genital organs were so reduced as to be only threadlike, and not 
sufficiently developed to be described as perfect. 

The jaw was not examined, being of so delicate texture as to be quite 
destroyed by the action of potash. 

The lingual membrane is long, narrow. Teeth about 40-1-40, of the 
usual type of Helicince (see pi. I, fig. v). The central teeth, a, have one 
median cusp, the outer cusps being obsolete, the cutting point is shor 
and bluntly pointed. Lateral teeth same as centrals, unsym metrical, the 
inner subobsolete cusp more developed. The marginals (b) are simple 
modifications of the laterals, subquadrate, bicuspid, each cusp with a 
ong, oblique, stout cutting point. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 37 

From this description it will be seen that BuHmulus rho- 
dolarynx has the type of dentition which appears normal to 
the Helicince, in this respect agreeing with B. cinnamomeo- 
lineatus, pallidior, chrysalis, Guadalupensis, alternatus, spo- 
radicus, decdbatus, solutus, sepulcralis, durus and Peruvianus. 
For the species differing from the common type of Helicinoe, 
dentition, see remarks under B. Lobbi. 

Bulimulus Proteus, Brod. ^Scutalus.") 
Northern Peru. Prof. Orton. 

Genitalia quite like those described and figured of Bui. Altoperuvianus 
(pi. I, fig. n). All the organs were delicate, almost threadlike, and not 
so well developed as in the species to which I have compared them. 
Orifice behind right eyepeduncle. 

Jaw, with 28 ribs, of same type as herewith described for B. Lobbi. 

Lingual membrane of same type as Bui. Altoperuvianus, herewith des- 

Bulimulus primularis, Eve. (Mesembrinus.) 

Northern Peru. Prof. Orton. 

The genitalia are like those of Bui. Proteus herein described, but the 
ovary is orange colored. 

The jaw was imperfect and thus the number of ribs cannot be given. 
It is of the same type, however, as herewith described of Bui. Lobbi. 

The lingual membrane (pi. I, fig. vii) is broad. Central teeth of same 
type also as in Bui. Lobbi, but much shorter and stouter. The lateral 
teeth of Bui. Lobbi and B. Altoperuvianus are wanting in this species, 
their place being entirely filled by marginal teeth of the form known in 
Bui. laticinctus (see Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y. x, pi. i). The teeth are 
subquadrate, with a very large, curved, obliquely tritid cutting point, 
extending far below the lower margin of the base of attachment. 

Fig. a gives one central tooth with the two adjacent mar- 
ginals ; fig. b an extreme marginal. The latter will be seen 
to be rather narrower than those nearer the median line of 
the membrane. 

Orthalicus obductus, Shuttl. 

Islands in Bay of Panama, Mr. McNiel. 

Jaw as usual in the genus. Lingual membrane (pi. VI, fig. m) as usual 
in the genus. Teeth about 96-1-96. The side spurs to the cusps (rep- 

38 Genitalia and Lingual 

resenting the side cusps of the usual Helicince type) are not present on 
the first laterals, but are conspicuous on those farther removed, as shown 
in figure b of the seventh lateral tooth. 

Orthalicus gallina-sultana, Chemn. 

Maranon, Peru. Prof. Orton. 

An opportunity having been given me by the kindness of 
my friend, Mr. Thomas Bland, of examining the animal of 
Orthalicus gallina-sultana, Chemn., I here give descriptions 
of its genital system and lingual dentition. It will be seen 
that my figures of the latter do not agree with those published 
by Troschel (Arch, fur Nat., 1849, pi. iv, fig. 3), at least 
so far as centrals and laterals are concerned, these teeth not 
being represented in TroschePs plate. It must be borne in 
mind, however, that at that early date, the membranes were 
not so carefully studied as at present, and consequently the 
peculiarity of these teeth may have been overlooked by 
Troschel. Of the identity of the specimen examined by me, 
there can be no doubt. 

The jaw (pi. IV, fig. E) is of the type usual in Orthalicus and Liguus, but 
up to the present time never observed in any other genus. It is com- 
posite, its separate plates being apparently soldered firmly at their upper 
portions, where, indeed, they seem collectively to form a jaw in a single 
piece as in Helix, etc., but at their lower portion positively detached and 
free, imbricated one upon another. The jaw may in one sense be said to 
be in a single piece, as argued recently by Messrs. Fischer and Crosse, 
(Moll. Mex. et Guat.), but with equal correctness it may surely be said 
to be composite, as the amalgamation of the upper portion is produced 
by the joining of absolutely separate pieces. There are fifteen of these 
plates, the three upper central ones apparently lying upon the fourth, 
which is very broad and extends from the upper to the lower margin of 
the jaw. The jaw is strongly arched, with attenuated, blunt ends. There 
are well marked perpendicular grooves upon the anterior surface of many 
of the plates. 

The lingual membrane (pi. IV, tig. A-C) is very broad (13 mill.), for its 
length (16 mill.). The rows of teeth are arranged in a backward curve 
from the median line for a short distance, and then run obliquely to the 
outer margin of the membrane. The central teeth have a long and rather 
narrow base of attachment, squarely truncated at the top, incurved with 
slight lateral expansions at the base. The reflected portion bears one 
stout, median cusp, the side cusps being subobsolete. This cusp bears a 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 39 

long, stout, lance-like cutting point, extending below the base of attach- 
ment to a sharp point, and bearing at the centre of its length on each side 
a prominent, subobsolete, blunt spur. There are three lateral teeth of 
the same type as the centrals, but made unsymmeti'ical by the suppres- 
sion of the inner lower lateral expansion to the base of attachment, and 
the inijer subobsolete lateral spur to the cutting point. The fourth tooth 
from the central tooth changes suddenly into a marginal tooth of the form 
common in Orthalicus, i.e., along, stout, subquadrate base of attachment 
with fringed lower margin, bearing at its lower portion, a broad, bluntly 
rounded subobsolete cusp, from which springs a short, widely expanded, 
broad, bluntly rounded, gouge shaped cutting point, which has a small, 
outer, lateral spur of the same bluntly rounded form. This form of mar- 
ginal teeth runs quite to the edge of the membrane, those nearer the 
outer edge being smaller, more widely separated, and in more oblique and 
more widely separated rows. 

Pig. A gives a central tooth with adjacent teeth to the fifth tooth on 
one side, and only one lateral on the other side; fig. C gives the eighth 
tooth ; fig. D two extreme marginals ; fig. B an extreme marginal in 

The count of the teeth in one transverse row is over 108-1-108. 

Peculiar as this form of dentition seems, it has already been noticed in 
Liguus virginezis. (See Am. Journ. Conch., VI, 209, fig. 3, 4, and below 
pi. III). That species differs widely, however, in the lesser size of its 
membrane (10 X 4£ mill.), the smaller count of the teeth, 40-1-40, and 
in having but two well marked laterals. That species also has several 
teeth intermediate between the laterals and marginals which vary greatly 
on different parts of the membrane. 

This form of dentition is very instructive in showing the 
modification of the type usual to the Helicince. The central 
teeth may be said to be obsoletely tricuspid, and the side 
spurs to the greatly produced cutting point are but a modifi- 
cation of the usual cutting points on the side cusps of the 
Helicince. The lateral teeth are in the same way but a modi- 
fication of the usual bicuspid laterals of the Helicince. The 
marginal teeth are more abnormal in form, but they still are 
but modified from the laterals by the expansion, bluntly 
rounding and shortening of the cusps, and by the still greater 
expansion, shortening and bluntly rounding of the cutting 
points. In Orthalicus iostomus, melanochilus, undatus and 
Liguus fasciatus, this process of suppressing the usually 
decided cusps and cutting points is extended equally to the 
central and lateral teeth. Other species show the same aber- 

40 Genitalia and Lingual 

rant form of centrals and laterals, as Bulimulus aurisleporis, 
(Mai. Blatt., XV, pi. v, fig. 8). In less degree are the 
laterals modified from the usual Helicince type in Simpulopsis 
sulculosa (ib. fig. 10) as to the cutting points, and in the 
same particular in Bulimus Peruvianus (Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 
Phila., 1874, pi. v, fig. 2). No doubt future research will 
bring to light a complete series of teeth in land shells, show- 
ins: a gradual modification in different directions of the nor- 
mal tricuspid and bicuspid type. 

There seem no peculiar characters to the respiratory, digestive and 
nervous system of the animal. The genitalia are figured on plate IV, fig. 
F. The external orifice is behind the right eyepeduncle. The testicle (1) 
is as usual in the Helicince. embedded in the lobe of the liver occupying 
the extreme apex of the spire of the shell; it is composed of fasciculi of 
short, stout, blunt caeca. The epididymis (2) is short, convoluted as 
usual. The accessory gland (3) is on a short threadlike peduncle. The 
ovary (11) is very large, tongue shaped, lobulated above and decidedly 
spongelike in its division on its concave side. The oviduct (8) is long, 
narrow, convoluted. The genital bladder (9) is large and oval, on a long 
duct (16) which in its natural position is adherent to the oviduct in its 
entire length : it is much larger in its lower third, equalling the stout 
vagina, near whose middle it enters ; below this point the vagina becomes 
very stout. The penis is cylindrical, about as long as the vagina, tapering 
rather abruptly to its apex, where is inserted a long, delicate, retractor 
muscle (6), which resembles a flagellum. The vas deferens (7) enters 
the penis on its side, near its summit. There are no accessory organs. 
The penis (5) docs not appear to enter a common duct of male and female 
organs, but to have a separate opening of its own. 

The general arrangement of the genitalia is like that of 0. undatus, 
(see this paper), 0. longus and iostomus (Fischer and Crosse), Lignus 
fasciatus (Leidy), and L. virgineus, see below. The last four, however, 
have a single multifid vesicle, which I failed to detect in 0. gallina-sul- 
tana; and from them all there is ample specific difference in the size of the 
ovary, the shape and size of the penis sac, and the size of the duct of the 
genital bladder, near its base. 

It may fairly be assumed that no generic difference exists between the 
genitalia of Orthalicus and Liguus. 

These remarks are suggested by the treatment of Liguus 
fasciatus by Messrs. Fischer and Crosse (Moll. Mex. et 
Guat.). On account of the resemblance in dentition to 
the species of Orthalicus known to them rather than to the 

Dentition of Puhnonata. 41 

allied Liguus virgineus, these authors place Liguus fasciatus 
in Orthalicus, under the subgeneric name of Orthalicinus. 
The same reasoning will now oblige them to place Ortha- 
licus gallina-sultana in the genus Liguus, for its dentition 
resembles that of L. virgineus and not that of the other 
known species of Orthalicus. It appears to me much better 
to wait till more is known of the dentition of Orthalicus, 
before we consider the teeth as reliable generic characters. 

Orthalicus undatus, Brug. 

It will be interesting in connection with my comparison 
of Orthalicus and Liguus to state that having had an oppor- 
tunity of dissecting six specimens of this species, from 
Jamaica, I found the genitalia constantly agreeing with 
Lchmann's fig. in Malak., Blatt., 1864, pi. i, fig. 4. There is 
no multifid vesicle on the penis as in the species of Orthal- 
icus figured by Fischer and Crosse (Moll. Mex.). With this 
exception, the genitalia are quite like those figured by Leidy 
for Liguus fasciatus (Terr. Moll. U. S. I. pi. v). 

It will be seen above that Orthalicus gallina-sultana is also 
characterized by the want of the multifid vesicle. 

Liguus virgineus, Lin. 

Aux Cayes, Haiti. Mr. Robert Swift. 

In connection with my friend, Mr. Thomas Bland, I have 
already described the jaw (L. and F. W. Shells N. A., I, p. 
312, fig. 364) and lingual membrane (Am. Journ. Conch. VI, 
209, figs. 3,4) of this species. The membrane having become 
still more interesting from its resemblance in some respects 
to that of Orthalicus gallina-sultana, Chemn., lately examined, 
I have given the accompanying more detailed illustrations 
(pi. III). 

There is, it appears, considerable variation in the development of the 
cutting points of the central and lateral teeth, and the cusps of the first 
marginals, on different parts of the membrane. Fig. D is taken from the 
most perfect portion of the membrane, the most anterior portion. Fig. 

42 Genitalia and Lingual 

A is taken from the least developed, or posterior end of the membrane. 
Figs. B and C are drawn from intermediate points, the former from near 
the centre. 

Marginal teeth from various points of the membrane are figured in E 
aud G, each tooth being numbered from the median line. Fig. F shows 
an extreme marginal in profile. 

Near the outer edges of the membrane the teeth are not only much 
smaller, and arranged more obliquely, but they are more separated from 
each other on the same transverse row, and the rows themselves are not 
so crowded together as in the portions of the membrane nearer the 

On dissecting the animal I found nothing of peculiar interest in the 
digestive, respiratory or nervous systems. There appeared to be the 
same general arrangement as figured by Dr. Leidy (Terr. Moll. U. S., I, 
pi. v) for the allied species, L. fasciatus. The same may be said of the 
generative organs, which, however, I have figured (pi. IV, fig. G) to com- 
pare with the figure I have given of the same organs in Orthalicus gallina- 
sultana. The external orifice of generation is close behind the right 
eyepeduncle. The testicle, epididymis and ovary were separated from 
the specimen examined. The oviduct (8) is long, narrow, greatly convo- 
luted. The genital bladder (9) is small and globose ; its duct (1G) is long 
and narrow; in its natural position it lies close against the oviduct: as 
the duct joins the vagina it becomes enlarged to the size of the latter 
which it enters at its upper third. The vagina is very wide below this 
junction. The vas deferens (7) runs as usual along the side of the vagina 
to its base, and thence to the summit of the penis where it enters. The 
penis sac (5) is long, slender, 'cylindrical, narrowing at its apex, into 
which is inserted a long delicate retractor muscle (6) which might be con- 
sidered a flagellum : the penis does not seem to enter the vagina, but to 
have an independent opening of its own. Near its base it bears upon a 
short pedicle, a single prostate gland, a multifid vesicle of the same type 
as figured by Dr. Leidy in L. fasciatus, composed of about six short, ovate, 
detached lobes. 

Thus it will be seen that Liguus virgineus agrees in its 
genitalia with the allied species, L. fasciatus, but differs in 
its shell, and in its lingual dentition. No generic value can 
be placed upon this last character, however, for while L. 
fasciatus resembles in its dentition Orthalicus undatus, me- 
lanochilus, and iostomus, its allied species L. virgineus is 
characterized by a widely different dentition, which is shared 
on the other hand in a great measure by Orthalicus gallina- 
sultana. From our present knowledge we are forced to be- 
lieve that lingual dentition will furnish no guide to the 
generic distinction between Orthalicus and Liguus. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 43 

The tail of the animal is very long and pointed. There 
is no distinct locomotive disk to the foot. 

Succinea obliqua, Say. 
A specimen from New York, received from Dr. James 
Lewis, furnished the jaw and lingual membrane here de- 

Jaw of shape usual in the genus, with the quadrate accessory plate. 
Cutting edge with a prominent median projection. Anterior surface with 
decided stout ribs denticulating the cutting edge; one specimen had 
three broad and two intervening narrow ribs : another specimen has 
seven ribs. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth about 43-1-43. Centrals 
subquadrate, tricuspid, the middle cusp long and stout. Laterals longer 
than wide, bicuspid, the third, inner cusp being only rudimentary. 
Marginals a modification of the laterals, with one long, slender inner 
cusp, and two short, slender outer cusps. The cusps of all the teeth 
bear sharp cutting points. 

In Terrestrial Mollusks of United States, vol. I, pi. xiii, 
fig. 3, a jaw is figured as that of Succinea ovcilis. It no 
doubt represents rather that of the true obliqua, Say, than of 
8ucc. ovalis, Gld. not Say. The jaw of the latter is figured 
in L. and F. W. Shells of N. A., I, p. 258. The figure of 
genitalia given by Dr. Leidy on the plate referred to cor- 
rectly represents that of S. obliqua. 


The figures of genitalia all have the same references : 

1. The testicle. 

2. The epididymis. 

3. The accessory gland of the last. 

4. The prostate. 

5. The sac of the penis. 

6. The retractor muscle of the penis. 

7. The vas deferens. 

8. The oviduct. 

9. The genital bladder. 

10. The external orifice of the organs. 

11. The ovary. 

12. The prepuce. 

44 Genitalia and Lingual 

13. The vaginal prostate. 
13a. flagellum to same. 

13b. accessory gland to same. 

13c. accessory duct to same. 

13d. same as last with globular organ. 

14. The dart sac. 

15. The flagellum. 

16. The duct of the genital bladder. 

In the figures of dentition it will be understood that the general inten- 
tion is to give («) one central tooth with its adjoining lateral, and (b) one 
or two marginal teeth. The numbers of the teeth refer to their position in 
counting from the median Hue of the membrane. This arrangement gives 
as good an idea of the characters of the dentition as my space will allow. 

Plate I. 

I. Bulimulus Lobbi, Rve. Dentition ; a. lateral teeth : b, extreme marginal teeth. 
II. Bulimulus Altoperuvianus, Rve. Genitalia. 

III. Bulimus foveolatus, Rve. a, central and lateral teeth : b, extreme marginals. 

IV. Dentition of II. 6, extreme marginals. 

V. Bulimulus rhodolarynx, Rve. b, marginals — first and extreme. 
VI. Jaw of I. 

VII. Bulimulus primularis, Rve. b, extreme marginal tooth. 
VIII. Bulimulus Peruvianus, Brug. 

Plate II. 

I. Pallifera Wetherbyi. Jaw. 
IL Same; dentition, a, central and lateral teeth : 6, marginal teeth. 

III. Cyliudrella brevis, Pfr. Genitalia. 

IV. Zonites sculptilis, Bland. Dentition ; b, extreme marginals. 
V. Bulimus auris-sileni. Born. Genitalia. 

VI. Helix nucleola, Rang. Genitalia. 
VII. Cylindrella sanguinea, Pfr. Genitalia. 

VIII. Strophia iostoma, Pfr. Dentition ; a, central and lateral teeth : 6, marginal tooth : 
c, extreme marginal tooth. 
IX. Helix discolor, Fer. Genitalia. 

Plate III. 

Lingual dentition of Liguus virgineus, Lin. 

A. From the least developed end of the membrane. The central tooth with the two 

lateral teeth and three marginal teeth. 

B. From near the centre of the membrane. 

C. From near the anterior end of the membrane; portions of two adjacent rows of 


D. From still nearer the anterior end of the membrane. 

E. Marginals from the same end ot the membrane as the last. 

F. Extreme marginal in profile. 

G. Extreme marginals. 

Dentition of Pulmonata. 45 

Plate IV. 

A. Lingual dentition of Orthalicus gallina-sultana, Chemn. 

B. A marginal tooth of the same in profile. 

C. The same. The eighth from the median line. 

D. The same. Extreme marginal teeth. 

E. The same. Jaw. 

F. The same. Genitalia. 

G. Liguus virgineus, Lin. The genitalia. 

Plate V. 

Fig. Genitalia and Dentition of 

I. Zonites inornatus, Say. 
IT. Zonites friabilis. 

III. Helix Troostiana, Lea. 

IV. Helix clausa, Say. 

V. Helix rufo-apicata, Poey. 
VI. Dentition of III. 
VII. Helix Pennsylvania, Green. 
VIII. Helix nuxdenticulata, Chemn. 
IX. Helix Josephinae, Fer. 
X. Geomalacus maculosus, Allm. 

Plate VI. 


I. Helix ClarH Lea. Lingual dentition, a, central and lateral tooth; 6, marginal 

tooth. See also fig. y for extreme marginals. 
II. Helix Stearnsiana. Gabb. Genitalia. 

III. Orthalicus obductus, Shuttl. Lingual dentition; a, central and lateral teeth; 6, 

the seventh tooth : c, extreme marginal teeth. 

IV. Helix Traski, Lea. A portion of the genital system, showing vaginal prostate. 

V. See I. 

VI. Same as I. Genitalia. 

VII. Helix Wetherbyi ; Bland. Lingual dentition ; a, central and lateral teeth 6, first 
marginal teeth : c, extreme marginal teeth. 

Note on the Jaw of Partula. 

Having lately received through the kindness of Dr. W. 
D. Hartmann a number of Partula preserved in alcohol, I 
am preparing a description of their lingual dentition, geni- 
talia and jaw. The latter is the most important point to be 
studied, this organ never having been described, I now, 
therefore, give the following particulars : 

In P. fusca, Pease, umbilicata, Pease and virginea, Pease, it is very thin 
and transparent; arcuate with attenuated ends; cutting margin with a 
broad very slight median prominence; anterior surface with numerous 
(over 60 in virginea) very delicate, separated ribs, slightly denticulatiug 

46 Upper Coal Measures of 

either margin, those of the centre converging and meeting before reach- 
ing the lower margin, as in Cylindrella, &c. The jaw appears therefore 
to be of the same type as in Bulimulus, Gceotis, Amphibulima, Cylindrella, 
Macroceramus and Pineria. The ribs, however, are in Partula exceed- 
ingly fine. 

The lingual dentition of the species mentioned above is the same as 
figured by Heynemann (Mall. Blatt. 1867, pi. i, fig. 1,) excepting that I 
detect distinct cutting points to the side cusps of the central teeth, not 
figured by him. 

V. — 'Notes on the Upper Coal Measures of West Virginia 
and Pennsylvania. 


Read May 25th, 1874. 

In this paper I propose to describe that part of the coal 
measures known as the Upper Barren Group, and also to 
make such remarks on the Upper Coal Group proper, as 
may be deemed of interest. 

The district under consideration includes portions of Mo- 
nongalia, Marion, Marshall, and Ohio counties, W. Va., and 
Green Co., Penn. ; and the section extends from the Pitts- 
burgh coal on the Monongahela River near Morgantown, W. 
Va., across the basin to the same coal near the Ohio at 

Almost midway between Morgantown and Wheeling, 
there rises in Pennsylvania, and extends south into West 
Virginia, what is locally known as the "Dividing Ridge," 
since it forms the watershed between the tributaries of the 
Monongahela, and those of the Ohio. 

This seems to occupy the median line of a gentle uplift, 
or anticlinal axis, which passes across the coal measures from 
north to south. As a consequence of this anticlinal, about 
fifteen miles west of Laurel Hill, we find the dip changing, 
and thenceforward the strata rise gently westward until the 
"Dividing Ridge" is crossed, beyond which, the dip is again 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 


northwestward, to within ten miles of Wheeling, when 
the strata again rise and soon bring the Pittsburg coal to 
the surface. 

On the eastern flank of the "Dividing Ridge," Dunkard 
creek rises, and flows a little north of east, reaching the Mo- 
nongahela two miles above Greensboro, Penn. The eastern 
section was made along this stream. 

On the opposite side of the ridge and a few miles north, 
Wheeling creek rises, and, following a southwesterly direc- 
tion, euters the Ohio at Wheeling. The western section, 
commencing on the south fork, was taken on this stream. 

For the sake of a ready comparison we give both sections 
together, but will confine our remarks chiefly to the eastern 

No. I is the eastern or Dunkard creek section. 

No. II is the western or Wheeling creek section. 

' T. TT 

1. Sandstone and shales 300' 

2. Limestone \\' 

3. Shaly sandstone 190' 

4. Coal 1-1£' 

&. Sandstone 95' 

6. Coal li-2' 

7. Shale and sandstone 85' 

8. Limestone 3' 

9. Shale 40' 

10. Coal 1-1J' 

11. Shale 10' 

12. Limestone 2' 

13. Shale 40' 

14. Coal, "Brownsville" 2-3^' 

15. Shale 20' 

16. Coal 1' 

17. Shale 15' 

18. Sandstone 45-50' 

19. Coal, "Waynesburg" 4-9' 

20. Sandstone 15' 

1. Shales 

2. Limestone 

3. Shales and Sandstones. 

4. Coal 

5. Shale 

6. Limestone 

7. Redshale 

8. Sandstone and shales.. 

9. Coal 

10. Sandstone 

11. Limestone 

12. Shaly sandstone 

13. Shale 

14. Black slate 

15. Shale 

16. Coal, " Brownsville". . . 

17. Shale 

18. Coal ,, 

19. Shale 

20. Limestone 








Upper Coal Measures of 



21. Shale 8 

22. Limestone 5' 

23. Shale 4' 

24. Sandstone 15' 

25. Limestone 30' 

26. Sandstone 25' 

27. Limestone 6' 

28. Sandstone 15' 

29. Limestone 7' 

30. Sandstone 10' 

31. Limestone 8' 

32. Shale 12' 

33. Sandstone 31' 

34. Seioickly Coal 5-' 

35. Shale 8' 

36. Limestone .' 7' 

37. Sandstone 10' 

38. Limestone 22' 

39. Redstone Coal 4' 

40. Limestone 12' 

41. Shale 8' 

42. Pittsburg Coal 14' 

21. Shale 10' 

22. Sandstone 15' 

23. Limestone 2' 

24. Sandstone 25-30' 

25. Coal, " Waynesburg" 2^-4' 

26. Fireclay 3' 

27. Sandstone 

28. Shale with iron nodules. 

29. Limestone 

30. Shale 

31. Limestone 

32. Shale 

33. Limestone 


34. Shales with limestone 35' 

35. Limestone 1' 

36. Shale 2' 

37. Limestone 3' 

38. Shale 30' 

39. Limestone 2j' 

40. Shale 8' 

41. Limestone \\' 

42. Shale 10' 

43. Limestone 35' 

44. Sandstone 30' 

45. Sewicfdy Coal 6in 

46. Limestone 30' 

47. Shale 3' 

48. Redstone Coal 4in 

49. FireClay.. 2' 

50. Limestone 18' 

51. Pittsburg Coal 7-8 


Total thickness of Upper Barren Group in Sec. I, 800 feet; in Sec. II, 544 feet. 
« coal " " " " 340 " " " " 278 " 

Total 1,110 feet Total 822 feet. 

The measurements in No. 1, from the Waynesburg coal to 
the Pittsburg, are taken from a paper on the Upper Coal 
Measures, by Prof. Jno. J. Stevenson. 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 49 

It should be remarked that great difficulty was experienced 
in making these sections, owing to the fact that good ex- 
posures are rare, since the sandstones and shales of the 
Upper Barren Group disintegrate so readily as soon to con- 
ceal themselves and all other strata in their own debris. 

The sections speak for themselves in showing the well 
known fact, that the coals and sandstones thin out toward 
the west, while the limestones thicken up. Their contrast 
in this respect is remarkable. In the description which fol- 
lows, section No. I is always meant where no reference is 
made to No. II. 

Prof. H. D. Rogers in his Pennsylvania Report intimates 
that possibly somewhere in the highest hills of the series in 
Greene Co., Pa., Permian types of fossils may yet be dis- 
covered. Without desiring to discourage future observers 
in searching for such forms, I can only say that I made a 
diligent search, not only in the highest hills found by me in 
Greene Co., Pa., but also in those of West Virginia, and as 
a result failed to discover a fossil animal or plant of any 
type above No. 5 of Sec. I. These uppei sandstones and 
shales are very coarse, giving evidence of having been de- 
posited by pretty strong currents. 

No. 2 is the highest limestone found by me ; it is rather 
impure, but has been burned for lime in a few instances. On 
account of its elevation, it is frequently found strewn over 
the ground on some of the summits of hills, and is locally 
known as the "Ridge" limestone. It is seen near the top of 
the hill on the road from Tom's Run to Wheeling creek, and 
also 300 feet below Hunsucker's Knob, four miles northeast 
of Burton, B. & O. R. R., where Sec. I begins. 

No. 4 is the first coal that we meet with. Though a small 
vein, it is remarkably pure, and has frequently been used by 
the blacksmiths in the vicinity. Jno. Taylor, near the head 
of Dunkard, has procured his fuel from it for some time, and 
says it is an excellent coal. It is the same as No. 4 of Sec. 
II, which appears near Perry Moore's on Wheeling creek. 

July, 1874. 4 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

50 Upper Coal Measures of 

No. 6 is the highest coal that has been ruined, the one 
above it having been worked by stripping. This bed was 
mined some years ago on Mr. Grim's property, on Pumpkin 
Rim, Monongalia Co., W. Va., to supply fuel for Mr. Jno. 
Lautz's steam mill* one-half mile below. At this opening 
the dip is southeast. Mr. Franklin Taylor, one mile and 
one-half above Jolly town, Greene Co., Penn., has procured 
his fuel from it for several years. One mile above this point 
it is seen on land of Mr. Thos. White. It is doubtless iden- 
tical with No. 9 of Sec. II, which has been worked by Mr. 
Leals, on Wheeling creek. It is quite sulphurous, and too 
impure to be used for smithing. 

The shale above this coal is interestinsr, as it is the highest 
horizon at which fossil plants have yet been discovered. On 
land now owned by Mr. Shriver, two miles from West War- 
ren, Monongalia Co., W. Va., I found some impressions of 
what seems to be a Pecopteris, but they are not well enough 
preserved for specific determination. This is the only local- 
ity found by me, though doubtless others exist. 

No. 8 is the purest limestone found in the Upper Barren 
Group on the eastern side. It first appears above the sur- 
face one mile above Kent's Mills on Dunkard creek; from 
this point it is easily traced down the stream to near Mt. 
Morris, Greene Co., Penn. 

Coal No. 10 is very impure, consisting merely of bitumi- 
nous slate in many places. Mr. Jacob Minor has opened 
this coal near the creek bank, one mile above Blacksville, 
Monongalia Co. ; it is here sixteen inches thick. The smut 
of this coal is seen all alon^ the road from Mr. Minor's to 
New Brownsville, a distance of five miles. It seems to have 
no representative in the western section. In the shale above 
it were found some very good impressions of Neuropleris 

No. 12 is a very impure limestone, and is constantly asso- 
ciated with coal No. 10. 

Coal No. 14. This coal, the most important one in the 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 51 

Group, has its greatest development about one mile below 
Brownsville, Monongalia Co., W. Va., and from this fact I 
have given it the name of "Brownsville coal." The first 
opening in this coal, as we travel down Dnnkard, is Mr. 
Abraham Tenant's, nearly a mile below Brownsville. Mr. 
Alpheus Brown, the proprietor of Brown's Mills on the 
other side of the creek, has also an opening in this vein. 
Hon. Wm. Price has opened the same bed two miles below. 
The following section from Price's bank is typical of the 
openings in this locality: — bituminous shale, 2 ft.; coal, 1 
ft., 3 in. ; slate, 4-6 in. ; coal, 2 ft., 4 in. 

As is seen from the preceding section, this coal, like the 
Waynesburg, is double, and this characteristic it retains 
wherever I have examined it, thus rendering its identifica- 
tion easy and certain, since it is the only one in the Group 
possessing this peculiarity. The upper division is not 
good, as it is very slaty, and contains much pyrites, but the 
lower part is an excellent coal and in high repute for smiths 
use, selling for ten cents per bushel at the bank. 

This coal thins out towards the east. Mr. Adam Browne, 
at Dnnkard ford, near the month of Doll's run, opened it on 
his farm, but the entire thickness of coal in both parts was 
only twenty inches, and the opening was abandoned. At 
this point it is eighty-five feet above the Waynesburg coal, 
as proved by a boring made for oil. Four miles east of this, 
near Mr. Samuel Lemley's, where the road leaves the creek 
and crosses a small bluff, it is seen as a mere bituminous 
shale, only eighteen inches thick, and just about as far above 
the surface of Dnnkard as it is at Brown's Mills, eight miles 
west of this point. I cannot be mistaken in this identifica- 
tion, since I traced it all the way between the two points, 
and to confirm the same, coal No. 16 of Sect. I appears at 
Lemley's in its proper place twenty feet below. 

I also traced this coal to the south through Monongalia 
and Marion counties, W. Va., to Mannington on the B. & O. 
R. R. It maintains an almost constant relation to the 

52 Upper Coal Measures of 

Waynesburg coal, as wherever we find the "Brownsville" 
coal, the Waynesburg is always from eighty to one hundred 
feet below. There is a perceptible thinning out to the south, 
as at Monnington, Marion Co., it is barely three feet. It is 
here nearly on a level with the railroad track. On Little 
Paw-paw, near Phelix Michael's, it shows the following sec- 
tion : — coal, 1 ft., 6 in. ; slate, 2-4 in. ; coal, 2 ft. Through- 
out the entire country from Brownsville to Monnington, it is 
everywhere known as the "three foot vein," and every farmer 
that has the Waynesburg coal opened, knows that a certain 
distance above is a "three foot vein." 

No. 16 of the western section is doubtless identical with 
the "Brownsville" coal. It is worked in only one locality 
that I could discover. Mr. George Woodruff, near Ryerson 
station, Wheeling creek, Greene Co., Pa., has an opening in 
it. Here it is only two feet thick, with a parting of three 
inches of slate. At this point, being twenty-five miles from 
Wheeling, it is eighty feet above the Waynesburg coal. I 
should also say that wherever it thins out from its normal 
thickness (three to three and one-half feet) it also deterio- 
rates in quality. Impressions of Neuropteris hirsuta are fre- 
quently found in the shales and slates above this coal. At 
Brown's Mills they are very plentiful. 

Coal No. 16, Sect. I, is probably the one referred to by 
Dr. Stevenson, in "Notes on the Geology of West Virginia," 
as having been struck at the head of Romp's Hollow, by Mr. 
Lumly. It is easily traced to the east, but I could not find 
it to the south in Marion Co. It may be identical with No. 
18 of Sect. II. 

No. 19 is the heavy sandstone that everywhere overlies 
the Waynesburg coal where it is of workable thickness. It 
is a very coarse, hard rock, being almost a conglomerate in 
some places, and its heavy massive outliers are seen pro- 
jecting from the hills along its entire outcrop from Waynes- 
burg to the B. & O. R. R., at Farmington, Marion Co., W. 
Va., which is as far south as I traced it. By means of these 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 53 

I was enabled to trace the underlying coal to the south 
through Monongalia and Marion counties, to the B. & O. 
K. R. 

In the eastern section it is seldom less than forty-five feet 
thick, but in the western section it has dwindled down to 
twenty-five feet, where we first strike it at Ryerson Station, 
Wheeling Creek, Greene Co., Pa., and as we follow it still 
farther to the west, it thins out, until near Wheeling it has 
entirely disappeared and limestone takes its place. 

Waynesburg Coal. On Dunkard creek we first come to 
this coal a short distance below Mfc. Morris, which is about 
nine miles west from the Monongahela river. At this point 
the dip is northwest. The development of this coal in the 
neighborhood of Mt. Morris, is similar to the same coal on 
Scott's Run, as described by Dr. Stevenson. At Mr. Thornt. 
Boidston's opening, one mile east of town, the "horseback" 
or slate has thinned away entirely, and he has eight and one- 
half feet of solid coal. On Morris's run, one mile south of 
the town, the following section was made: — shale 10 ft.; 
coal, 3 ft. ; shale, (i in. ; coal, 4 ft. 8 in. Nothing can exceed 
the suddenness with which this coal changes its character in 
some localities ; and of this an excellent example is seen at 
South's distillery near Newburg, Greene Co., Pa. One 
opening there shows the following section: — coal, 2£ ft.; 
shale, 2 ft. ; coal, 4 ft. About forty feet from this, the sand- 
stone is seen resting directly upon four feet of coal, the "horse- 
back" and upper coal having been torn away by the violence 
of the current which deposited the overlying sandstones. 

I traced this coal south to the B. & O. R. R., and as it has 
never been described in Marion Co., some sections of it from 
that county, and the southern part of Monongalia may prove 
of interest. 

Passing south from Scott's run to Big Indian creek, and 
travelling down it, we come to the first opening in this coal 
at Mr. John Musgrove's, seven miles from Arnettsville ; 
here it shows the following section : — sandstone, 40 ft. ; 

54 Upper Coal Measures of 

coal, 1 ft. ; shale, 1 ft. 7 in. ; coal, 6 in. ; highly bituminous 
slate 2 ft. ; coal, 4 ft. 4 in. 

One mile south of this, at Mr. Isaac Rigg's bank, the fol- 
lowing section was taken : — shale, 10 ft. ; coal, 9 in. ; shale 
1 ft. 4 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 

At the mouth of Little Paw-paw creek in Marion Co., Mr. 
Fluhearty's opening shows the following: — shale, 6 ft.; 
coal, 6 in. ; shale, 3 in. ; coal, 1 ft. 7 in. ; shale, 6 in. ; coal, 
1 ft. 2 in. ; shale, 1 ft. 4 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 

Five miles northwest of this, at Bassettsville, on Big 
Paw-paw, it shows the following: — shale, 4 ft. ; coal, 1 ft. ; 
shale, 1 ft. 2 in. ; coal, 3 ft. 

Farther south, at Mr. Hawkins' on Dunkard Mill run, 
about three miles from the B. & O. R. R., it shows the fol- 
lowing: — sandstone, 35 ft. ; coal, 2 ft. ; shale, 1 ft. ; coal, 
4 ft. At the mouth of the Dunkard Mill run on the B. & O. 
R. R., it is worked high up on the hill, and exhibits a section 
similar to the preceding one. 

At Farmington on the B. O. R. R. it has been opened by 
Mr. Hamilton and others, only within the last two years. 
Previous to this, the people in the vicinity had been getting 
their coal from the Pittsburg seam at Fair mount, not knowing 
that the Waynesburg coal was at their very doors, until a 
land-slide exposed it to them. 

From Farmington it can readily be traced up Buffalo creek 
along the B. and O. R. R. to where it disappears under it 
two miles below Mannington. 

On the western side of the "Dividing Ridge," and fifteen 
miles from it, we come to this coal two miles below Ryerson 
station, where Crab Apple creek enters Wheeling creek. 
Here the section is as follows : — Heavy sandstone, 25 ft. ; 
coal, 4 ft. This is a typical section of this coal throughout 
the country where it is opened here. 

As will be seen from the section, the double character of 
this coal, universal in the eastern section, does not appear 
here. But it is very probable that it once did exist, and has 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 55 

been torn away by the deposition of the coarse sandstone 
which rests directly upon it. What seems to sustain this 
conclusion is, that ten miles west of "Crab Apple," where 
the sandstone has disappeared and is replaced by a few feet 
of shale, the coal presents its normal character, but it has 
diminished in thickness, being, near Mr. Gardner's, only 
three feet thick, slate and all. 

As Mr. Gardner expressed it "The horseback is almost 
as hard as steel," thus preventing the mining of the coal. It 
is ten miles from this point to Wheeling, and as there are no 
openings on the line of section, I can tell nothing concerning 
it in the intervening distance ; but it is exposed at Wheeling 
in a ravine not far from the B. and O. R. R. Go's Steel Rail 
manufactory. It is here only 2£ feet thick, and single. 

Nothing answering to the Uniontoivn coal of H. D. Rogers 
could be found in either section. 

Seivickly coal. This coal is very well developed in the 
Dunkard creek section, attaining in some instances to 5£ feet 
in thickness. It is known everywhere as the "five foot 
vein." It is first seen on Dunkard creek about four miles 
below Mt. Morris, where the road crosses the creek oppo- 
site Newburg. At Bobtown, two miles from the Monon- 
gahela river, it is seen on the steep bluffs of Dunkard, 
eighty-five feet above the Pittsburg coal, and is here five feet 
thick. This point is ten miles north of the Scott's Run 
country. On Wheeling creek this coal is only six inches 

Redstone coal. This coal seems to thin out to the north, 
as no openings have ever been made in it throughout the 
eutire district of country between Robinson's run and Dun- 
kard creek. 

The inhabitants of this district are not aware that there is 
such a coal ; but it has a representative of some kind here, 
as the smut of a coal, occupying its place, can be seen very 
frequently. I do not think it can be more than eighteen feet 
thick, if anything can be judged from its smut. One 

56 Upper Coal Measures of 

noticeable thing concerning it on Dunkard, is the entire 
absence of the twelve feet of limestones found below it on 
Robinson's run, Monongalia Co., eight miles south of this 
locality. Its place is filled here by the Pittsburg sandstone, 
which is twenty-five feet thick, and generally rests directly 
upon the underlying coals. The Redstone coal is only four 
inches thick in the Wheeling creek section. 

Pittsburg coal. This coal first appears on Dunkard creek 
at Taylortown, Greene Co., Pa. It is here eight feet thick, 
and single-bedded, the heavy Pittsburgh sandstone resting 
immediately upon it. One mile below, the following section 
is seen : — sandstone 30 ft. ; coal, 1£ ft. ;. shale 1 ft. 3 in. ; 
coal 7 ft. 

The following section of this coal was taken on the top 
of the hill opposite the mouth of Cheat river, and 350 feet 
above the surface of the same: — sandstones 35 ft.; shale 
6 ft. ; coal 5£ feet. 

For the sake of contrast with the foregoing, I give another 
from Robinson's run, at Mr. Hunt's opening, five miles 
southwest of Cheat. It is as follows : — Limestones 11 ft.; 
shale 2 ft. ; coal 1£ ft. ; shale 1 ft. 3 in. ; coal 4 in. ; shale 
1 ft. 7 in. ; coal 11 in. ; shale 8 in. ; coal 1 ft. ; shale 3 in. ; 
coal 8 ft. Here in the first section w r e have only one seam 
of coal, while in the next we have five! 

On land of Mr. James Lazzell, Dog's run, Monongalia Co., 
W. Va., some fine impressions of Neuropteris hi?'suta, Cala- 
mites, Siffillaria, etc., were found in the roof-shales of this 

In the roof-shales of the Waynesburg coal at Mr. Layton's 
bank near Cassville, Monongalia Co., W. Va. and also at 
Mr. Morris's just above, the following coal plants were 
found, together with several others undetermined : — Ale- 
thopteris Pennsylvanica, Pecopleris arborescens, Spheno- 
phyllum filiculinus. 

Borings. During the "Oil fever" which raged here some 
years ago, several borings were commenced high up in the 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 


upper Barren Group, and put down from six to seven hun- 
dred feet. It is a matter of great regret that the records of 
these wells were not preserved. I was able to procure the 
records of one boring that was made uear Bellton, Marshall 
Co., W. Va., B. and O. R. R., on land now owned by Hon. 
H. S. White. It runs as follows : — 

Shale 10 ft. 

Sandstone 6 " 

Coal 3 " 

Sandstone 17 " 

Shale 7" 

Sandstone 11 " 

Shale 12 " 

Fireclay 7 " 

Sandstone 25 " 

Shale 12 " 

Sandstone 17 " 

Coal 9" 

Sandstone 9 " 

Shale 5" 

15. Sandstones 4 ft. 

16. Shale..' 19 " 

17. Sandstone 16 " 

18. Shale 4" 

19. Sandstone 30" 

20. Shale 2" 

21. Sandstone 35 " 

22. Shale 27 " 

23. Soft sandstone 45" 

24. Coal 6" 

25. Sandstone 20'* 

26. Limestone 8" 

27. Shale 19" 

28. Sandstone 15" 

29. Shale 18 ft. 

30. Sandstone 25" 

31. Shale 4" 

32. Limestone 10 ft. 

33- Fireclay 3" 

34. Limestone 4" 

35. Sandstone 16" 

36. Limestone 6" 

37. Slate 7" 

38. Limestone.... ... 4" 

39. Shale 3" 

40. Sandstone 33" 

Total 544 ft. 

Interval between coal No. 3 and coal No. 12, 108 feet. 
" " " " coal No. 12 and coal No. 24, 196 feet. 

It is very probable that coal No. 3 is the "Brownsville ," 
No. 12 the Waynesburg, and No. 21 the Pittsburgh. 

If this record is correct, it is a very anomalous one, as no 
limestone at all appears above coal No. 24. It is easier, 
however, to doubt the record than to believe it, as the first 
foreman emploj^ed by the company knew very little about 
the character of rocks. 

West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 


upper Barren Group, and put down from six to seven hun- 
dred feet. It is a matter of great regret that the records of 
these wells were not preserved. I was able to procure the 
records of one boring that was made near Bellton, Marshall 
Co., W. Va., B. and O. R. R., on land now owned by Hon. 
H. S. White. It runs as follows : — 

1. Shale 10 ft. 

2. Sandstone 6 " 

3. Coal.... 3 " 

4. Sandstone 17 " 

5. Shale 7 " 

C. Sandstone 11 " 

7. Shale 12 '• 

8. Fireclay 7 " 

9. Sandstone 25 " 

10. Shale 12 - 

11. Sandstone 17 " 

12. Coal 9 " 

13. Sandstone 9 " 

14. Shale 5 " 

Sandstones 4 ft. 

Shale 19 " 

Sandstone 16 " 

Shale 4 " 

Sandstone 30 " 

Shale 2 " 

Sandstone 35 " 

Shale 27 " 

Soft sandstone... 45 " 

Coal 6 " 

Sandstone 20 "■' 

Limestone 8 " 

Shale 19 " 

Sandstone 15 " 

29. Shale 18 ft. 

30. Sandstone 25 " 

31. Shale 4 " 

32. Limestone 10 " 

33. Fireclay 3 " 

31. Limestone 4 " 

35. Sandstone 1G " 

36. Limestone 6 " 

37. Slate 7 " 

38. Limestone 4 " 

39. Shale 3 " 

40. Sandstone 33 " 

Total 544 ft. 

Interval between coal No. 3 and coal No. 12, 108 feet. 
" " " " coal No. 12 and coal No. 24, 196 feet. 

It is very probable that coal No. 3 is the " Broionsville," 
No. 12 the Waynesburg, and No. 24 the Pittsburg. 

If this record is correct, it is a very anomalous one, as no 
limestone at all appears above coal No. 24. It is easier, 
however, to doubt the record than to believe it, as the first 
foreman employed by the company knew very little about 
the character of rocks. 
February, 1875. 5 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Mist., Vol. xi. 

58 Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 

VI. — Poissons de Vile de Cuba. Espkces nouvelles dccrites 

Par Felipe Poet. 

Membre correspondant du Lycde d' Hist. Nat. de New Tori:. 
Pr6sente le 5 Octobre, 1874. 

Chilodipterus afflnis. 

Le genre Chilodipterus appartient a la famille cles Amidce, 
dont le type est le genre Araia de Gronovius (Apogon Lac6- 
pede). II se distingue des autres genres de cette famille par 
de longs crochets pointus qui se melent au fiu velours de 
leurs rnackoires. Le Dr. Gunther n'en decrit que cinq 
especes, toutes des Iudes Orientales, de la Mer Rouge ou de 
I'Ocean Pacifique. 

L'espece que je clecris a ete trouvee par moi une seule fois a la Havane, 
en trois exemplaires, dont le plus grand est long de quatre-vingt milli- 
metres. Sa hauteur entre quatre fois et deux tiers dans la longueur totale ; 
Toed est trois fois dans la longueur de la tete. La bouehe est tres fendue 
et oblique; le maxillaire echancre posterieurement, unit a l'aplomb du 
centre de la pupille. L'opercule a deux epines plates, et une strie qui 
aboutit a 1'epine inlerieure, au-dela de laquelle se prolonge le lobe sous- 
operculaire ; le preopercule est dentele, et porte un rebord ayant a son 
angle deux petites pointes a. peine discernibles. On sent une epine sur la 
region mastoidienne du crane. Les machoires out les dents en velours, 
et portent sur le devant quelques canines : la machoire inferieure a de plus 
sur les cotes quatre lohgues caniues. 

D. 6 + 1, 9; A. 2, 9. La seconde dorsale et l'anale sont opposees ; le 
deuxieme rayon de la premiere et le troisieme de la seconde, sont de dou- 
ble hauteur que le dernier; repine ventrale est forte. La caudale est 
echancree. Les ecailles du dos sont cyclo'ides ; celles des flancs ont 
l'eventail et des cils tres-fins : il y en a aux joues. La couleur est rouge : 
il parait que le peritoine est argeute. La base de la caudale est noiratre. 
L'opercule est lisse et brillant. 

Num. 601 de mon Ichthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

Corvina subaequalis. 

Longueur totale 245 millimetres. 

La hauteur du corps, egale a la longueur de la tete ; est contenue trois 
fois et cinq sixiemes dans la longueur totale. La tete est grosse, ayant 

Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 59 

l'oeil contenu trois fois et un tiers dans sa longueur; le museau est court 
et arrondi. La bouche est mediocre, le maxillaire atteignant l'aplomb du 
bord anterieur de la pupille. Les deux machoires sont a-peu-pres d'egale 
longueur, corarae j'ai voulu le temoigner par le nora specifique. Les dents 
sont en fin velours, sauf un rang externe de dents plus longues, ggales, 
ecartees, plus reraarquables a la machoire superieure qu'a l'inferieure. Le 
museau moutre en dessous deux pores de chaque cote. Le preopercule est 
finement dentele ; l'opercule, entier. 

D. 10 + 1, 25; A. 2, 7. Les deux nageoires dorsales sont separees par 
un espace d'euviron cinq millimetres. Le premier rayon de la premiere 
dorsale est tres court; le second est robuste. Le bord posterieur de la 
caudale forme un angle saillant. Les ecailles sont assez grandes, meme 
celles des joues et de l'opercule : il y en a sur la base de l'anale. 

La couleur parait avoir ete plus ou moins argentee, ayant jauni dans 
l'eau de vie. Comparaison. — Le Diapterus Lefroyi des Bermudes, que M. 
G. Brown Goode a decrit dans le Amer. Journ. of Sc. and Arts, viii, Aug. 
1874, ressemble a mon espece sous plusieurs rapports, notamment par la 
forme allongee du coi'ps et les rayons epineux de l'anale, qui sont au 
nombre de deux, le premier tres-court, le second long et grele. La com- 
paraison qui suit mouti'e cependaut que l'espece est diflferente. Je mets 
entire parentheses les caracteres de celle de Cuba. 

L'origine de la dorsale est eloigned de l'extremite du museau, deux fois 
la longueur de sa base, ce qui doit s'entendre de la partie epineuse (uue 
fois et deux tiers), l'echancrure est profonde, ne laissant voir que la mem- 
brane connective, celle-ci a disparu, l'echancrure etant plus profonde; 
l'etendue de la partie molle cle la dorsale est plus grande que celle de la 
partie epineuse (les deux sont egales) ; l'anale commence en arriere du 
milieu du corps (tres en arriere) ; l'extremite de la pectorale est a l'aplomb 
de la derniere epine dorsale (de l'avaut derniere) ; l'axille de la pectorale 
et rextremit6 du museau sont brunatres (le tronc brachial est amplement 
noir, et le museau n'a pas de brun ; il y a du noir a la pointe de la dorsale 
epineuse, ce qui n'est pas indique par Mr. Goode). 

J'ai trouve ce poisson clans un de mes bocaux, conserve 
dans la liqueur, ne sachant pas precisemcnt d'ou il m'est 
venu, mais soupconuant qu'il m'a ete reniis de Cienfuegos, 
cote du Sud. Je l'ai envoye a Mr. Peters, Directeur du 
Musee de Berlin, et je n'en ai pas revu depuis uu autre exem- 

Num. 443, de mon Icbth} r ologie MS. de Cuba. 

Eueinostomus productus. 

Le Professeur Gill dans les Proceed, of the Acad, of 
Phila., 1862, p. 238, a considere le genre Eueinostomus de 

60 Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 

Baird et Girard, comme synouyme du Diapterus de Ranzani, 
qui a la priority ; mais il parait qu'il a plus tard abandonne ce 
dernier genre, a cause probablemcnt de quelqucs erreurs dans 
lesquelles est tombe l'auteur italien ; puisque dans son cata- 
logue de 1873 ilaccepte la denomination de Baird et Girard : 
je ne crams pas de m'egarer sur les pas de ce savant ichthy- 
ologiste. Cependant, l'espece que je decris a la dorsale telle- 
ment echancivc, que l'on pourrait tout aussi bien dire qu'il 
y a deux dorsales ; car la membrane du dernier rayon epineux 
touche, sans mouter le premier rayon mou. Le nom de 
Diapterus lui viendrait bien ; nom propose en 1841 dans les 
Novi Commentarii Academics Bononiensis, que je n'ai pas 
eu l'occasiou de consulter. 

Individu dficrit : 225 millimetres ; c'est une femelle. Le corps est oblong 
elegammant attenue vers les deux bouts; la ligue de la gorge et celle du 
front ont une egale courbure. La hauteur du poisson entre quatre fois 
dans la longueur totale, ainsi que la tete, qui coutient l'ceil trois fois, sans 
compter l'intermaxillaire. Un des caracteres les plus distinctifs de cette 
espece, c'est le diametre transversal du corps, qui est grand, surtout vers 
les deux tiers de sa hauteur, ou il mesure trente millimetres, sur cinquaute- 
cinq de haut. Les ouvertures nasales sout pctites et rapprochees, sans 
ressaut, la partie visible du maxillaire est triangulaire, ayant la hauteur 
deux fois aussi etendue que la base. Le preopercule et le sous-orbitaire 
sont entiers, comme l'exige le genre auquel le poisson appartient. Les 
dents sout en fin velours, plus visibles a la loupe sur la machoire inferieure. 

D. 9, 10; A. 2, 8. La dorsale est echaucree jusqu'a la ligue du dos ; la 
portion epineuse est aussi etendue que la portion molle, dont le dernier 
rayon repond au dernier de l'anale, pas tout a fait cependant, car il est en 
arriere environ deux millimetres. Les rayons epineux sont faibles, le pre- 
mier de la dorsale est tres-court, le deuxieme egale en longueur la moitie 
de la hauteur du corps, egalaut la distance qu'il y a entre le centre de la 
pupille et l'extremite posterieure de l'opercule. Je ne vois que deux rayons 
6pineux a l'anale : le premier est tres petit; le deuxieme est ties grele, et 
n'est en longueur que la moitie du second de la dorsale. La dorsale molle 
et l'anale ont sur le devant a-peu-pres le double de hauteur qu'en arriere. 
Caudale bifurquee, pectorale pointue, ventrale mediocre, un peu en arriere 
de la base des pectorales, et surmontee d'uu lobule ecailleux. 

Les ecailles des flancs, marquees au centre d'uu petit trait, sont plutot 
grandes que mediocres ; celles de la region caudale sont de moitie plus pe- 
tites. Je ne vois pas d'ecailles sur l'opercule, mais il yen a sur les pieces 
inferieures et sur les joues, aiusi que sur l'espace interorbitaire ; le museau 

Poissons de Vile tie Cuba. 61 

n'en a pas, et le maxillaire brille comrae de Pargent poli. Les uageoires 
verticales n'ontpasd'ecailles, mais leur base se loge dans un vepli ecailleux. 
Le dos est bleuatreet brillant, le ventre est d'nn bleu tres pale ; lesflancs 
sont verdatres, ainsi que les nageoires impaires; lesautres nageoires sont 
jauuatres. II y a sur la base des pectorales, un caractere important ; c'est 
une tache noire qui fait reconnaitre l'espece au premier coup d'ceil ; de plus 
la pointe anterieure de la dorsale est noiratre, comrae cbez quelques autres 
especes qu'on ne saurait confondre avec la presente. 

L'espece est rare : quelques-uns la noinuient Moharra de 
ley, nom qui appartieilt plutot a une autre espece plus com- 
muue. J'ai envoye le type ici decrit au Smithsonian Institu- 

Num. 382 de mon Ichthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

Mugil brasiliensis. pl. vii. 
vulgo Plateado. 

? Ourema Marcgravus, Hist. Bras., p. 181, 1648. 

Mugil brasiliensis Agassiz, iu Spix, Pise. Bras., p. 234, 
tab. 72, 1829. 

? Mugil incilis Hancock, in Lond. Quart. Journal Sc, 
1830 {fide Gthr.). 

? Mugil Gaimardianus Desmarest, Diet, class., tab. 109, 

9 Mugil Curema Valenciennes, in Cuv. et Val. Poiss., XI, 
p. 87, 1836. 

9 Mugil petrosus Valenciennes, loco citato, p. 89. 

9 M. Curema Gay, Hist. Chil. Zool., II, p. 259, 1848. 

? M. petrosus Gay, loco citato, p. 260. 

M. brasiliensis Giinther, Catal., Ill, p. 431, 1861. 

M. Gaimardinus Poey, Synopsis, p. 388, 1868. 

Les esp'ces de ce genre sont tres difficiles a distinguer ; 
parceque les auteurs out ordinairement omis les caracteres 
essentiels que le Dr. Giinther signale daus son catalogue 
des poissons du Musee Britannique, tome 2, p. 412, a l'aide 
desquels il a pu rendre compte de soixante-six: especes de- 
er ites dans ce grand ouvrage. 

Nous avous a Cuba deux especes bien communes : la plus 

62 Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 

graude, nominee par moi Mugil Lebranchas, ayant la seconde 
dorsale et l'anale depourvues d'ecailles, l'autre, que je rap- 
porte au M. brasiUensis, nonirne a la Havane Plateado, pour 
le distinguer de la Liza commune. Les pecheurs ne connais- 
sent que ces deux especes ; mais parmi les individus a na- 
geoires ecailleuses, il y a des differences qu'im ceil attentif 
peut decouvrir, et qui suffisent pour ajouter deux autres 
especes a celles que Ton connait deja ; et c'est ce que je vais 
faire, en coinmenc.ant par donner les caracteres essentiels du 
brasiUensis, que je prends pour chef de file, comme point de 
comparaison, ayant soin d'omettre quelques details communs 
aux especes du genre Mugil. 

Individu decrit, 325 millimetres. II se distingue au premier coup d'oeil par 
un aplatissement sur les flancs ; car sa coupe verticale, sur uue hauteur de 
soixante-et-liuit mill, domie eu longueur trente-cleux mill, au premier tiers, 
et quarante-et-un au deuxieme. La hauteur du corps est contenue pres de 
cinq fois dans la longueur totale ; la tete y est cinq fois et un quart, et con- 
tient l'oeiltrois fois ettrois quarts, separe du bout du museau un peu moins 
de son diametre. Le profll du museau est mediocrement pointu. Le 
dessus de la tete et les tempes montrent plusieurs ecailles percees d'un 
trait longitudinal. Les narines sont eloignees l'une de l'autre ; la postS- 
rieure a egale distance cle l'antei'ieure et du bord de l'orbite ; l'anterieure 
peu eloignee de la levre superieure. II y a sur l'oeil un voile adipeux 
ouvert sur la pupille. Le preopercule forme un angle qui se rejette en 
arriere, ou il devient membraueux et transparent. 

La bouche n'estpas fendue jusqu'auxyeux :1a levre superieure est grosse, 
le maxillaire entierement cache sous le premier sous-orbitaire. La ma- 
choire inferieure, moins avancee que l'autre, porte une levre etroite. 

Les dents sont comme des fils, tres courtes et rapprochees, et presque 
imperceptibles a- la simple vue, environ soixante-et-cinq en haut, cent en 
bas, cle chaque cote. 

Le palais est lisse, ainsi que la langue, qui est arrieree, attachee a un 
frein eleve en toit, prolonge en avant et egalement lisse. Les branches 
de la machoire inferieure, vues en dessous, forment un angle de quatre- 
vingts degres. 

La ventrale s'attache sous les trois cinquiemes de la longueur cle la pec- 
toralc, qui entre pres cle sept fois dans la longueur totale, et s'eleve au- 
clessous cle la moitie du corps : la premiere dorsale commence au milieu 
du corps, sans compter tout le bord superieur de la caudale ; sa ligne 
d'aplomb est separee de la pointe de la pectorale un espace egal au tiers 
de cette derniere nageoire, et separee de la seconde dorsale autant que de 

Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 63 

la base superieure de la pectorale. La premiere epine dorsale egale en 
longueur la moitie de la Hauteur du corps au-dessous d'elle; ce qui fait 
plus de la moitie de la longueur de la tete. La seconde dorsale commence 
au dessus du premier tiers de l'anale, dont les rayons sont 3, 9. L'espace 
libre entre les deux nageoires du dos, depasse d'un cinquieme l'etendue 
de la prerniere. 

Les ecailles du tronc sont grandes, environ quarantesurune lignelongi- 
tudinale; marquees sur leur milieu d'un petit trait, sans distinction de la 
ligne laterale. La seconde dorsale et l'anale sont couvertes de petites 
Ecailles, tres serrees. 

Couleur argentee, ecailles miroitantes, dos verdatre; il y a des reflets 
rougeatres sur l'opercule : une bande pale de reflet parcourt les series 
longitudinales des ecailles. Les nageoires participeut de la couleur du 
corps : la pointe de la seconde dorsale et le devant de l'anale, ainsi que le 
bord posterieur de la caudale, sont noiratres. La taclie bleuatre de la 
base des pectorales est peu prononcee et variable. Iris orange. 

Observations sur la Synonymie. 

Valenciennes est le premier qui ait rapporte le Ourema de 
Marcgrave au M. brasiliensis d'Agassiz, auquel il a enleve iu- 
justement la priorite scientifique, retablie par le Dr. Giiuther. 
II n 'y a rien dans Marcgrave qui fasse croire que son Ourema 
appartienne au brasiliensis, plutot qu'au M. Liza, car le car- 
actere des nageoires ecailleuses n'y est pas: la taille qu'il 
doune, de deux pieds, le jette, au contraire, dans la synonymie 
du M. Liza. 

he Mug il brasiliensis, figure par Spix, ne peut avoir qu'une 
mediocre exactitude d'apres le jugement que Ton peut former 
sur l'ouvrage entier : c'est cependant celle qui se rapprocho 
le plus de l'espece de Cuba, ayant comme elle les nageoires 
ecailleuses, et a-peu-pres la meme position des nageoires 
paires ; l'ceil est trop petit. Reste a voir la langue. 

Le Mugil Gaimardianus deDesmarest est peut-etre anterieur 
au brasiliensis, m;iis on n'en est pas certain, car la date du 
Dictionnaire Classique est renfermee entre 1824 et 1830. II 
a etc re§u de Cuba ; et comme il se conserve au Jardin des 
Plantes, il est probable que Valenciennes, qui le cite a son 
Ourema, ait observe les ecailles des nageoires verticales ; 
mais je ne crois pas qu'il ait observe la langue. D'ailleurs, la 

64 Poissojis de Vile de Cuba. 

figure de Desmarest est plus inexacte que cclle de Spix, car 
la pointe de la pectorale est sous le premier tiers de la pre- 
miere dorsale ; ct les nageoires sont d'une couleur uniformc ; 
ce qui doit nuire a lapriorite. Voyez l'espece qui suit. 

Le Mugil Curema de Valenciennes n'est pas le meme, par 
le seul fait d'avoir la langue pliee en toit, a arete aigue, toute 
couverte de fortes apretes. EiU- il pris le frein pour la langue, 
encore est-il vrai qu'il se distingue de l'espece de Cuba par les 
apretes. Je l'ai laisse avec doute dans la Synonymie, parce- 
qu'il cite Agassiz et Desmarest, parcequ'il en a reou un 
exemplaire de Cuba, et parcequ'il pent avoir mal observe, 
ou confondu quelque autre individu. 

Le Mugil petrosus de Valenciennes, me semble, comme 
au Dr. Giinther, n'etre qu'une variete clu Curema du meme 
auteur. II en a recu de Cuba, du Bresil, de Surinam, et 
nous en voyons, dit-il, l'espece s'avancer vers le nord jusqu'a 
New York. Ce serait le meme que celui de Cuba, s'il eut 
clifFere du Curema par la langue; mais il n'en dit rien, tout 
en le comparant au Curema, et il laisse croire qu'il en a les 
apretes. II est douteux que les Muges du Chili nommes 
Curema et petrosus par Gay, soient bien determines : l'auteur 
copie assez visiblement les donnees de Valenciennes. 

Dans la description du Mugil brasiliensis, le Dr. Giinther 
dit que la ventrale s'insere au milieu de la distance qu'il y a 
entre la pectorale et la dorsale jpineuse : e'est ce qui se voit 

Histoire. Les plus grands que j'ai vus n'arrivent pas a 400 
millimetres de long. No. 52 de mon Ichthyologie MS. de 

Mugil Gainiardiamis. pl. viii, Figs. 1-3. 

Mugil Gaimardianus, Desmarest, Diet. Classique (1824- 

En suivant la description de l'espece qui precede je m'at- 
tacherai ici a donner principalcment les caracteres differen- 

Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 65 

Longueur totalc, 225 millimetres; contenant la hauteur cinq fois et un 
cinquieme, et la tete quatre et quatre cinquiemes. L'oail estcontenu trois 
fois et cleux tiers dans la longueur de la t&te, a trois quarts de son diametre 
du bout du museau, qui est arrondi. La bouche est fendue jusqu'a l'aplomb 
du bord orbitaire anterieure; la levrc inferieure renflee a son extre.nite, 
qui se cache entre trois tubercules du palais. Les dents de la machoire 
superieure sont ecartees, petites, un peu fortes ; cedes de la machoire 
inferieure sont tres liens, a peine discernibles. 

V.entrale attachee sous le milieu de la pectorale, qui entre six fois et un 
quart dans la longueur totalc : sa ligne d'aplomb n'est separee de la pointe 
de la pectorale, qu'uu espace egal a un dixieme de cette derniere nageoire. 
La premiere epine dorsale entre une fois et trois cinquiemes dans la hau- 
teur du corps au-dessous d'elle. L'espace libre qui separe les deux na- 
geoires du dos, egale l'etendue de la premiere. Je nc vois pas de trait en- 
fonce sur les ecailles des flancs. 

Couleur argentee, dos gris de plomb; une bandelette bruue parcourt les 
series longitudinales des ecailles. La base de la dorsale porte une tache 
noiratre bieu prononcee : les autres nageoires n'ont pas du noir. 11 y a 
des reflets dores sur l'opercule. 

Observations. — Le reproche que j'ai fait a Desraarest sur 
la position avancee de la premiere dorsale, lorsque j'ai compare 
sa figure a celle du M. brasiliensis, disparait ici et devient un 
caractere essentiel, coufirme par la ligne bruue qui parcourt 
les ecailles des flancs. J'ai done lieu de croire qu'il est bien 
cite par moi, comrne auteur de cette espece, qui est peut-etre 
celle du Dr. Giinther, decrite sous le nom de M. brasiliensis 
quoiqu'il y rapporte la figure de Spix, qu'il dit toutefois n'etre 
pas bonne. 

Comparaison. — On pent voir par la description qui precede, 
que leiVi". Gaimardianus diuvre principalement du brasiliensis, 
par un corps plus allonge, un museau plus court, la levre 
superieure moins grosse, l'inferieure inoins etroite, les dents 
plus fortes et ecartees ; la premiere dorsale presque sur la 
pointe de la pectorale et moins separee de la seconde. II y 
a encore quelques differences sur les couleurs. Je regrette de 
n'avoir pas observe la langue, Tangle de la machoire inferieure, 
les rayons de 1'anale. Les ecailles des nageoires verticales 
sont les memes. 

Histoire. — L'espece est tres rare, si Ton considere que je 

66 Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 

ne l'ai vue qu' une fois ; mais il est probable que je l'aie con- 
fondue au marche avec le M. brasiliensis. C'est le No. 529 
de mon Iehthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

Mugil trichodon. pl. vin, figs. 4-8. 

C'est toujours en suivant la description de mon chef de file, 
et en m'arretant sur les differences, que je vais decrire cette 
nouvelle espece a langue lisse et a nageoires verticales ecail- 

Longueur totale, 275 millimetres, contenant la hauteur da corps un 
peu plus de cinq fois et la tete uu peu moins. L'ceil est contenu quatre 
fois et un cinquieme dans la longueur de la tute, eloigne plus d'un diametre 
du bout du museau, qui est pointu. La levre superieure est mediocrement 
grosse ; le maxillaire est cache sous un sous-orbitaire dentele, ou du moins 
bien strie sur son bord : la levre inferieure est aplatie et etroite. 

Les dents sont longues de deux millimetres, comparativement ecartees, 
flexibles, courbees, environ quarante sur chaque machoire de chaque cote : 
elles paraisseut filiformes; mais, a la loupe, elles se montrent comprimees 
et elargies a leur extremite (fig. 7). Les branches de la machoire infe- 
rieure forment un angle de soixante-et-dix degres. 

La ventrale s'attache sur les cinq septiemes de la longueur de la pecto- 
rale. La premiere dorsale a sa ligne cl'aplomb separee de la poiute de 
la pectorale, un espace egal aux trois cinquiemes de cette nageoire, 
et plus pres de sa base que du commencement de la seconde dorsale. 
La premiere epine du dos n'est que la moitie de la longueur de la tete, 
quoique elle soit la moitie du corps au-dessous d'elle. Les rayons de l'a- 
nale sontcei'tainement 3, 8. L'espace libre entre les deux nageoires du dos 
depasse de moitie l'etendue de la premiere. Les ecailles sont grandes, 
trent-cinq sur une ligne longitudinale, marquees sur la base d'un petit 

Couleur gris deplomb brillant, ventre argente, nageoires d'un brun pale, 
sans autre tache noiratre : la tache des pectorales est presque nulle. II y 
a des reflets sur les cotes de la tete. 

Comvparaison. — II resemble plus au M. brasiliensis qu'au 
Gaimardianus. II est plus allonge, la region caudale bien 
comprimee, la tete plus longue, le museau plus pointu ; l'ceil 
est plus petit ; Tangle de la machoire plus aigu ; la premiere 
dorsale est plus separee de la poiute de la pectorale, et sur- 
tout du commencement de la seconde ; les stigmates secreteurs 

Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 67 

de la t§te sont plus petits, mais ce qui les distingue le 
niieux, ce sont les dents. 

Histoire. — II est rare : Je l'ai vu plus d'une fois. Num. 
611 de mon Ichthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

Neoeonger perlongus. pl. 9, figs. 3-4. 

Ce poisson se rapproche completenient des Congres par la 
position des narines, ayant l'ouverture posterieure haute et 
pres de l'ceil ; et il se rapproche des Ophisures par l'extreinite 
de la queue : ses nageoires tres basses le rangent dans le 
genre Neoconger de Girard. 

Longueur totale 320 millimetres (140+180). La tete est contenue un 
peu plus de cinq fois dans la premiere partie du corps, qui termine a l'anus. 
Le museau est pointu, la gorge reuflee; la bouche est fendue jusqu'a la 
quatrieme partie de la tete. L'ceil est grand, et finit un peu en avant de la 
commissure buccale, separe du boutdu museau un diametre ettrois quarts. 
La machoire inferieure est arrieree. II y a de chaque cote trois pores 
entre les deux ouvertures uasales, une autre plus bas, trois derriere l'ceil, 
deux a la machoire interieure. Les nombreux et fins rayons brauchiosteges 
se laissent voir sur la peau, a. la partie posterieure de la tete. 

On recommit a la loupe que les dents sont tres courtes mais robustes, 
un peu crochues et pointues, toutes de meme grandeur, et sur un rang; 
quelques-unes placfies sur le devant cles machoires, sont plus longues. 
Je ne puis pas bien distinguer les vomeriennes, mais sur le milieu du pla- 
teau nasal il y a un rang de dents courtes et robustes. 

Ce poisson est remarquable par le peu de hauteur du corps, laquelle, prise 
entre la pectorale et l'anus, entre soixante-et-douze fois dans la longueur 
totale. La dorsale et l'anale sont basses, environ le quart ou le ciuquieme 
de la hauteur du corps. La premiere commence un peu en arriere de la 
pointe de la pectorale, et finit sur la pointe meme de la queue, ainsi que 
l'anale. Couleur brun-violet, plus pale sous le ventre. La peau, vue sous 
la loupe, est poiutillee de noir. 

Histoire. — Je ne l'ai eu qu'une seule fois a Matanzas. 
C'est le num. 639, de mon Ichthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

Gymnothorax umbrosus. pl. ix, figs. 1-2. 

Longueur totale 660 millimetres, savoir 340+320, ce qui fait la queue 
plus courte que le reste du corps, dont la tete occupe le quart : celle-ci 
n'est pas grosse et n'a pas la nuque relevee. La hauteur du poisson est 

68 Poissons de Vile tie Cuba. 

contenue seize fois dans la longueur totale. La bouche est fendue jusqu'a 
la moitie de la tete. L'oeil est petit, fait mi sixieme de la bouche, et se 
trouve place un peu plus pres du bout du rauseau que de la commissure. 
L'ouverture posterieure nasale est haute, devant l'oeil, fendue longitudinale- 
ment; l'autre est tubuleuse et terminal e. Le long des machoires, il y a 
quatre pores en haut, trois en bas et deux entre les ouvertures des narines. 

La machoire super ieu re presente a l'cxtremite une rangee de petites 
dents, suivies en dedans d'autres plus longues et greles, taut au palais 
comme au plateau nasal : ces dernieres sont les plus longues. Les dents 
de la machoire inferieure sont sur un seul rang, plus uombreuses, plus 
serrees, toumees un peu en arriere, environ trente cle chaque cote; les six 
premieres plus longues et ecartees, faisant jeu avec celles d'en haut. Les 
dents vomeriennes sont sur uu seul rang. Les deux machoires sont d'egale 

La nageoire dorsale commence au-dessous de l'ouverture des ou'ies, elle 
augmente insensiblement cle hauteur jusqu'a l'anus, ou elle aun peu moius 
du tiers de la hauteur du corps au-dessous d'elle; cle la elle va en diminu- 
ant jusqu'a l'extremite de la queue, ou elle se reduit a presque rien, pour 
s'uuir a l'auale; celle-ci est d'un tiers moius haute que la dorsale, entrant 
pres de douze fois dans la hauteur du tronc. Deux lignes longitudinales, 
comme un pli, parcoureut la longueur cle la dorsale. Plusieurs plis se 
rendent de l'ouverture branchiale aux cotes de la bouche. 

Couleur brune, tirant un peu sur le rouge. Cette couleur forme de 
nombreuses marbrures sur uu fond plus pale, et de la couleur uniforme 
rougefitre du ventre; ces marbrures sont peu prononcees. Les nageoires 
sont aussi d'un fond rougeatre. 

C'est une femelle : les ceufs, tombes dans l'abdomen, sout ronds, d'un 
millimetre de diametre et tres blancs. Je l'ai envoye au Smithsonian In- 
stitution. No. 403 cle mon Ichthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

Gymnotliorax polygonius. pl x. 

Longueur totale, 722 millimetres (344+378). 

La tete est contenue plus cle trois fois et demie dans la longueur du 
tronc, la tete incluse : elle parait grossc a cause du renflement de la 
gorge; l'occiput est releve, le profil fait une ligue rentrante sur l'oeil. 
La machoire inferieure est un peu arrieree. La fente buccale est contenue 
deux fois et demie clans la longueur de la tete. L'oeil fait la cinquieme 
partie de cette ouverture, place plus pres de la commissure que de l'ex- 
tremite du museau. L'ouverture posterieure des narines est arrondie, 
l'ant6rieure porte un tube qui depasse le bout du museau. Le long des 
machoires on compte trois pores en haut, et trois en bas : entre les deux 
ouvertures anterieures, il y a deux pores. Les joues sont parcourues, 
depuis l'ouverture branchiale jusqu'a la bouche par sept lignes, ou plis 
paralleles : plus ces lignes sont inferieures, plus elles avancent. 

La machoire superieure est pourvue d'une serie externe de dents, envi- 

Poissons de Vile de Cuba. 69 

rou quinze, courtes, eeartees, tournees en arriere, presque egales au uasal 
et aux palatius : le plateau nasal a sur la ligne mediane deux dents plus 
longues. Les dents du vomer paraissent tire sur un seul rang. La ma- 
choire iuferieure porte une autre serie de dents toutes semblables, un 
peu plus courtes que celles de la machoire superieure: ces dents sont 
comprimees et aigues, assez rapprochees, au nombre de seize a vingt. 

La hauteur du tronc est contenue quinze fois et demie dans la longueur 
totale. La nageoire du dos commence aux deux tiers de la tote, d'abord 
basse, et peu apres haute, de maniere a entrer trois fois et demie dans la 
hauteur du corps : elle s'etend tres peu a l'extremite de la queue, ou elle 
se continue avec l'anale, qui est extrememeut basse, comme un relief, dont 
la hauteur n'est que la douzieme partie de celle de la dorsale, vers le milieu 
de la queue, ou un trente sixieme de la hauteur du tronc. 

La couleur est blanchatre, ou jaunatre pale; le tronc et la queue par- 
courus par des bandelettes d'un brun jaunatre, qui decrivent des pol}'gones 
incomplets, ordinairement des carres irreguliers dont les cotes out deux a 
quatre fois le diametre de l'ceil. Outre cela, toute la peau est couverte 
d'une marbrure hue, qui forme sur la tete des traits arrondis, comme j'en 
ai represents une partie sur la figure. Ces bandelettes s'etendent sur la 
nageoire superieure, qui est de la couleur du tronc. La peau est si grosse, 
qu'elle ne permet pas de compter les rayons. La nageoire anale a le bord 
tout blanc. Irisjauue. 

L'espece n'est pas commune. Je l'ai envoyee au Smithso- 
nian Institution. C'est le No. 602 de mon Ichthyologie MS. 
de Cuba. 

Chilomyeterus orbitosus. 

Famille des DiodontidL Longueur totale, 345 millimetres. 

Brun clair en dessus et sur les fiaucs, ou il se montre tout couvert de 
taches roudes, tracees par des lignes brunes circulaires qui se touchent 
sans se croiser, aussi grandes que la pupille, rehaussees souvent par le 
fond plus fonce des interstices. Le ventre a scs taches plus grandes et 
ovales, d'un orange ties vif tirant sur le vermilion, sur un fond bien noir 
des interstices. De plus il y a deux grandes taches paires, noires, bor- 
dees de clair, savoir : une au-dessus de la nageoire pectorale, une autre en 
arriere de cette meme nageoire. La base de la dorsale porte une baude 
noire. Nageoires orangees ; levres rougeatres, ainsi que le tube des narines. 
Iris jaunatre, avec un cercle rouge. 

Les epines sont fortes, courtes, affcrmies sur trois racines, au nombre 
a-peu-pres de quatre-vingt sur tout le corps, sans compter les petites du 
ventre. Le dessus de la tete preseute en avaut une de ces epines, deux 
plus en arriere ; deux au-dessus de l'ceil, une au-dessous, une en arriere. 
II y a trois tentacles pendants de la machoire inferieure, de chaque cote. 

70 Desolations of Two New Species of Birds. 

D. 12; P. 23; C. 8. La vessie natatoire est comme celle du Paradiodon 
hystrix; la rate est arrondie, de merae que la vesicule du fiel, laquelle est 

Variete : — On trouve de pins quelquefois unc tache grande, noire, arron- 
die, en arriere de la machoire iuferieure. 

L'espece est assez commune. C'est le No. 109 de mon 
Ichthyologie MS. de Cuba. 

VII. — Descriptions of Two JSfeiv Species of Birds of the 
Families Tanagridoe and Tyrannidce. 


Bead November 16, 1874. 

Phsenicothraupis cristata. 

Male. Upper plumage of a deep dull vinous color; the front, sides of 
the head, breast, and under tail coverts of a rather dull crimson ; the 
throat bright scarlet ; sides and lower part of abdomen dusky ; the crest, 
which is much elongated and recurved, is bright scarlet ; quills smoky- 
black with their outer margins the color of the back; tail feathers deep 
vinous red, the central ones and outer webs of the others brighter in 
color; bill black; tarsi and toes dark brown. 

Length about 8 in. ; wing 4 ; tail 3$ ; tarsi 1 ; bill | ; from base of bill 
to end of crest 1 9-16 inches. 

Habitat. New Granada, Bogota. 

Remarks. I found the single specimen described above, 
in a collection of birds from Bogota. 

It differs from all others of the genus in having a conspic- 
uous and well developed crest ; in its allies the crest is partly 
concealed. In general appearance otherwise, it is most like, 
and is of about the same size as P. fuscicauda ', but differs in 
the throat being of a deeper color than in that species, and 

Descriptions of Tivo JSFew Species of Birds. 71 

in having the sides of the head, the tail feathers and the outer 
margins of the quills dark red ; in P. fuscicauda these parts 
are dusky. 

Myiarehus flamnmlatus. 

Entire upper plumage of a light greenish-olive, the crown just per- 
ceptibly of a darker shade ; tail feathers of a rather light brown, the outer 
margins light rufous and the inner webs just edged with very pale salmon 
color; loral space and eyelids grayish-white; chin, throat, and upper 
part of breast grayish-white, the centres of the feathers on the upper part 
of the throat are very pale ash, but the lower part of the throat and the 
breast are marked with distinct light colored ashy flammulations, lower 
part of breast, abdomen and under tail coverts pale yellow ; thighs of a 
light rusty-brown, quill feathers of a darker brown than the tail, the pri- 
maries edged with very pale rufous, the secondaries margined with gray- 
ish white, and the tertiaries broadly edged with grayish-white ; the wing 
coverts end rather broadly with very pale rufous, forming three distinct 
bars across the wings ; under wing coverts pale yellow, inner margins of 
quills pale salmon color; bill dark brownish-black, with a whitish spot on 
the angle of the lower mandible; tarsi and toes brownish-black. 

Length 6 in. ; wing 2\ ; tail 2 I ; tarsi | ; bill |, width at base 7-16. 

Habitat. Mexico, "Tehuantepec, Cacoprieto." Type in 
the National Museum at Washington. Procured by Prof. 
F. Sumichrast in June, 1872 ; original number 1555. 

Remarks. Prof. Sumichrast thought it would prove to be 
a new species, and forwarded it to me for examination, but 
I did not receive the specimen until the summer of this year, 
the box containing it having been lost sight of for several 

Its dimensions are less than those of M. laivrencii, and 
the colors throughout are paler ; it also differs in having a 
whitish throat and flammulated markings on the breast ; these 
parts in M. laivrencii being of a clear bluish cinereous ; the 
lores and eyelids are grayish- white, in M. laivrencii they are 
brown like the crown ; the bill in the new species is much 

In reply to my inquiry for other facts concerning it, and 
its relationship to 31. laivrencii. Prof. Sumichrast wrote as 

72 Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 

follows : "I have two more specimens of the Myiarchus 
(No. 1555) in my possession (which I hope soon to send 
yon), and consider them distinct from M. lawrencii. These 
two specimens, like the one you have seen, have a grayith- 
white throat, and on the breast deeper longitudinal spots, 
although slightly marked, and the bill also broad. The 
physiognomy of these birds in life is sufficiently distinct 
from M. lawrencii, to enable me to distinguish them even at 
a distance ; the body of No. 1555 is in fact thicker and more 
robust. I have had occasion to kill a great many of the M. 
lawrencii, and I have always been able at first sight to re- 
cognize them as such, although perched at a great height. 
My immediate impression on seeing No. 1555 for the first 
time was that I had before me a new form. I have never 
seen in the M. lawrencii dark flammulations on the breast, 
which the three specimens of No. 1555 show, although but 
lightly marked." 

VIII. — Notes on Certain Terrestrial Molluslcs, with Descrip- 
tions of New Species. 

Read Oct. 5, 1S74. 

Oleacina flexuosa, Pfr. 

This was described in 1854 (Zool. Proc), from a speci- 
men in Cuming's cabinet, and subsequently 6gured in Nov. 
Conch., I, t. 2, f. 16-17, but the habitat was unknown. 

There is in the Swift cabinet* a very fine example, with 

* I have recently had the opportunity of examining the collection of my late 
esteemed friend, Mr. Robert Swift, before its delivery to the Philadelphia Academy, to 
which it has been presented by his daughter. 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollnsks. 73 

note that it was received from Aux Cayes, in November, 
1856, from Mr. Ross. Mr. Swift communicated this, and 
probably sent to Dr. Pfeiffer the imperfect shell referred to 
in Mon. VI, 278. 

The specimen in the Swift cabinet is long. 65, diam. 24 
mill., apert. 37 mill, long., infra medium 10 mill. lata. 

This is the only species in the West Indies nearly allied to 
the large Mexican forms. 

Macrocyclis euspira, Pfr. 

In the Swift cabinet I lately found young specimens, as 
well as adults, of this Venezuelean species, and from one of 
the former obtained the animal. W. G. Binney favors me 
with the following report on its dentition : — 

" The lingual membrane is indeed like that of Macrocyclis in its general 
type. It differs from our North American species only in having all the 
teeth purely aculeate, the usual form of marginals in the Vitrinince. It 
has no laterals, but the first teeth are of a transitional character, between 
laterals and marginals. This cannot be-considered a generic difference. 
Zonites Icevigatus has no true laterals, ana several species have not more 
than two. 

M. euspira has a true Glandina-like lingual, especially in the form of 
the central tooth, which is of a somewhat different character in the North 
American species of Macrocyclis. 

The presence of a jaw with smooth anterior surface and decided median 
projection to the cutting margin, in connection with the form and 
arrangement of the teeth and the absence of true laterals, warrant our 
placing euspira in Macrocyclis." 

v. Martens has this species in Ammonoceras, subgenus of 
Hyalina, with, among others, H. caduca, Pfr. of Mexico, 
which is doubtless a Zonites. 

Macrocyclis Baudoni, Petit. 

The jaw and dentition of this species were described 
(Amer. Jour. Conch., VII, 1871, and Annals, X, 1873), by 
W. G. Binney and myself, and we found it to be a Macro- 
February, 1875. 6 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

74 Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 

Macrocyclis concolor, Fer. 

This species, judging from its great similarity, if not 
identity, with M. Baudoni, is doubtless a Macrocyclis. 

Shattleworth (Diag. n. Moll. 1854) mentions, on the 
authority of Blauner, that M. concolor is viviparous. In the 
Swift cabinet a specimen is preserved, which he had alive, 
and from which he took five embryo shells. What the habit 
is in that respect of the North American species of Macro- 
cyclis has not been noticed. 

M. concolor and Baudoni are placed by v. Martens in 
Morchia (subgenus of Hyalina), which must now, however, 
be treated as a synonyme of Macrocyclis. 

M. laxata, Fer., is the type of that genus, but its denti- 
tion is, I believe, unknown. 

The geographical distribution of the species shows that 
Macrocyclis is esseutially an American genus. 

In the Pacific Province of the Northern Continent, four 
species are found ; M. Vancouverensis, sportella, Voyana and 
Duranti. In eastern Nortfh America, M. concava. H. pau- 
cispira, Poey, of Cuba, will, I think, prove to be a Macro- 
cyclis. M. concolor belongs to Puerto Rico, and Baudoni to 
Guadaloupe and Dominica ; M. euspira to Venezuela. 

Zonites Lansingi, nov. sp. 

T. imperforata, orbiculato-clepressa, fusco-cornea, superne laevigata, 
basi substriatula ; sutura iinpressa ; anfr. 5£ convexiusculi, ultiraus non 
descendens, ad peripberiara obsolete angulatus, subtus convexior, circa 
regionem umbilicarem excavatus ; apertura anguste lunaris ; peristo- 
mate acuto, margine dextro lamella obsolete serrata intus incrassato, colu- 
mellari vix reflexiusculo. 

Sbell imperforate, orbicular-depressed, shining, dark horn-colored, 
smooth above, at the base substriate ; suture impressed ; whorls 5i 
rather convex, the last not descending, obsoletely angular at the periph- 
ery, more convex at the base, excavated around the umbilical region; 
aperture narrow, lunate ; peristome acute, the right margin thickened 
within by an obsoletely denticulated lamella, columellar margin scarcely 

Diam. maj. vix 3, min. 2£ mill., alt. Is mill. 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 


Habitat. In damp moist places, among leaves. Astoria, 

Remarks. Two figures of the species are annexed. The 
aspect of the upper surface of the shell is very like that of 
Z. multidentatus, Binney. 

Fig 1. Zonites Lamingi. 

I am indebted to Mr. Henry Hemphill for this interesting 
little species, and dedicate it to my young friend, Mr. A. 
Ten Eyck Lansing of Burlington, New Jersey, a very prom- 
ising student, to whom Mr. W. G. Binney and myself are 
much indebted for assistance in our examination of the den- 
tition of terrestrial mollusks. 

One specimen of Z. Lansingi, appearing to have the ani- 
mal within it, was crushed between two glass slides, enabling 
Mr. Binney, without the use of potash, satisfactorily to ob- 
serve the jaw and teeth remaining uninjured in the tissues of 
the animal. I am indebted to him for the subjoined particulars. 

Fig. 2. 
Jaw (fig. 2, A) low, wide, slightly arcuate ; ends scarcely attenuated, 
blunt; cutting margin without median projection; anterior surface with 
fourteen, broad, unequal, crowded, flat ribs, slightly denticulating either 

76 Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollushs. 

The first impression given by the jaw is that it bears narrow, separated 
ribs, as in Bulimulus, Cylindrella, etc. A more careful study of it, however, 
shows the ribs to be very broad, crowded, flat, with narrow interstices 
between them. 

Lingual membrane with 17-1-17 teeth ; six laterals. Centrals (fig. 2, B) 
with the base of attachment longer than wide, the lower lateral angles 
expanded ; upper margin broadly reflected ; reflection very short, tricus- 
pid, side cusps decidedly developed, short, bearing distinct cutting 
points, median cusp long, slender, bulging at sides, reaching nearly to 
the lower edge of the base of attachment, beyond which projects slightly 
the distinct, long cutting point. Laterals like the centrals, but unsymmet- 
rical by the suppression of the inner, lower angle of the base of attach- 
ment, and inner side cusp and cutting point. Marginals (fig. 2, C) acule- 
ate, their base of attachment less sole-like than usual in Zonites, but more 
circular in outline. Fig. C shows these bases of attachment. Tig. D 
gives one marginal tooth in profile. 

This is the first known instance of a species with ribs on 
its jaw having aculeate marginal teeth ; or of a species fur- 
nished with a Zonites-like shell having decided ribs on its 
jaw. It will be difficult to find a place for the species under 
any description of genus or subfamily. The shell is that of 
Zonites, but that genus has a ribless jaw with median pro- 

Zonites Stearnsii, nov. sp.? 

With land shells from the west coast, kindly sent to me 
for examination by my friend Mr. Stearns, I lately noticed a 
single specimen of a form from Astoria, Oregon, allied to 
Z. Lansingi. It is larger, more elevated and more distinctly 
striated than that species, has seven whorls, with rather wider 
and more rounded aperture, but without the lamella within 
the outer margin of the peristome. 

The measurements are diam. maj., 4, min. 3£ mill., alt. 
2£ mill. 

Having before me a single specimen I am unwilling for- 
mally to describe the species, which for the present I desig- 
nate as Zonites Stearnsii. 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 11 

The accompanying figures of this and the preceding species 
were kindly drawn for me, on wood, by Mr. W. G. Binney. 

Fig. 3. Zonites Stearnsii. 

Zonites indentatus, Say. 

Pfeiffer, on the authority of Hjalmarson, mentions the 
occurrence of this species in St. Domingo. 

I have specimens collected by Dr. Cleve in Puerto Rico 
which are scarcely distinguishable from Z. indentatus, but 
the color is very much darker than of American shells. 

Hyalina Bermudensis, Pfr. 

This has been shown (Bland and Binney, Annals, X, 221) 
from the character of the lingual dentition, to belong to the 
Vitrinea, not to the Helicacea of v. Marten's arrangement. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. Matthew Jones for an opportunity 
of examining a remarkable sub-fossil form found in stalag- 
mitic conglomerate, in caverns at Tucker's Town, Bermuda. 

The living H. Bermudensis, as described by Pfeiffer (Zool. 
Proc, 1845), has seven whorls and in size is diam. maj. 23, 
min. 21 mill., alt. 12 mill. 

The extinct form differs from it in having nine whorls, the 
last more convex above, a less acute carina, umbilicus smaller, 
but especially in size. The measurements are diam. maj. 
37, min. 34 mill., alt. 19 mill. 

I propose the name of Hyalina JSFelsoni for the sub-fossil 
species, in honor of Lieut. Nelson, the author of valuable 
geological memoirs on the Bermuda and Bahama Islands. 

78 Notes on Certain Terrestrial MollusJcs. 

Although its contemporary and survivor, H. Bermudensis, is 
nearly allied to it, I cannot refer to them as being identical. 

The occurrence of this large extinct form in Bermuda is 
very interesting. It may surely be inferred that the species 
lived at a period when the area of the land was more exten- 
sive and elevated. The existing form, it should be mentioned, 
is also found sub-fossil. 

Wollaston (Variation of Species, 1856) remarks, with 
respect to some large extinct Madeira Helices, that they may 
have been but forms of the smaller living species, — "coex- 
istent with them, though more sensitive to the great diminu- 
tion of altitude and area which were consequent on the break- 
ing-up of a once continuous land." 

Sub-fossil are not unfrequently larger than living allied or 
identical forms. I have noticed that the sub-fossil Chond- 
rojtoma? basicarinatum and chordiferum of St. Croix are 
larger than their very near ally C. Santacruzense, now living 
on that Island. The extinct H. Josephince, found in St. 
Kitts, is considerably larger than the living forms of the 
neighboring Islands. St. Croix and St. Kitts, geologically 
speaking, are but fragments of larger areas. 

Some living species, however, vary very much in size : I 
may instance H. Luquillensis Shuttl. of Puerto Rico. The 
measurements given by Shuttle worth are diam. maj., 40; 
min. 32 mill. ; alt. 30 ad 33 mill. In the Swift cabinet 
there is a remarkably small specimen, diam. maj., 29 ; min. 
25 mill. ; alt. 18 mill. 

M. concolor, Fer., of the same Island is another instance. 
In the Swift Cabinet there is one, 5 J whorls, diam. maj. 25 ; 
min. 23 mill. ; alt. 9 mill. Adult specimens collected by 
Dr. Cleve, having 4£ whorls, are not more than half that 
size. Unfortunately, I have no note as to the stations of the 
different sized forms. 

Guesteria Powisiana, Pfr. 
M. Crosse (Jour, de Conch., 1872) described and figured 
Helix Powisiana, Pfr., placing it in the new genus Guesteria, 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 79 

of which it is the only known species. He remarks on its 
rarity and the absence of mention of it in my Catalogue of 
shells collected in New Grenada (Cont. to Conch., 1852). 

On a recent examination of shells, which my late valued 
friend Mr. Robert Swift had from me in 18.52, still preserved 
in his Cabinet, I identified a young specimen of Guesteria 
Powisiana, which I found in 1851 near Marmato, at an ele- 
vation of about 5,000 feet, on the Western Cordillera of the 
Andes. The shell had not been previously determined. 

Simp ulop sis dominicensis, Pfr. 

In the Swift Cabinet are two specimens, marked " Vitrina" 
found by Hjalmarson near Puerto Plata (Haiti), but which 
are I believe young shells of Sinipulopsis dominicensis. 
In Mai. Blatt. 1858, p. 146, Pfeiffer mentions a Vitrina from 
Haiti, on the authority of Hjalmarson, which was subse- 
quently found probably, to be what I have suggested. 

Helix bracteola, Fer. (Microphysa). 

M. Maze enumerates this in his Catalogue of Martinique 
species (Jour. Conch. April, 1874) and I am indebted to M. 
Crosse for a specimen of it. Looking at the description and 
figure by Deshayes (in Fer. Hist. I, p. 84, t. 86, f. 2), I do 
not doubt the determination, but believe that the species is 
the same as H. vortex, Pfr. 

Helix Sargenti, nov. sp. 

T. sub-perforata, globoso-depressa, oblique striata, tenuis, pallide cor- 
nea?; spira brevis, apice obtusa; anfr. 5, convexiusculi, ultimus antice 
descendens, ad peripheriam obsolete angulatus, basi subplanulatus ; aper- 
tura obliqua, lunato-rotundata ; perist. marginibus approximatis, dextro 
expansiusculo, columellari superne perdilatato, reflexo, perforationem 
fere tegente, basali introrsum lamellato-calloso. 

Shell subperforate, globose-depressed; obliquely striated, thin, pale 
horn-colored ? ; spire short, apex obtuse ; whorls 5, rather convex, the last 
descending at the aperture, obsoletely angular at the periphery, base sub- 
planulate ; aperture oblique, lunate-rounded ; peristome with the margins 

80 Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollushs. 

approximating, right margin somewhat expanded, columellar margin 
much dilated above, reflected, nearly covering the perforation, basal mar- 
gin with a lamelliform callus within. Diam. maj. 15 ; min. 13 mill. ; alt. 
8 mill. 

Habitat. Little Inagua, Bahamas. 

Remarks. This in general form is much like H. Duclosi- 
ana, Fer., but the interior projecting tooth is wantiug and the 
callus on the basal margin is more developed. 

The species belongs to the subgenus Plagioptycha, which 
is peculiarly characteristic of the Haitian fauna. I have else- 
where remarked (Annals X, 318) on the evidences of the 
former more intimate connection of Inagua and Turks Islands 
with Haiti. I name the species after Mr. Daniel Sargent of 
Inagua, to whom I am indebted for many interesting shells 
from the Bahamas. 

Helix marginella, Gmel. (Caracolns). 

In the Swift Cabinet there are specimens from Mayaguez, 
Puerto Rico, in which the dark band almost covers the upper 
whorls, leaving simply a narrow lighter colored margin next 
the sutures ; the dark band equally wide at the base. There 
is also an albino specimen, which was found in 1864, by the 
late Mr. Haagenson in a wood, on San Isidio Estate, near 
the city of San Juan. 

This species occurs in Vieque and Culabre as well as in 
Puerto Rico. 

Helix Gaskoini, Pfr. (Caracohts). 

M. Salle first collected this in St. Domingo. He noticed, I 
learn from him, many specimens, but all appearing dead and 
white, collected two only, one of which remains in his Cab- 
inet, the other in Cuming's. 

Professor Gabb found specimens during his explorations 
in St. Domingo, and one of them was given to me by Dr. 

JSFotes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 81 

Newcornb. It agrees entirely with Pfeiffer's description 
(Zool. Proc., 1851) and with Reeve's figure. 

Helix bizonalis, Desh. 

Several years ago Mr. Ferguson found on logwood brought 
to the Port of New York, two specimens of a shell allied in 
form to H. marginella, Gmel. of Puerto Rico ; with them were 
examples of H. crispata Fer., an indication that the logwood 
was from Haiti. One of the specimens is still in my posses- 
sion, the other in the Swift Cabinet. 

Dr. Newcomb collected one fresh example when crossing 
the eastern end of the Island ; the shell was sent to me for 
examination and found to be similar to that had from Mr. 

In 1872 I received another (dead) specimen from Mrs. 
Wm. Klatte, found near Port au Prince, with H. crispata. 

The Ferguson shell was compared in 1871, by Mr. Sow- 
erby, in the British Museum, and agreed with specimens 
there labelled IT. bizonalis, Desh. 

In 1873 my specimens were examined by Salle with the 
type of H. bizonalis in the collection of Deshayes, and pro- 
nounced identical with it. 

Deshayes (Fer. Hist. I, 68, N. 90) has, in the synonymy 
of the species, H. marginata, Var. Fer. Hist., t. 63, f. 11- 
12, which figures certainly agree with bizonalis. 

Deshayes does not give the habitat of bizonalis; in Chem. 
ed. 2, N. 956, the species is attributed, apparently on the 
authority of specimens in Cuming's Cabinet, to Manila, but 
undoubtedly it belongs to Haiti. Looking at the variability 
of H. Sagemon of Cuba, I am much inclined to consider 
that H. Gaskoini is a var. of bizonalis. 

The occurrence of the nearly allied forms of Sagemon in 
Cuba, bizonalis in Haiti, and marginella in Puerto Rico, is an 
interesting fact. The connection of the faunas of the two 
latter Islands is strikingly shown by the prevalence of forms 

82 Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollushs. 

closely related to II caracolla*, and H. Audebardi of Haiti 
has a near ally in H. Luquillensis of Puerto Rico. 

H. bizonalis is placed by v. Martens (Albers ed. 2) in the 
sub-genus Obba, probably with reference to the supposed 
habitat, "Luzon," while Sagemon and marginella are in 

Helix platystyla, Pfr. (Leptoloma). 

Pfeiffer described this species in the Zool. Proc, 1849, 
from a specimen, "expallescens" in Cuming's Cabinet. In 
Mon. Hel. HI, 175, the habitat doubtfully given is Moluccas ; 
it is placed next before H. conspersula, Pfr. and H. fusco- 
cincta, C. B. Ad. of Jamaica, to which it is very closely allied. 

An example from Jamaica in my Cabinet agrees closely 
with Pfeiffer's description and Reeve's figure (Conch. Icon. 
N. 487, t. 90). Similar specimens in the Chitty Collection, 
British Museum, are labelled H. fusco-cincta, var. H. con- 
spersula was described by Pfeiffer in 1845, the habitat un- 
known. In 1871 Mr. Sowerby informed me that a specimen 
in the British Museum is ascribed to India. 

H. platystyla belongs, I believe, to Jamaica as well as 
H. conspersula and fusco-cincta. 

Cylindrella gracilicollis, Fer. 

I am indebted to Mrs. Wm. Klatte for several specimens 
of this species, found in the vicinity of Port au Prince, Haiti. 
It has been erroneously attributed to St. Thomas. Judging 
from a very young individual it appears that the number of 
whorls in a perfect shell must be from twenty to twenty-two. 
The four upper whorls are smooth. 

On the axis there are two revolving laminae. I have not 
had an opportunity of examining the internal structure of 
many species from the Island of Haiti, but find two lamellae 

* IT. caracolla is found semi-fossil only in St. Croix, but Mr. Swift assured rne that I 
erroneously referred to H. marginella as occurring there in a similar condition (Annals 
VII, 357). 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 83 

on the axis of C. Sdlleana and Hjalmarsoni. It is curious 
that no species peculiar to Jamaica has a similar character of 

Macroceramus Swifti, nov. sp. 

T. imperforata, cylindraceo-turrita, confertim striata, punctis numero- 
sis et strigis obliquis fusco-corneis variegata; spira ovato-conica, apice 
obtusula, pallide cornea; anf. Hi vix convexiusculi, ultirnus rotundatus, 
infra medium obsolete fllo-carinatus ; apertura diagonalis, rotundato-luna- 
rio, perist. albido, expansiusculo, incrassato, margine dextro arcuato, 
columellari dilatato. 

Shell imperforate, cylindrically turreted, crowdedly seriated, variegated 
with oblique dark horn colored stripes and numerous spots ; spire ovate- 
conic, apex rather obtuse, pale horn-colored; whorls Hi scarcely convex, 
the last rounded, obsoletely carinated below the middle ; aperture diag- 
onal, roundly lunate ; peristome whitish, rather expanded, thickened, the 
right margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated. 

Long. 11, lat. 4 mill. ; ap. 3 mill, long, 2 lat. 

Habitat. Turks Island, also Inagua, Bahamas. 

Remarks. This species is allied to M. Hermanni, Pfr., of 
Haiti, but is less distinctly costulated, the suture not crenu- 
lated and has thicker peristome. 

I dedicate the species to the late Mr. Robert Swift, from 
whom I originally received specimens. 

Macroceramus Klatteanus, nov. sp. 

T. rimata, oblongo-turrita, solidula, oblique costulata, albida, strigis 
interruptis et maculis castaneis ornata; spira elongata, apice albido; 
sutura subcrenulata ; anfr. 10 convexiusculi, ultirnus rotundatus, basi ad 
aperturam compressus, infra peripheriam fascia 1 nigricante, interrupta, 
notatus ; apertura diagonalis, subcircularis ; perist. albo, obtuso, margin- 
ibus approximatis, dextro subarcuato, columellari subdilatato. 

Shell rimate, oblong-turreted, rather solid, obliquely ribbed, whitish 
with chestnut colored interrupted stripes and spots ; spire elongate, apex 
whitish ; suture subcrenulated ; whorls ten, rather convex, the last rounded, 
compressed at the base near the aperture, one interrupted dark band 
below the periphery ; aperture diagonal, subcircular ; perist. white, ob- 
tuse, with approximating margins, right margin subarcuate, columellar 
margin scarcely dilated. 

Long. 11, lat. 4 mill. ; ap. 3 mill, longa. 

84 JVbtes on Certain Terrestrial Mollushs. 

Habitat. Near Port au Prince, Haiti. 

Remarks. This is allied in form and ornamentation to 
M. tenuiplicatus , Pfr., but is much smaller, is costate, and 
differs from it in form of aperture. I received specimens of 
this and other interesting Haitian shells from Mrs. Wm. 
Klatte after whom I name this species. 

Bulimulus stramineus, Guilding (Drymaeus). 

Several years ago I sent to Dr. Pfeiffer a specimen from 
St. Vincent, which he described (Mon. VI, p. 44) under this 
name as an authentic example of Guilding's species, of which 
however it is probably a variety. I have since received from 
Governor Kawson extremely fine specimens more closely 
agreeing with Guilding's description. 

Pfeiffer (Mon. II, 203) gives the following description, 
"T. subdiaphana, straminea, transverse densissime striatula ; 
anfr. 6-7, apicalis ferrngineus (G.). On referring, however, 
to the Linn. Trans. XIV, p. 340, 1 find the description to be 
"Testa tenera, tota straminea, transverse obscuro-dense stri- 
ata ; anfr. sex." 

The most common form is of uniform bright yellow, some 
specimens have a purple apex and others several narrow red- 
dish-brown bands. One of my specimens measures : long. 
34, lat. 14; ap. 16 mill, long., 10£ lata. B. stramineus oc- 
curs also in the Island of Mustique one of the Grenadines. 

Bulimus stramineus, Kichard. 

In the Swift Cabinet there are shells under this name, re- 
ceived from M. Salle and said to be from St. Domingo. I 
can find no mention of, or reference to, such a species in the 

The largest specimen, which is scarcely adult, has 5£ whorls ; 
the two upper whorls have a pale yellowish tinge, the apex 
rather darker in color. It is very like and may be a variety 
of B. liliaceus, Fer. which occurs in Puerto Rico. 

Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 85 

Stenogyra Dominicensis, Pfr. (Pseudobalea) . 

This was described in 1850 by Pfeiffer as a Balea, but in 
1854 Shuttle worth (Diag. n. Moll. No. 6) referred it to Sten- 

Pfeiffer described it as Bulimus hasta in Malak. Bl. 1856. 

From a Cuban specimen, in the Cabinet of R. Swift, I ob- 
tained the animal and found it to be viviparous. From one 
I took five embryonic shells, of from two to three whorls. 

The jaw and lingual membrane were examined by W. G. 
Binney, who informs me that they exhibit the characters pre- 
vailing in Stenogyra, the jaw striate, without median projec- 
tion ; central lingual tooth small, laterals large, subquadrate, 
perfectly symmetrical in base of attachment and tricuspid. 

The jaw of S. decollata has the same fine stria?. 

Strophia calcarea, Pfr. 

Several dead specimens of this rather rare shell were col- 
lected by Mr. D. Sargent on Little Inagua. The habitat of 
the species has not hitherto been known. 

In a young shell (4 whorls), the umbilicus is 1^ mill, in 
diameter. The parietal tooth is shown in the figure in Chem. 
ed. 2, t. 19, fig. 4, but not referred to in Pfeiffer's descrip- 

Strophia iostoma, Pfr. 

From Mr. Sargent I have remarkably fine specimens of this 
species, from Turtle Cove, Great Inagua. The following 
are measurements of extreme forms : 

13 whorls, Long. 46 lat. in med. 14 mill. 
11£ " " 35 " 15 " 

11 " " 31 '« 10 " 

Choanopoma occidentale, Pfr. 

Pfeiffer refers this species (Malak. Bl. 1860, p. 216) to 
Martinique, but as M. Maze (1. c.) mentions, it does not, 
occur in that Island. 

86 Notes on Certain Terrestrial Mollushs. 

Dr. V. Rijgersma collected it several years since in the 
Island of St. Martin, and very kindly supplied ine with 

Helix ammonoceras, Pfeiffer. (Ammonoceras, Pfr.) 

I discovered this species in 1851, in New Grenada, and it 
was described, from a specimen in the Cumingian Collec- 
tion, by Pfeiffer in 1854 (Zool. Proc). 

During last year Governor Rawson sent to me, for deter- 
mination, a single shell from the Island of Grenada, W. I., 
which I found on comparison with a specimen of H. ammo- 
noceras, preserved in the Robt. Swift Cabinet, to be identical 
with it. 

Helix Hubbardi, A. D. Brown. (Strobila.) 

This was first found near Indianola, Calhoun Co., Texas, 
by Mr. E. W. Hubbard, and described by Brown in the 
Phila Proc. (Oct., 1861). It was subsequently discovered 
at Bellevue, in the Parish of St. Andrew, Island of Jamaica, 
and described (Jour, de Conch., Oct., 1871) by Mr. C. P. 
Gloyne, as H. Vendryesiana. 

In November, 1872, Dr. W. Newcomb found a few speci- 
mens on the trees in Bonaventure Cemetery, near Savannah, 
Georgia, and kindly sent to me a couple. 

1 have no doubt as to the identity of the Texas, Jamaica 
and Georgia shells. 

Gloyne mentions the parietal lamella only, but there are 
others as described by Brown. The species is in fact allied 
to H. labyrinthica, Say, and not to H. paludosa, to which 
group it is referred by Gloyne. 

The distribution of H. Hubbardi is certainly curious, but 
it may be observed that H. Strebeli, Pfr. , which is extremely 
like, if not identical with, labyrinthica, belongs to the Mexi- 
can fauna. 

JSfotes on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 87 

Helicina nemoralis, Guppy. 

This Trinidad species can scarcely be considered distinct 
from II Columbiana, Philippi of Venezuela. 

Auricula pellucens, Menke. 

In 1871 I received several dead specimens of this species 
of Auricula from Mr. Henry Prime. He informed me that 
he "found about a dozen, none with the animal, on Punta 
Rasa, a small island on the west coast of Florida, at the 
mouth of Calvasahachee River ; they were in one place only, 
at the edge of a mangrove swamp, in company with Melam- 
pus bidentatus and M. coniformis; the latter were in great 

Auricula pellucens is referred to Demerara and Ellobium 
Ceylanicum, H. & A. A., placed in its synonymy by Pfeif- 
fer, to Ceylon. I have one specimen from each of those 
localities, given to me by the late Mr. Swift, and they are 
certainly very like those from Florida. 

Pfeiffer gives the Antilles also, with doubt on the author- 
ity of Ferussac, as one of the habitats. 

I never heard of the collection of the species on the Flor- 
ida Coast by any one excepting Mr. Prime. Stimpson (Am. 
Naturalist, IV, 587) refers to the present tropical character 
of the shells of the west coast of Florida as being plainly 
due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. A. pellucens, 
whether now living or not on that coast, doubtless originally 
owed its introduction there to the agency mentioned by 

88 Four New Species of Birds from Costa Rica. 

IX. — Descriptions of Four New Species of Birds from 

Costa Rica. 

Read December 21, 1874. 

A third instalment of about six hundred specimens of 
birds was received quite recently at the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, from Prof. W. M. Gabb, in charge of the Talamanca 
Exploring Expedition, Costa Kica, and forwarded to me for 
examination. This collection was made by Mr. Juan Cooper, 
acting zoologist, Mr. Zeledon having retired from that posi- 
tion on account of failing health. 

The species described below I consider new to science ; 
they all seem to be rare, as the collection contains but a 
single example of each. 

1. Cyanocitta argentigula. 

Female The feathers of the front, lores, with those above and below 
the eye and of the chin are rigid, and of an intense black ; crown, hind 
neck, upper part of back, sides of the neck and the breast black, lower 
part of back and rump of a dull deep blackish-blue ; the abdomen, sides 
and under tail coverts are also dull deep blue, but brighter than the back, 
especially on the sides and under tail coverts ; on the front part of the 
crown is a cresceutic mark of bluish-white, which becomes narrower 
along each side of the crown, and extends over the ear coverts as far as 
the occiput; the feathers of the crown are elongated forming a short 
crest ; the throat is marked with a sharply defined patch of silvery gray- 
ish-white, with just a tinge of blue, and is in strong contrast with the 
black that surrounds it; this patch widens out a little at its lower extrem- 
ity, which is on the upper part of the breast; the wings and exposed por- 
tions of the quill feathers, are of a rich dark cobalt-blue, the inner webs 
and under surface of the quill feathers are glossy black ; the tail above is 
colored like the wings, underneath it is glossy black ; bill and feet black. 

Length 10% in. ; wing 4|; tail 5£; bill 1; tarsus 1 5-16. 

Habitat. Costa Eica, Talamanca. Type in National 

Remarks. This does not much resemble any other species ; 
in general coloring it is somewhat like C. omata, but the 

Four New Species of Birds from Costa Rica. 89 

black in the new species is more prevalent and the blue 
darker and brighter. C. nana and C. pumilo each have a 
narrow whitish band on the forepart of the crown, and ex- 
tending over the eyes, but uniformly narrow ; the former is 
described as having the throat bluish-white ; but in these 
species the black is confined to the front, sides of the head 
and throat, the blue color is much lighter and they are rather 

The new species is very handsome, and the peculiar mark- 
ings on the head and throat will at once distinguish it from 
all others. 

2. Stenopsis albicauda. 

Male. Crown and sides of the head blackish-brown finely freckled 
with bright rufous and gray, a grayish-white line extends from the bill 
over the eye ; throat and sides of the neck white, tinged with pale rufous ; 
there is a narrow band of pale rufous on the hind neck; upper plumage 
dark brown, the feathers crossed with narrow markings of light rufous ; 
two central tail feathers grayish-ash, marked with narrow waving lines of 
brown, and crossed with eight irregular blackish-brown bars ; the outer 
lateral feather is white, its outer web tinged with dull rufous almost to 
the end of the feather, and about midway of the web is a narrow brown 
stripe along the shaft half an inch in extent, the remaining feathei's are 
white on their inner webs, except at their ends, where with their outer 
webs they are blackish-brown ; the smaller wing coverts, secondaries and 
tertiaries are handsomely freckled with gray and rufous, and blotched 
with black and lighter rufous, the larger wing coverts are blackish-brown 
ending with pale rufous ; the feathers of the breast ai'e fuliginous at base, 
and crossed on the exposed portions with narrow bars of black and light 
rufous, the ends of the feathers whitish ; the abdomen is very pale rufous, 
sparingly barred on the sides with blackish, the marks on the middle of 
the abdomen are nearly obsolete ; the under tail coverts are clear light 
rufous and immaculate ; the quills are dark brown, the outer four prima- 
ries have a conspicuous white bar at about one-third their length from the 
end, on the first primary is a white spot on the inner web towards the 
base, the other quill feathers have their inner webs more or less marked 
with pale rufous spots ; under wing coverts dark brown mottled with ru- 
fous ; bill black; tarsi and toes pale brownish-yellow. 

Length 9 in. ; wing 5£ ; tail 4J ; tarsus |. 

Habitat. Costa Kica, Talamanca. Type in National 
February, 1875. 7' AKn. Ltc Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

90 Four New Species of Birds from Costa Rica. 

Remarks. In appearance this species resembles 8. cayenn- 
enstSy but the tail is longer with narrower feathers ; it wants 
the transverse black bar midway on the tail feathers as in S. 
cayennensis, and has the abdomen and under tail coverts 
more rufous than in that species. 

This appears to be the first occurrence of a member of 
this genus north of the Isthmus. 

3. Geotrygon ruflventris. 

Front and a line under the eye extending as far as the occiput, light 
salmon color; crown, hind neck, upper part of back, throat and upper 
part of breast, of a rather dull violet-purple, on the lower part of the 
breast merging into brownish-ash ; lower part of back, rump, and upper 
tail coverts of a dull bronzy olive-green; tail feathers brownish-black, 
the ends lighter or ashy-brown; abdomen, vent and sides dull brownish- 
rufous, on the middle of the abdomen is a patch of white feathers just 
tinged with rufous; under tail coverts dark brown largely ending with 
rufous; wing coverts, secondaries and tertiaries olive-brown, primaries 
brownish black, the shafts of a reddish or hazel-brown; under wing 
coverts and axillars deep cinnamon-red ; inner webs of primaries at base 
dull pale cinnamon ; bill black ; feet in the dried specimen of yellowish- 
flesh color. 

The sex is not given. 

Length about 9 in. ; wing 5| ; tail 34 ; bill from front |, from rictus 1 ; 
tarsus If. 

Habitat. Costa Rica, Talamanca. Type in National 

Remarks. The number of handsome species of this genus 
discovered in Central America within the last few years is 
quite remarkable, this making the sixth ; it is however much 
more sombre looking than most of its allies, the colors being 
darker and more subdued. It is so unlike all others of the 
genus that no comparisons are required. 

4. Porzana cinereiceps. 

Female. Upper part of head and cheeks bluish-cinereous, darker on the 
crown, but clearer and lighter on the cheeks ; neck before and behind, 
upper part of back and breast bright reddish-chestnut, paler on the throat 
and grayish near the chin ; back olivaceous-brown, on the rump and upper 

Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 91 

tail coverts dark brown ; quill feathers brown ; abdomen and under tail 
coverts crossed with alternate bars of black and white ; upper mandible 
brown, brighter on the culmen, under mandible yellowish ; tarsi and toes 
hazel brown. 

Length about 5£ in. ; wing 2| ; bill f ; tarsus 1|. 

Habitat. Costa Rica, Talamanca. Type in National 

Remarks. Compared with P. albigularis this species dif- 
fers in its ash colored head, more deeply colored chestnut 
breast and in not having a white throat ; above it resembles 
P. rubra but the head in that species is darker, below they 
are quite unlike, as the entire under plumage of P. rubra is 

X. — Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 

Read Jan. 7, 1875. 

Edema, Walk. 

Ocelli absent. Eyes naked, unlashed. The antennae of the female sim- 
ple. The palpi stout, finely clothed, exceeding the front; the first joint 
of the usual form ; the second long, flat, rectangular, and truncate at the 
extremity ; the third, in the Texan species hidden in the villosity of the 
second, in albifrons short and slight, but perceptible. 

The front rounded, but the frontal hairs converge forming an obtuse 
projection ; the villosity above the antennae elevated, forming a triangular 
projecting hood over the vertex. The collar circular, nearly flat, sur- 
rounded and limited above by the pterygodes, which are well defined, tri- 
angular, closely scaled and separated by the depressed dorsal portion of 
the thorax. 

The prothoracic tuft absent, the metathoracic tuft present although 
low and rounded. The abdomen smooth, heavy, cylindrical, truncate and 

All the tibiae unarmed and clothed with long thin hair. 

The anterior wings comparatively broad, with rectangular apices ; the 
posteriors rounded. 

92 Notes on North American Lepidqptera. 

' M. Guenee notices in the first volume of the "Species 
General" the great resemblance of E. albifrons to the higher 
genera of the Noctuidee, and the discovery of the species de- 
scribed below gives fresh force to his remarks. 

We would not be surprised if the genus should be ulti- 
mately referred to the neighborhood of Demas and Diloba. 

Edema albifrons, Sm. Abb. 

As this species is not uncommon in the Northern States it 
is known to almost every collector, and a specific description 
is unnecessary. 

Edema Packardii, nov. sp. 

Expanse 31 mm . Length of body 16 mm . The ground color of the an- 
terior wings gray, sprinkled with black atoms and with white, and faint 
brownish and ochreous stains ; the half-line and the interior line absent ; 
the orbicular spot present as a geminate blackish upright lunulate mark, 
preceded by a white stain; the reniform a similar, but simple and more 
distinct mark, surrounded by a faint ochreous annulus ; the median 
shade passes between the spots, it is thickened below the reniform form- 
ing a black spot, but is afterward lost; the exterior line is only present 
in the central part of the wings, it is "geminate, dentate and forms a 
particularly prominent indentation opposite the reniform spot; a con- 
trasting apical white shade, below which appears a diffuse blackish shade 
clearly cut above, and the black distinct subtermiual line formed of ob- 
lique marks between the nervules ; fringes long. Posterior wings uni- 
form dark fuscous, with lighter fringes. 

Beneath gray, with numerous black atoms ; the lines and discal dots are 

Habitat. Waco, Texas. March 9. (Belfrage.) 
We dedicate this interesting species to Dr. A. S. Packard, 
Jr.,. as an acknowledgment of the value of his exhaustive 
"Synopsis of the Bombycidse" as well as of his kindness to 
a younger naturalist. 

Family NOCTUID^. 

Acronycta brumosa, Guen. 

Acronycta Yerrilli, G. & R. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 178, 
PL 2, fig. 82. 

JSfotes on North American Lepidoptera. 9 3 

We are satisfied that Grote and Robinson's species is iden- 
tical with .A. brumosa. 

The depth of the color on the hind wings has been men- 
tioned as a sufficient character in separating the species ; but 
it is variable, as a large series in our collection will show. 

We have specimens from Canada (Prof. F. X. Belanger 
and Mr. George Norman), from Wisconsin (Prof. S. H. 
Peabody), from New York (Messrs. Fred. Tepper and E. L. 
Graef), from the Adirondack Mts. (Mr. F. C. Bowditch), 
from Mt. Washington, N. H., near the Half Way House (H. 
K. Morrison) and many from various localities in Massachu- 

The variation in marking and particularly in size is con- 

Acronycta pudorata, nov. sp. 

Expanse 34 mm . Length of body 16 mm . We have had a single speci- 
men of this species in our collection for a long time, but have hesitated 
to describe it, fearing that it was but a variety of A. tritona, Hubn. 

The discovery of other specimens of both sexes convinces us that 
it is distinct. Anterior wings above, bluish gray, with the lines and 
dashes as in A. tritona, the ordinary spots are distinct, concolorous and 
black encircled, in this respect differing from tritona. The posterior wings 
instead of yellow are pure white with a faint discal dot and median line, 
followed by a vague suffused terminal band. Beneath white, with conspic- 
uous discal dots and an angulate median line ; in tritona the ground color 
is yellowish with scarcely traces of the usual discal dots. 

Habitat. New York ; Canada. 

Specimens received from Messrs. Fred. Tepper and F. X. 

M. Guenee's description of A. tritona does not agree alto- 
gether with Hiibner's figure, and perhaps another species is 
described by him. 

Agrotis acclivis, nov. sp. 

Expanse 35 mm . Length of body 17 mm . Eyes naked. All the tibia? 
spinose. The antenna? of the male with fine short hairy clothing, black 
above, testaceous beneath. The thorax black above, having a low pro- 
thoracic tuft tipped with cinereous ; the pterygodes light, and concolor- 

$4 Motes on North American Lepidoptera. 

ous with the costal shade. Abdomen gray, conspicuously banded with 

The anterior wings with a broad costal carneous-gray shade extending 
over the middle and upper part of the basal space, filling the ordinary 
spots, narrowing and becoming extinct before the exterior line ; the re- 
mainder of the wings blackish gray, becoming lighter in the neighbor- 
hood of the irregular, jagged and diffuse subterminal line, which is close 
to the external margin thus narrowing the terminal space ; the interior 
line is lost above in the costal shade and below on the inner margin, it 
only appears in the middle of the wings and there has attached to it the 
small concolorous black edged claviform spot; the ordinary spots small, 
the space between them blackish, the orbicular elongate, nearly lost in the 
costal shade, the reniform followed by a distinct black streak which ex- 
tends to the exterior line ; the latter is black, simple, denticulate and not 
very distinct ; a series of black dots before the fringe, the latter is yel- 
lowish at the base, outwardly gray. Posterior wings whitish with a 
slight yellow tinge, having an indistinct discal dot and an indefinite subter- 
minal shade ; the costa and inner margin are gray ; the fringe ochreous. 
Beneath the anterior wings are blackish, the posteriors white with a 
gray costal border ; the fringes of both wings more or less yellow. 

Habitat. New York. 

(From the collection of Mr. Fred. Tepper). 

The distinctive characters of this Agrotis are found in the 
carneous-gray costal shade, the small spots, the distinct black 
dash following the reniform and the ochreous fringes. It 
is allied to A. annexa, Treits, but differs by the non-serrate 
antennae, the absence of the basal black dash, and the whitish 
posterior wings with ochreous fringes ; it also approaches 
more remotely A. venerabilis,W'd\k. and A. volubilis, Harvey. 

Agrotis montana, nov. sp. 

Expanse 30 Tam . Length of body, 12 mm . Eyes naked. All the tibiae 
spinose. The villosity of the palpi, front, collar and thorax coarse and 
thick ; the collar black, edged broadly with white ; the thorax and abdo- 
men blackish, the latter having the anal tufts yellowish. The ground 
color of the anterior wings dark gray, as in Anarta algida, Lef. ; the 
whole insect closely simulates Anarta. The anterior wings elongate, 
with the inner angle rounded ; the half-line thick, black and twice undu- 
late ; the basal space is more or less suffused with bluish gray, and contains 
a black orbicular basal dash ; the interior line very distinct, black, thick 
and perpendicular, preceded by a conspicuous bluish gray shade line ; to 

JVbtes on North American Lepidqpiera. 95 

it is attached the long blackish claviform ; orbicular spot round, whit- 
ish and contrasting; the reniforra whitish, upright, elliptical and closely 
approaching the exterior line ; the latter is black, distinct, non-dentate 
and but slightly bent beneath the cell ; beyond, the ground color becomes 
lighter; the subtermiual line is irregular, preceded by cuneiform mark- 
ings and by a blackish costal shade ; the fringe concolorous. The poste- 
rior wiugs are dark fuscous with white fringes and faint discal dots. 

Beneath whitish, without markings, except faint discal dots and suf- 
fused gray costal shades. 

Habitat. Mountains of Colorado, above 12,000 feet, July 
22 to Auo;. 12. 

One specimen in the possession of Dr. A. S. Packard, 
Jr., and another in our own collection. 

This abnormal species is extremely interesting on account 
of its resemblance to the boreal genus Anarta, three species 
of which are found in the same localities. Messrs. Bates 
and Wallace have discovered numerous cases of mimicry 
between the species of Heliconidoe and Pieridce inhabiting 
the tropical regions of South America ; and now we have in 
the alpine fauna of these mountains a parallel instance of 
close outward resemblance between species of two widely 
differing genera of moths. 

None of the northern Agrotids known to us, as scropulana, 
opipara, hyperborea, islandica, okakensis, approach in the 
least to Anarta. 

Adita chionanthi, Sm. Abb. 

We have received from our friend Mr. George Frazer, a 
female specimen of this rare and interesting species ; which 
has remained unknown since 1797. The antennas of the fe- 
male are simple with fine hairy clothing, and the ovipositor 
projects slightly beyond the abdomen. 

In his generic description Mr. Grote states that the tibiae 
are spinose ; this is apparently an error as the only spines 
present are the pair before the spurs on the middle tibiae 
and a single spine (there possibly may have been two) be- 

96 Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 

tween the two pair of spurs on the hind tibiae ; isolated 
spines sometimes occur in these positions in genera which 
do not have spinose tibiae, as has been noticed by European 

Mamestra adjuncta, Boiscl. (Miselia). 
Hadena adjuncta, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 108 (1873). 
This species, considering its strong generic characters, has 
suffered many changes of position ; described by Dr. Bois- 
duval under Miselia and thought by him to be a European 
species, it was shortly afterwards correctly referred by M. 
Guenee, in the "Species General," Vol. 5, p. 199, to the 
side of the well known Mamestra brassicce, Linn. Mr. 
Grote places it in Hadena; why, we do not know, as the 
eyes are distinctly hairy. 

Mamestra curta, nov. sp. 

Expanse 30 mm . Length of body 15 mm . Eyes hairy. Anterior tibiae 
unarmed. Collar, front and palpi as usual in this genus. A low protho- 
racic tuft. Abdomen smooth, yellowish and untufted, slightly exceeding 
the posterior wings. Anterior wings gray, with all the markings distinct 
and well defined ; interior line simple, removed further than usual from 
the base, strongly lobed between the nervules ; to the largest lobe the 
distinct, short and truncate claviform spot is attached ; orbicular spot large, 
black-ringed and concolorous, reuiform spot narrow and upright, crossed 
by the diffuse blackish median shade, below the spot the latter is lost in 
the ground color; exterior line of the normal form, black, distinct and 
dentate, followed by a narrow pale shade line; subterminal line very 
prominent, preceded by black shades which partially fill the subterminal 
space, becoming diffuse as they recede from the line, but near it are very 
intense and contrast with the light terminal space ; a series of black clots 
at the base of the fringe. Posterior wings yellow, with a discal dot, a 
narrow median line, and a broad blackish terminal border; the fringe is 
yellow and contrasting. Beneath, both wings are yellow, with discal dots 
and traces of median and terminal lines. 

Habitat. Colorado, July 20 and 22. 

This species can at once be separated from the other 
Mamestroz by the yellow posterior wings. It was collected 
by Mr. T. L. Mead. 

Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 97 

Mamestra promulsa, nov. sp. 

Expanse 35 mm . Length of body 15 mm . Eyes hairy. Palpi ochreous. 
Villosity of the front, thorax and collar coarse and rough. Abdomen 
smooth and untufted, covered with mixed gray and yellow scales ; in the 
female with a short, thick, projecting ovipositor. 

The wings are thinly scaled, nearly unicolorous, the ground color being 
olivaceous gray, overspread with numerous yellowish scales ; the median 
lines are blackish, diffuse, irregular and dentate; the subterminal line 
forming a series of blackish blotches, interrupted, and some times barely 
perceptible ; the orbicular spot obsolete, the reniform reduced to a blackish 
stain ; the median shade is seen at the costa and inner margin in diffuse 
spots ; a yellow line at the base of the concolorous fringe. Posterior 
wings colored like the primaries, with a more or less distinct discal dot. 
Beneath, yellowish gray, with black discal dots and a diffuse, thick, but 
angulate median line. 

Habitat. Colorado (Mr. T. L. Mead), July 20. 

We refer this interesting species to Mamestra provision- 
ally ; the two specimens we have were placed in papers, so 
that the thoracic tufts are much defaced ; we think that on 
the discovery of fresh specimens it will probably become the 
type of a new genus. 

Scopelosoma devia, Grote. 

Expanse 36 mm . Length of body 17 mm . The thorax is concolorous 
and provided with a sharp edged longitudinal crest behind the collar. 
The anterior wings have their apices rectangular; half-line present, 
whitish; the basal space brown, closely and evenly sprinkled with white 
atoms ; the interior line white, even, oblique, and concave, contrasting 
strongly with the deep brown of the central and outer portion of the 
wings ; the reniform spot is reduced to a fine white concave line, the or- 
bicular absent ; the exterior line is very fine, whitish, and broadly undu- 
lating, subparallel with the subterminal line which is also fine and clear; 
between these two ordinaiy lines there is another very distinct white 
concave line, parallel with the interior line and most distinct at the apex ; 
outwardly this line contrasts with the brown subterminal space, inwardly 
it is suffused, but finally lost in the brown ground color before the exte- 
rior line ; there is a sprinkling of whitish atoms towards the end of the 
terminal space ; at the base of the brown fringe there is a bicolorous un- 
dulate brown and white line, outwardly the fringe is narrowly edged with 
white. The posterior wings are uniform dark fuscous, the fringes light. 
Beneath, the anterior wings are gray, with an indistinct double exterior 

98 Notes on North American Lepidqptera. 

line ; the terminal space is brown having the apical portion suffused with 
whitish; the posterior wings are brown, thickly sprinkled with black 
atoms ; the usual discal dot is present as well as a broad undulate median 

Habitat. Brookline, Mass., Oct. 10. 

From the collection of the late Dr. C. A. Shurtleff, now 
in the possession of the Boston Society of Natural History. 

The style of marking in this species is very unique ; it 
can at once be distinguished by the brown ground color and 
the two distinct, concave, white parallel cross lines inwardly 
suffused, outwardly clear and contrasting. 

Plusia laticlavia, nov. sp. 

Expanse 32 mm . Length of body 16 mm . Habitus and markings of P. 
precationis, Guen., to which it is closely related. Ground color lighter 
than in the allied species, aurichalceous shaded with delicate pink as in P. 
purpurigera, Walk. 

The reniform spot, the usual metallic spots and the general pattern of 
the markings as in precationis ; it differs in the course and distinctness 
of the median lines, the interior line being oblique, perfectly straight, 
broad, and golden from the inner margin to the median nervure, and the 
exterior line even, simple undulate and strongly contrasting ; above pur- 
ple, near the inner margin becoming golden. Posterior wings dark gray. 
Beneath suffused with yellow, lighter than in precationis. 

Habitat. New York. July 10, 1872. 
Described from a single specimen in good condition re- 
ceived from Mr. Fred. Tepper. 

Plusia formosa, Grote. 

(Leptina formosa, Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. Vol. IV, p. 323). 

The description of " Leptina formosa " has always been of 
great interest to us, for evidently the species intended was 
not a true Leptina ; but its rarity has prevented us from de- 
ciding its proper place. A careful examination of the single 
specimen in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 
History convinces us that it is a Plusia, rather remotely al- 
lied to P. ampla, Walk. 

Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 99 

It may seem a wide leap from Leptina to Plusia, but nev- 
ertheless it appears to be a necessary one ; the naked lashed 
eyes, the form of the palpi, the unition at the base of the 
costal and subcostal nervures of the posterior wings, the con- 
spicuous saddle shaped metathoracic tuft, and particularly 
the style of ornamentation, admit of no doubt. 

The wings are rounded at the apices, thus differing from 
our American species, but we do not consider this character 
of more than specific value, particularly as the European 
concha and illustris show an approach to this form. 

Plusia Hochenwarthi, Hoch. 

P. alticola, Walk. Cat. Brit. Mus. Noct., p. 912. 

P. ignea, Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Vol. II, p. 274. 

P. alticola, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. II, p. 31. 

After comparing numerous specimens of the above species 
from Europe, Labrador, the White Mountains, N. H., and 
the mountains of Colorado (Dr. Carpenter), we agree with 
Mr. Strecker in uniting under one specific name the forms 
from these localities. 

The specimens from Colorado are larger and better marked 
than the others ; we do not see any other differences. 

Mr. Herman Strecker has kindly sent us a specimen of 
Plusia parilis, Htibn., so that we are able to verify Mos- 
chler's record of the species from Labrador. 

Calocampa, Steph. 
C. nupera, Lintn. 
C. curvimacula, Morr. 
C. cineritia, Grote. 
C. germana, Morr. 

In two recent papers Mr. Grote has made some remarks 
on this genus, which, as they do not seem to be founded on 
a careful study of its characters, require correction. 

100 JVbtes on North American Lepidoptera. 

In the first of these papers from the Bulletin of the Buf- 
falo Society of Natural Sciences, Vol. II, pp. 193-200, soli- 
daginis and germana are separated under Hiibner's genus 
Lithomia; we prefer to follow Lederer and all succeeding 
European Lepidopterists, and place these species in Calo- 
campa; they resemble strongly in ornamentation the typical 
species, and their only material structural difference is in the 
less arched, more rounded collar. 

In the second paper from the Proceedings of the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Natural Sciences, p. 210, 1874, Mr. Grote 
takes exception to our statement that nupera is the repre- 
sentative of the European vetusta, and considers it rather to 
resemble the allied species exoleta. 

After a reexamination of our material, consisting of six- 
teen specimens of exoleta and eight of vetusta from various 
parts of Europe, and five specimens of nupera and fifteen of 
mrvimacula from different localities in the Eastern and Mid- 
dle states, we not only feel prepared to state again that nu- 
pera is our representative of vetusta, but further that it is 
still a matter of doubt whether the forms are specifically 

If a series be examined it will be seen that every spot and 
line of vetusta is reproduced in nupera in exactly the same 
relative position ; the black basal dashes, the strongest dis- 
tinctive character, are found in the same place in both spe- 
cies, in the former brownish and nearly concolorous, in the 
latter accentuated and marked by black scales ; we now know 
of no other constant distinguishing character than this ; 
which is, as we have shown, merely a difference in intensity, 
not one of position. 

In regard to the statement that nupera is more closely al- 
lied to exoleta we remark in addition to what is said above, 
that the former differs mainly from the latter in tbe obsoles- 
cence of the orbicular spot, and the presence of a single in- 
tense black dash beyond the reniform, or in other words pre- 

Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 101 

cisely the same characters in which vetusta differs from the 
same species. 

Anarta membrosa, now sp. 

Expanse 33 mra . Length of body 15 mm . Eyes hairy. The antennse of 
the female simple. The hairy clothing of the palpi and front coarse and 
uneven. The collar is gray with a black terminal border, tipped with 
white. The thorax is clothed with mixed black and gray hair. The ab- 
domen smooth, except a slight low tufc on the first segment. The ground 
color of the anterior wings is dark gray; all the markings are black, and 
the lines are followed and the spots filled with clear bluish gray; the half- 
line thick, black and uneven, followed by a bluish gray shade which ex- 
tends to the apex, only interrupted by the black diffuse starting points of 
the lines; interior line black and distinct, strongly outwai'dly lobed be- 
tween the nervules ; at the usual place of the claviform spot a diffuse black- 
ish shade extends to the exterior line; the median shade is strongly 
marked on the costa, below much diffused, filling with black the space be- 
tween the ordinary spots, on the inferior portion of the wings it is nearly 
obsolete ; the usual spots are of nearly equal size, euclosed within black- 
ish interrupted annuli; the exterior line is fine, distinctly dentate be- 
tween the nervules and drawn in below the cell ; on the submedian fold it 
is thickened forming a blackish spot; the subterminal space is more 
clearly bluish, but there is a blackish blotch in its upper portion with 
which the usual three bluish ante-apical dots contrast; the subterminal 
line light and undulate forming two blunted Hadena-like teeth on the sec- 
ond and third median branches, it is followed and set off by black shades 
the most prominent of which are above the teeth ; the fringe distinctly 
chequered with black and white. 

Posterior wings dark gray with a faint discal dot and median line ; the 
fringes are black and white, but the colors are more mixed and not so 
well defined as on the anterior wings. 

Beneath dark gray, with discal dots and a very conspicuous undulating 
median line ; the fringe is also chequered. 

Habitat. White Mountains, N. H. 

From the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 

This species can be distinguished from others of the ge- 
nus by its large size and stout form, as well as the distinct 
spots filled with bluish gray, and the uniform dark gray pos- 
terior wings ; it is slightly larger than A. amissa from Green- 
land and quite different in appearance. 

102 Notes on North American Lepidqptera. 

Anarta melanopa, Thunb., is also found on Mt. Washington, 
and appears to be of common occurrence ; it is interesting to 
observe its successive broods ; it first emerges on the Ledge 
from June 15 to July 1, according to the season; as the 
summer gradually advances it comes out higher up, and from 
July 4 to 10 is found in perfect condition near the Summit, 
while below at this time none but worn and ragged females 
are to be seen. 

Eutricopis, nov. genus. 

Eyes naked. Ocelli pi'esent. Palpi comparatively stout, the joints 
hidden by long, coarse, uneven hair. Front very full, rounded; without 
a projecting knob or horizontal plate. Antenna? of the male simple; by 
the aid of an ordinary lens the segments are seen to be well separated 
from each other, and each provided with a short tooth. Thorax rounded, 
moderately stout. Abdomen reaching to the anal angle of the posterior 
wings, untufted. All the tibiae non-spinose, the anterior tibiae without 
the claws found in allied genera. The anterior wings short and trian- 
gular, with the angles well marked ; the nervures are very strong at their 
commencement, particularly the median and submedian; the posterior 
wings short and broad, having all the angles rounded. The thorax and 
head are clothed above and beneath with long, coarse hair. 

This well-marked little genus differs from others of the 
group, by the non-spinose tibise ; we consider it distantly 
allied to Omia and Hellolonche; to these genera it is related 
by the very hirsute head and body parts. 

Eutricopis nexilis, nov. sp. 

Expanse 18 mm . Length of body 8 mm . Ground color of the anterior 
wings dull olivaceous gray, with mingled pink scales, resembling that of 
H. modicella, Grote ; the median space is occupied by three white spots, 
the largest is quadrate, situated between the median and submedian nerv- 
ules, above and attached to this spot, another large spot occupying the 
place of the reniform ; in the ordinary place of the orbicular spot appears 
another small, partially obscured spot; beyond, smooth and unspotted, 
overlaid with pink scales, through which passes a broad, even, olivaceous, 
subterminal band ; fringe tipped with white. Posterior wings black, with 
white fringes, and two large, united, subquadrate discal white spots. 
Beneath, on the anterior wings, the white markings above are reproduced, 

Notes on North American, Lepidoptera. 103 

the ground color is black, but the entire costa is beautifully and broadly 
banded with pink; on the posterior wings the ground color is also black, 
but the white markings are larger than the above, the entire anterior half 
of the wings are pink, excepting the central white band. 

Habitat. Colorado, June 18. 

This beautiful species will at once be recoguized by its 
vivid colors beneath. From the numerous species of Heli- 
othis described by Mr. Grote from the same locality, it 
differs at once by the unarmed tibiae. 

Telesilla vesca, now sp. 

Expanse 23 mm . Length of body 10 mm . Eyes naked. The palpi and 
front as in T. cinereola. Thorax untufted, concolorous. Abdomen smooth, 
dark gray. The middle and posterior tibiae are terminated by a pencil 
like tuft in addition to the ordinary spurs. 

Different shades ol browu prevail over the anterior wings, melting 
gradually into one another; the basal space is chestnut-brown deepening 
into black-brown on the first part of the median space, the outer and up- 
per portions of the median space are cinereous-brown, beyond, the ter- 
minal and subtermiual spaces are dull gray-brown ; the ordinary lines are 
cinereous and the spots are encircled by aunuli of the same color; the 
half-line and the interior line indistinct; the exterior line distinct, even 
and preceded by a darker shade line ; it is followed by a series of black 
spots on the nervules ; subterminal line whitish, preceded by lighter brown 
shades; orbicular and reniform spots distinct, concolorous, the former 
rounded, the latter upright having the lower inner corner drawn in on the 
median nervure. 

The posterior wings are blackish gray. Beneath uniform dark gray ; 
both wings flecked with white atoms ; the posteriors with a discal dot 
and median line. 

Habitat. Texas ; Wisconsin. 

Smaller than cinereola, with the markings much the same 
but on a deeper and more diversified ground color. 

Eucalyptra, nov. genus. 

Eyes naked. The antennas in the male are clothed with fine, isolated, 
comparatively long hair. 

The first joint of the palpus is normally formed, the second and third 
are united together to form a long (3 mm .), thin, distinctly triangular 


104 Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 

piece, united to the first joint at its smallest angle, the side opposite this 
angle being about one millimetre in length. The front is rounded ; above 
and beyond the vertex the frontal villosity projects as a triangular tuft, 
directed towards and almost reaching the obtuse angle of the palpal 
piece. The thorax is weak, rounded and untufted; its clothing entirely 
scaly. The abdomen is slight aud closely scaled, exceeding the margin 
of the posterior wings. 

The legs are long, closely scaled, having the tibia? non spinose. The 
wings are elongate with all the angles rounded. 

This is a peculiar, slender-bodied genus allied to Amolita and Thauma- 
topsis, the characters drawn from the palpi, antennae and frontal villosity 
are very distinctive, and separate it at once from the genera mentioned 
above, as well as all others known to us. 

Eucalyptra bipuneta, nov. sp. 

Expanse 31 mra . Length of body 14 mm . Palpi black. The front and 
thorax whitish. The anterior wings are white, sprinkled with black at- 
oms, outwardly they are gray and the atoms are more numerous. The 
ornamentation is extremely simple, the two ordinary spots are reduced 
to black clots ; the median nervure is shaded with dark gray to the exte- 
rior line ; the latter is distinct, even, grayish-ochreous, regularly arcu- 
ate beyond the cell and then extending obliquely to the inner margin ; 
all other markings are obsolete. The abdomen and posterior wings are 
uniform light grayish fuscous, with an ochreous tinge. 

Beneath, the anterior wings are dark gray, with a distinct ochreous 
costal border ; the posteriors are lighter, grayish ochreous with a dark 
costal border. 

Habitat. Massachusetts. 
Taken at Belmont, Aug. 17, 1874. 

The slight form, the obsolete markings, and the triangular 
black palpi will serve to identify this species. 

Asphaltic Coal. 105 

XI. — On an Asphaltic Coal from the shale of the Huron 
River, Ohio, containing seams of Sulphate of Baryta. 


[With a Geological Note by Dr. J. S. Newberry.] 

Read January 11, 1S75. 

I have received from Chas. N. Smith, Esq., of Norwalk, 
Ohio, a specimen of coal found on the Huron River, below 
the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern R. R. crossing. It oc- 
curs in a bank of shale, about seven feet below the surface of 
the ground, and a few feet above the bed of the river. The 
specimens forwarded to me for examination were three and a 
half centimetres in thickness. According to my informant, 
the thickness of the seam at its outcrop, and for a distance 
back of three feet, averages about two inches. It then 
divides into two seams, which are separated by a thin stra- 
tum of shale. The remarkable and, as we believe, novel 
fact concerning these seams of coal, is that they are traversed 
by innumerable sheets of sulphate of baryta, which divide 
the coal into small irregular fragments. The coal itself has 
a brilliant lustre, resembling asphalt. The white mineral 
traversing it, consisted, in the specimen examined, of 88.61 
per cent, of sulphate of baryta, the remainder consisting of 
silica, alumina, and oxide of iron. By weathering, the sur- 
face of the sheets of white spar becomes stained yellow with 
ferric oxide. The causes which have operated to produce 
this deposition of barytes in the coal, whether by infiltration 
of meteoric waters percolating through overlying strata, or 
by some other agency, must be determined by an examina- 
tion of the local stratigraphy. 

Note by Dr. J. S. Neivberry. 

The mineral in question occurs in numerous localities in 

Ohio and Kentucky, filling narrow fissures in the Huron 

shale. This formation, which is the equivalent of the Por- 

May, 1875. 8 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

106 Asphaltic Coal. 

tage group of the New York geologists, contains throughout 
from 10 to 25 per cent, of carbonaceous matter, and is the 
source whence most of the oil is derived, both in Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio. These rocks are lower than any in which 
true coal has ever been found ; and this material, moreover, 
occurs not in beds like true coal, but in fissures and crevices 
intersecting the layers of the rock. The mineral examined 
by Prof. Leeds should therefore be regarded as an asphaltic 
coal, originally derived from the spontaneous distillation of 
petroleum, like the Albertite of New Brunswick and the 
Grahamite of West Virginia. 

The white scales which fill the cracks of this coal, as found 
in Huron and Lorain counties, in Ohio, have probably been 
derived from deep-seated sources, coming up, perhaps as 
chloride of barium, through the fissures which contain the 
asphaltic coal. 

The region where this mineral occurs is occupied exclu- 
sively by unchanged sedimentary rocks, Devonian and Upper 
Silurian. These contain, so far as known, no disseminated 
sulphate of baryta ; but the Water Lime group of the Upper 
Silurian, which lies some distance below the Huron shale, 
and comes to the surface a few miles west, on the Islands of 
Lake Erie, is much shattered, probably in connection with 
an uplift along the line of the Ohio anticlinal : and the cav- 
ities and crevices, once existing in this rock, are frequently 
filled with sulphate of strontia and sulphate of baryta, or 
with native sulphur. These minerals, occurring thus, should 
probably be regarded as deposits from thermal waters ; and 
it is quite possible that the fissures in the Huron shale, con- 
taining this asphaltic coal, have derived their sulphate of 
barvta from a similar source. 

On a New Species of Anarta, etc. 107 

XII. — On a Neiv Species of Anarta and on an allied Genus, 
with a note on the Genus Adita. 

Bv AUG. R. GROTE, A. M. 
Read March 8, 1875. 

Among a collection of Lcpidoptera made by Mr. Theo. L. 
Mead in Colorado Territory, are specimens of an nndescribed 
species of Anarta, which differs from all the American species 
known to me in its more lengthy villosity, in its colors and 
the greater proximity of the median lines on the primary 
wing. I describe it as follows : 

Anarta nivaria, n. s. 

$. The eyes are hairy. Fore wings, thorax and head purple gray. 
Median lines approximate, scalloped or dentate, blackish, obsoletely gem- 
inate, accompanied by light gray shades. The narrow median space is 
darkened by the passage of the broad diffuse blackish median shade. 
Ordinary spots inconspicuous, the orbicular pale ringed, a little oblique 
ovate; the reniform upright, narrowed, somewhat scroll-shaped, pale 
ringed with a darker centre. The sub-basal space more blackish than the 
basal and terminal spaces, the darker tint evenly spread and deepening to 
the subterminal line, which is continuously indicated by the contrast of 
color and of the usual irregular shape. Fringes not checkered, darker 
than the wing. Hind wings yellowish fuscous, with discal lunule and 
vague darker outer borders ; an indistinct sub-continuous dark terminal 
line; fringes pale, not checkered. Abdomen of the same hue, but a little 
darker' than hind wings. Body short, villose. Beneath, both win»-s 
light yellowish, with distinct lunules and traces of a common fuscous 

Expanse 28 mm. Two specimens varying in the distinctness of the 
markings on the primaries and numbered 21 and 22. 

There is also in Air. Mead's collection an interesting spec- 
imen which I have considered as belonging to the Ileliothidce, 
and as constituting the type of a distinct genus allied to 
Anarta. The legs are spinose, and thus it has a strono- fea- 
ture in common with Agrotis. The naked eyes are, however, 
encroached upon by the caputal tegument, somewhat sensi- 
bly narrowed, ovate, lashed. The shape and vestiture of 

108 On a New Sjiecies of Anarta, etc. 

the abdomen are as in Anarta. Its spinose legs are its only 
analogy with Agrotis. But it must be remembered that the 
spinose tibice are a prevalent feature in the group of genera 
allied to Heliothis, and to which Anarta belongs. The spe- 
cies seems to have been recently described as a species of 
Agrotis, b} r Mr. Morrison, who has regarded its characters 
as mimetic with Anarta, and its true relationship to be de- 
cided by the single character of its spinose tibire. The 
majority of the characters, however, ally the moth to Anarta, 
in my opinion, and we must also consider that genera with 
spinose tibias are scattered throughout the family, and that 
hitherto no attempt has been made to associate them on this 
single character. Mr. Morrison himself fails to remark any 
resemblances to Anarta in other species of Agrotis inhabit- 
ino - the same regions with Anarta.* Mr. Morrison com- 
pares the cases of mimicry between the Heliconidas and 
Pieridod discovered by Bates and Wallace, with the present 
instance. I think there is no parallel to be sustained. The 
cases of mimicry reported among the butterflies from South 
America affected their coloration. In the present case there 
are structural differences which make the parallel untenable. 
I think that Mr. Morrison has merely mistaken the essential 
characters of his Agrotis montana, and that in consequence 
his remarks will not well bear criticism. 

Agrotiphila, n. g. 

All the tibiae are spinose. The shape of the abdomen and habitus is as 
in Anarta. The eyes are naked, encroached upon by the caputal tegu- 
ment, ovate, narrowed, fringed with lashes. The thorax is thickly and 
coarsely haired, without tufts. The maxillae are stout. The antennae are 
simple, thickly ciliate beneath in the male. 

Agrotiphila montana. 

Agrotis montana Morr., Ann. Lye. N. H., Vol. XI, 94. 
My specimen, numbered 28, agrees very well with Mr. 

*Mr. Morrison applies the term "northern" to the species of Agrotis hitherto only- 
found in the White Mountains, such as scropulana, opipara, perhaps incorrectly. 

On a New Species of Anarta, etc. 109 

Morrison's description, except that the whitish orbicular is 
open superiorly, somewhat triangulate, and that the discal 
marks beneath and on the hind wings above are illegible. 
The ornamentation is like Anarta, with coarse lines above 
on the primaries, while beneath, both wings are pale, and 
here the concolorousness of both wings as to their ground 
color is characteristic of the group to which I conceive the 
insect belongs. 

Adita Grote (1874). 
I founded this genus upon the Phalama Chionanthi of 
Abbot and Smith, having rediscovered the species in a col- 
lection of Noctuidce sent me from Ithaca, N. Y., by Professor 
Comstock of Cornell University. It had not been men- 
tioned previously, and since its first description in 1797, by 
any other author, to my knowledge. In my generic diag- 
nosis, I gave as a character the spinose tibioe. Mr. Morrison 
recently speaks of my generic description in the present vol- 
ume of the Annals, p. 95, and says: "In his generic de- 
scription Mr. Grote states that the tibiee are spinose ; this is 
apparently an error, as the only spines present are the pair 
before the spines on the middle tibia? and a single spine 
(there possibly may have been two) between the two pairs 
of spurs on the hind tibioe." I have again examined my 
specimen of Adita chionanthi. The middle tibiae have eight 
spines arranged in irregular pairs, besides several other finer 
spinules massed on the joint. The hind tibia? have three 
spines, and in perfectly fresh specimens will probably show 
at least four. It has been noticed by European entomolo- 
gists that the spines on the legs in the JVoctuidce are, on occa- 
sion, accidentally absent. The fore tibia? appear to me now 
to show merely the terminal claw which I have compared to 
that of Oncocnemis. I conclude, therefore, that my original 
statement, as applied to the middle and hind tibia? of Adita, 
is correct. 

110 Morgan Expeditions. 

XIII. — Morgan Expeditions, 1870-71 : On the Devonian 

Trilobites and Mollusks of Erere, Province 

of Para, Brazil. 

Prof, of Geology in Cornell University, 



Assistant in the Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Read March 9, 1875. 

We have given in this paper descriptions of the trilobites 
and of all the species of mollusks, not including the brachio- 
pods, collected by the parties of the Morgan Expeditions, in 
1870 and '71, from the Devonian rocks of the plain around 
the little village of Erere. In the Bulletin of the Buffalo 
Society of Natural Science, for January, 1874, Vol. I, No. 
4, Prof. Hartt has described at length the geography and 
geology of the Erere-Monte-Alegre district, in which occur 
the fossiliferous Devonian beds forming the plain of Erere. 
These beds consist of thin horizontal layers of Avhite and 
reddish sandstones, iuterstratified more or less with shales. 
Both the sandstones and the shales contain at a few points au 
abundance of fossils, closely related to, and in some cases 
identical with, forms characteristic of the middle Devonian 
rocks of North America. The brachiopods, the most abund- 
ant fossils in the Erere Devonian, were described by Mr. 
Ktithbuu in the work above cited, in a paper immediately 
following that of Prof. Hartt. There then remained for de- 
scription the mollusks, including six forms of gasteropoda 
and eight of lamellibranchs, with a single form of Tentacu- 
Utes, two forms of trilobites of the genera Dalmania and 
Homalonotus, both probably new, and a number of obscure 
forms, many of which are entirely unrecognizable. 

The mollusks and trilobites in the Devonian at Erere are 
confined entirely to the sandstone, no traces of either having 

Morgan Expeditions. Ill 

been found in the shale, in which the only recognizable forms 
are the very abundant Discina and two species of Lingula, 
already described. 

By reference to the paper on the Brachiopoda of Erere, 
mentioned above, it will be seen that many of the forms 
there described are identical with species of the Devonian 
age, more especially the Hamilton group, of New York 
state, and that most of the remaining forms have closely 
related ones in these same deposits of North America. The 
close relation in horizon of the middle Devonian of New 
York and the formations of the plain of Erere was thus 
demonstrated. The study of the mollusks has greatly 
strengthened the proof of this relationship, for several of 
the forms of mollusks from Erere have proved identical with 
forms recently described from the Hamilton group of New 
York by Prof. Hall, and possibly others, now apparently 
distinct, may also turn out identical with more extended col- 
lections. All the genera represented, with a single excep- 
tion, are common to the Devonian elsewhere. We are under 
very many obligations to Prof. James Hall of Albany, N. Y., 
for identifying for us many of the following genera, some 
of which have been recently proposed by him. He also 
made a comparison of the species with the New York forms 
contained in his collection, and it was with his aid that we 
were enabled to unite the three forms, as hereinafter indi- 
cated. To Mr. R. P. Whitfield, of Albany, we are also 
much indebted for assistance in our work. 


Genus DALMANIA, Emmrich. 
Dalmania Paituna, sp. nov. 

Animal of medium size, sometimes quite large : test very tumid, and 
with the different lobes and segments sharply deflued. 

Buckler crescent-shaped ; greatest breadth about one and one-fourth 
the greatest length, and nearly twice the length of the glabella ; in front 
sub-acuminate or bluntly sub-angular, the mai'gins on either side diverg- 

112 Morgan Expeditions. 

ing at first at an angle of about 120°, and curving moderately and regularly ; 
posterior lateral angle on either side produced backward in an acute 
spine. On each side of the frontal lobe the margins sometimes form 
nearly straight lines. The entire margin forms a curve, nearly equal to 
half an ellipse, in which the relation between the two diameters is 
about as 2 to 3. A specimen rather below the medium size measures : 
greatest length, 14-5 mm ; greatest width, about 20 mm . A larger specimen 
has a length of about 21 mm . 

Glabella very prominent, slightly flattened on top, bounded by deep 
axal furrows, sub-pentagonal in outline, and rounded or sub-angular in 
front; widest just back of the middle of the frontal lobe, or at about 
one-third the length of the glabella from the front. Thence backward 
the glabella narrows regularly, the width at occipital furrow being a 
little more than half the length of the glabella. Frontal lobe rounded 
or sub-angular at front and sides and very convex, curving strongly 
downward toward the margins of the head, and sometimes obliquely 
flattened on either side in front. Its length equals about the united 
length of the four succeeding pairs of lobes, and a little more than two- 
thirds its own width. Frontal furrows wider than middle and basal 
furrows. Originating at a distance from the front equal to about one- 
third the length of the entire glabella, they run inward and backward 
at a strong angle, terminating near the middle of axis. They reach a 
little more than one-third across the glabella. Upper and middle lobes 
wider and more prominent than the basal lobe. Middle furrows situated 
at a distance from the front equal to about 3-5 the length of glabella, 
deep and rather narrow, perpendicular to axis, and extending inward 
quite as far as the frontal furrows. Basal furrows deep, curving a little 
forward, and reaching to about one-third the distance across glabella, 
or slightly farther than do the middle furrows. Basal lobes narrow 
and much less prominent than the other lobes. Occipital furrow deep, 
broad and rounded. Occipital ring broad, strongly arched vertically 
and sub-angular behind. The highest part of the glabella is situated 
at a point about between the middle furrows. On the median line, 
and slightly in advance of frontal furrows, is a minute, more or less 
distinct depression, usually more marked in the internal cast. 

Limb forming a blunt, rounded or sub-angular projection in front of 
glabella, but narrowing clown to a mere line before reaching the axal 
furrows. Cheeks very convex, with a strong convex slope toward the 
margins ; slope toward neck and axal furrows abrupt. The limb increases 
rather rapidly in size going backward from the axal furrows, being sep- 
arated from cheek lobe by a well defined, broad furrow. The occipital 
furrow is inclined slightly backward, and is deep and well defined, not 
being extended into the nuchal spine, which last is short, acuminate 
and not differentiated from cheek. Length of spine, measuring from 
angle formed by lateral and occipital furrows, equal to about half the 
length of glabella. Spines directed slightly outward. Posterior mar- 

Morgan Expeditions. 113 

ginal fold strongly convex and of moderate width. Eyes large and 
very prominent, situated exactly opposite outer extremities of anterior 
ami median lobes. In none of the specimens in the collection are they 
sufficiently well preserved to allow of detailed description. 

A Hypostome, probably of this species, is sub-quadrate in form and 
strongly convex.* The front margin is strongly arched and slightly sub- 
angular. On each side it is produced in a short acuminate spine, ex- 
tending directly outward. The sides are nearly straight and incline 
slightly toward one another in going backward. The body of the hy- 
postome is very convex and abruptly separated from a flattened margin. 
The outline of the convex portion forms a very regular curve as follows : 
beginning at the anterior lateral angles it runs obliquely backward and 
inward, the flattened margin widening gradually; posteriorly with a 
regular arch it extends apparently nearly to the margin. The whole 
hypostome is strongly arched, transversely and vertically. The abrupt 
margin of central portion iucreases in height going backward. This 
specimen measures 7 mm in length and about 10 mm in greatest width. A 
fragment of a larger specimen of hypostome, having a length of 21 mm , 
was also obtained from the same bed as the above, and, although dif- 
fering from it somewhat in appearance, may belong to an older specimen 
of the same species. 

Pygidium triangular, with curved sides, and very convex. Axis nar- 
row, prominent, regularly rounded from side to side, and extending 
about 3-4 length of shield ; width in front apparently equal to 1-3 width of 
shield. It decreases slightly in width and gradually in height posteriorly, 
where it ends abruptly, the extremity being rounded and convex; width 
in front about one and one-half to two times the width behind. In one 
large specimen the axis shows 14 rings, the anterior of which, in the 
internal mould, are prominent, rounded, and separated by furrows of 
rather greater width; but they become very small and indistinct pos- 
teriorly, the last three or four being crowded together. In none of the 
specimens collected is the articular ring preserved, but several of these 
show 11 to 13 rings. Lateral lobes convex, but generally of much less 
elevatiou than the axis ; margin slightly flattened. Furrows deep and 
extending to the margin in all but the last four or Ave rings. The segments 
are rounded near the axis, but are flattened and much broader toward 
the margin. The anterior one is nearly at right angles with the axis, 
but they become more strongly inclined posteriorly. On the first seg- 
ments the sutures are faint and on the posterior ones not observable. 
The margin is denticulate, the terminations of each segment being ap- 
parently blunt and obliquely rounded or augular. Posterior part of 
pygidium, behind axis, highly inclined, rounded and smooth; posterior 
margin concave, arched and slightly turned up along the edge. A spec- 
imen of medium size measures in length, about 15 mm , in width, 14 mm . A 
very large specimen has a length of 32 mm . 

A few detached segments, that may belong to the thorax, were found, 
but they are unsatisfactory for determination. 

114 Morgan Expeditions. 

The first distinguishing feature of this species lies in the 
great prominence of the test, none of the forms, with which 
we have compared it, approaching it at all in convexity. 
This difference of character is supplemented by many others. 
From Dalmania Poothii, of the Hamilton group of New 
York, the only abundant form known in beds corresponding 
most nearly in age to the Erere Devonian, it differs, among 
other features, in the greater proportionate length of the 
middle of the head, in the more gradual backward nar- 
rowing of the glabella, and in the greater length of the 
frontal lobe, which is generally more angular in front in 
the latter form. 

This beautiful species occurs somewhat abundantly in the 
Devonian sandstone at Erere, associated with Spirifera Ped- 
roana, etc. The specific name is given in allusion to a 
mythical personage, after whom the Serra of Paitiina in 
the vicinity received its name. 

Genus HOMALONOTUS, Kcertig. 
Homalonotus Oiara, sp. uov. 

There was obtained from the Devonian sandstone at Erere, 
a single fragment of the head of a large trilobite, which be- 
longs to this genus. It is very distinct from any other form 
yet known, but too imperfect to admit of proper descrip- 
tion. It differs from Homalonotus Dehayi, Van., appar- 
ently, in the fact that the margins of the glabella are more 
concave than in the latter form, and the eyes are placed 
farther forward. We have ventured to rank it as a new 
species, naming it after the Tupi water maiden. Associated 
with the last species above described, Dalmania Pail una. 


Genus PLEUROTOMARIA, Defrance. 
Pleurotomaria Rochana, sp. nov. 

Shell quite small; outline, as seen in front and hincl view, a rhomboid, 
of which two opposing sides are about twice the length of the other two 

Morgan Expeditions. 115 

sides. Height less than the breadth; spire very depressed-conical; api- 
cal angle somewhat greater thau a right angle. Volutions about three 
in number, the last angular and carinate along the middle, with the upper 
surface flattened, or curving very slightly from the suture to the median 
carina. The upper surfaces of all the volutions, from the apex to the 
carina of last volution, lie in nearly the same plane and are separated by 
a shallow suture ; lower side of the body volution slightly more convex 
than the upper. Aperture and surface markings not preserved. This is 
a very small species of Pleurotomaria, one specimen measuring about 
8.5 mm in length, and 11 » im in breadth. 

Only a few specimens of this species have been obtained, 
and none of these are in a very perfect condition. Asso- 
ciated with JV'Uculites JVyssa, Streptorhynchus Agassizii, etc., 
in the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, Brazil. 

Named in honor of Tenente Rocha, commandant of the 
Marine Arsenal at Para, to whom the expedition of 1870 
was indebted for the fitting out of the steamer Jurupensem. 

Genus HOLOPEA, Hall. 

Holopea Furmaniana, sp. now 

Shell rather above the medium size, obliquely sub-conical in front view, 
with the length and breadth nearly equal. Volutions about three or four 
in number, very prominent and well rounded. They increase quite rapidly 
in size from the very small apex, the last one being ventricose and some- 
times slightly flattened on the top near the suture, which is rather deep 
and acute-angular. Aperture slightly oblique, oval in outline and a little 
reflected on the lower side. Surface, as determined by external moulds, 
smooth. One specimen of average size measures : length and breadth 
each, about 17 mm ; but many specimens are larger than this. 

All the specimens of this form, so far obtained, are in the 
condition of moulds of the interior and exterior. In the in- 
ternal mould there is a small umbilicus, probably due entirely 
to the removal of the columella. This form is easily recog- 
nized by its regular and well rounded volutions and low 
spire, the volutions commencing of very small size and in- 
creasing rapidly and regularly to the aperture. So far as we 
are aware the genus Holopea has not been recognized from 
the Devonian before : but the smooth exterior of this form 

116 Morgan Expeditions. 

precludes its being placed in the genus Pleurotomaria, to 
which it might seem to be related from the shape and appear- 
ance of the internal mould alone. 

Very abundant in the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. 
of Para, Brazil ; associated with Spirifera Pedroana, Nucu- 
lites JVyssa, etc. 

Dedicated to Mr. Furman of Para, a gentleman to whom 
both expeditions are deeply indebted. 

Genus PLATYCERAS, Conrad. 
Platyceras symmetricum. 

Platyceras symmetricum, Hall. 15lh. Aon. Hep. St. Cab., N. Y., 1862, p. 

Description of the Erere form : — Shell small, argonautiform in side 
view, very slightly elongated and somewhat laterally compressed. From 
the apex, which is minute and twisted very slightly to the right of the 
median line, the shell increases very rapidly in size, the ventral side of 
the body volution passing tangentically for a short distance beyond the 
last preceding volution. Volutions about one and one-half in number, 
the outer one, small and much compressed where it commences, but be- 
coming gradually less compressed and more fully rounded toward the 
aperture, enlarging rapidly at the same time. The aperture is oval in out- 
line, with the simstro-dextral diameter a little less than the dorso-ventral. 
The margin is apparently sinuous, but is defective in the specimen. Exte- 
rior surface of shell not preserved. Surface of internal mould of body 
volution not very irregular, somewhat rugose and traversed near the front 
by numerous, rather indistinct growth lines, which bear on each side a few 
deep, rounded flexures. To these flexures a few short, irregular, longitu- 
dinal undulations near the aperture appear to correspond. There is a 
slight prominence, probably the impression of the base of a spine, just on 
the left of the dorsal line, midway between the aperture and the beginning 
of the outer volution. Dimensions : greatest length from anterior mar- 
gin of aperture, 19 mm ; dorso-ventral diameter of aperture, 13.5 mm ; 
sinistro-dextral diameter of same, 12 mra . 

Only one specimen of Platyceras, the one described above, 
was obtained from Erere. It agrees with P. symmetricum 
of Hall, Hamilton group, N. Y., in being symmetrical and 
in havinsr the same number and character of volutions ; but 
it is much smaller than any specimen of P. symmetricum 
from the Hamilton group which we have seen, and more per- 

Morgan Expeditions. 117 

feet specimens, preserving the shell, may show it to be dis- 
tinct from that species. 

From the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, 
Brazil ; associated with Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

Genus BELLEROPHON, Montfort. 
Bellerophon Morganianus., sp. nov. 

Shell of small to medium size, subglobose, with the umbilical openings 
small but rather deep. Body volution generally somewhat broadly flat- 
tened along the back, sometimes moderately rounded and curving abruptly 
to the umbilicus. It iucreases rapidly iu size toward the aperture, where 
it expands quite abruptly, making the aperture large and apparently 
transversely sub-elliptical iu outline. Surface covered with minute, 
rounded, transverse, parallel, raised lines, which first curve slightly for- 
ward from an indistinct, median dorsal band, and then extend nearly 
directly to the edge of the umbilical openings. Of a nearly perfect speci- 
men of medium size, the greatest length from the outer edge of the aperture 
is about 17 mm ; sinistro-dextral diameter of aperture of same specimen, 
about 19 mra . 

This Brazilian species of Bellerophon appears tb be closely 
related to B. leda of Hall, Hamilton group, New York, and 
is of about the same size as that species. The body volu- 
tion of B. Morganianus is, however, generally larger where 
it commences than is the case in B. leda, and the revolving 
raised lines are entirely wanting in the former species. 

Obtained in great abundance from the Devonian sandstone 
of Erere, Prov. of Para, Brazil ; associated with Spirifera 
Pedroana, etc. 

Dedicated respectfully to Mr. Edwin B. Morgan, of 
Aurora, N. Y. 

Bellerophon Coutinhoamis, sp. nov. 

Shell rather small, subglobose, trilobed. The outer volution increases 
rapidly toward the aperture, and is divided into three longitudinal lobes, 
of which the middle or dorsal lobe is about two-thirds the width of the 
whorl itself, and is prominent, sharply defined at its margins and very 
regularly rounded. The lateral lobes curve regularly and quite abruptly 
from the dorsal lobe to the umbilical openings. Size of the most perfect 
specimen, which is not, however, the largest one obtained: greatest 
length from near the outer edge of the aperture, about 15 mm ; width of 
the outer volution near the aperture, nearly 15 mm . 

118 Morgan Expeditions. 

Although a number of specimens of this species of Bellero- 
p7ion were obtained from Erere, the aperture is not preserved 
in any of them, and the umbilical openings, if such existed, 
are covered up by the rock in every case. The specimens 
are all of internal moulds and the surface markings are not 
retained. B. Ooutinhoanus is very closely allied to B. 
trilobatus of Sow., Devonian of Europe, more especially to 
the variety tumidus, from which, however, it differs in hav- 
ing the dorsal lobe broader, less prominent, and more flat- 
tened along the top, with its margins more distinctly defined. 

From the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, 
Brazil ; associated with JVucidites Nyssa, etc. 

Respectfully dedicated to Dr. Silva de Coutinho, Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

Bellerophon Gilletianus, sp. nov. 

Shell very small, laterally compressed, somewhat lenticular in form and 
sub-circular in outline; umbilical openings of medium size, deep. The 
outer volution commences very small, somewhat compressed and more or 
less angular on the median dorsal line, and increases rapidly in prominence 
but quite gradually in width, becoming more and more strongly angular 
toward the aperture, where it is but slightly expanded. The summit of 
the mesial prominence is often well rounded, but sometimes acute, while 
on each side is generally a very shallow accompanying groove, growing 
more pronounced toward the aperture, and which gives to the shell near 
the mouth a somewhat trilobed appearance. 

The surface of the shell is marked by numerous, very fine, rounded, 
thread-like, concentric raised lines, which arch very strongly backward 
from the umbilici to the median dorsal line, where the corresponding 
ones on each side unite in a curve. Of the largest specimen obtained, 
the greatest diameter, which is from the outer margin of the aperture to 
the opposite side of the shell, is about 10 mm ; width of the body volution 
near the aperture, about 5 mm . Most of the specimens, however, are 
much smaller than this. 

B. rotiformis of De Kon., Europe, resembles the species 
just described in size and general appearance, but it is more 
lenticular in shape and the whorls increase more rapidly in 
size. The umbilical openings are also smaller and the slope 
toward them is much less abrupt. 

Morgan Expeditions. 119 

Moderately abundant in the Devonian sandstone of Erere, 
Prov. of Para, Brazil ; associated with Nuculites Nyssa, 
Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

Named after M. Leon Gillet, Prof. Hartt's able and oblig- 
ing asrent at Para. 


Genus NUCULITES, Conrad. 
Nuculites Nyssa. 

Nktculites Nyssa, Hall. Lamell. Shells of the U. Held., Ham. and Chem. 
Groups, etc., 1869. (Preparatory for the Palaeontology of N. Y.) 

Description of Erere specimens: — Shell of medium size, longitudinally 
sub-ovate or sub-triangular in outline, and of moderate convexity. Ante- 
rior margin well rounded and narrower than the posterior. The dorsal 
margin, curving slightly, extends obliquely backwards from the beak to 
the posterior extremity of the shell, a short distance above the termina- 
tion of the median antero-posterior diameter. The ventral margin is mod- 
erately rounded and, together with the anterior and posterior margins, 
forms an elliptical curve. Beaks about one-fourth the length from the 
anterior extremity, with the apices acute and strongly incurved to the 
hinge line. Valves most convex at a point just above and anterior to the 
middle. The surface arches rapidly and more or less regularly from 
the ventral margin to the beak, but is generally a little more strongly 
curved in the umbonal region, and is broadly flattened, rounding suddenly 
to the dorsal margin. The slope toward the posterior margin is convex 
and more abrupt than toward the ventral margin ; toward the anterior 
margin it is still more abrupt, becoming gradually concave near the beaks. 
The septum, curving very slightly, and with its concave side forward, 
extends down nearly two-thirds the shell height, cutting the antero-poste- 
rior diameter at about one-fourth its length from the front. Surface 
smooth or marked with a few indistinct lines of growth. Length, 21 mm ; 
height, 17 mm ; depth of single valve, 5 mm . Specimens of larger size are 

This species of Nuculites, which is the most common 
lamellibrauch at Erere, proves to be identical with JV. Nyssa 
of Hall, found in the Hamilton group, New York. 

We are indebted to Prof. Hall for the identification of the 
forms from the two places. 

120 Morgan Expeditions. 

Abundant in the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of 
Para, Brazil, with /Spin/era Pedroana, /Streptorhynchus 
Agassizii, etc. 

Nueulites Ererensis, sp. nov. 

Shell small, elongate, nearly twice as long as high, sub-elliptical in 
outline, the margins forming quite a regular elliptical curve, broken by 
the slight upward extension of the beaks. Dorsal margin oblique and 
nearly straight. Beaks situated about one-third the length from the 
anterior margin, small, only slightly incurved, and apparently not reach- 
ing to the hinge line. The convexity of the valves is moderate, being 
greatest just below the umbonal region. The septum extends downwards 
for about three-fifths the height of the valves, and intersects the antero- 
posterior diameter at a little less than one-third its length from the front. 
Length, 13 mm ; height, 8 mm ; depth of single valve, nearly 3 mm . 

This species of Nuculites is readily distinguished from 
the last one above described, JST. JVi/ssa of Hall, by its 
elongate form and nearly elliptical outline, and by the 
absence of any flattening along the middle. Only two 
specimens have yet been obtained. These are both inter- 
nal moulds of the left valve, and the surface markings are 
not preserved upon them. 

Found, with Spirifera Pedroana, etc., in the Devonian 
sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, Brazil. 

Genus GRAMMYSIA, De Verneuil. 
Grammysia (Pholadella?) parallela. 

Grammysia parallela, Hall. Lamell. Shells of the U. Held., Ham. and 
Chem. Groups, etc., 18G9. (Preparatory for the Palaeontology of N. Y.) 

Shell small, elongate, about two-thirds as high as long, with the greatest 
height at the beaks. Valves moderately convex, the surface arching 
strongly from the beaks to the ventral margin, but being rather more ab- 
ruptly curved in the upper portion. The beaks are situated at about one- 
fourth or one-fifth the length of the shell from the anterior extremity, and 
project but little above the hinge margin; they are small, rather strongly 
arcuate and turned somewhat abruptly forward, with the apices acute and 
contiguous. Dorsal margin straight and extending directly backward. 
The anterior margin extends obliquely forward in its upper half, forming 
at the beaks an angle of about 135° with the dorsal margin, and is slightly 

Morgan Expeditions. 121 

concave ; it rounds somewhat abruptly to the ventral margin below, which 
is moderately curved anteriorly, but becomes nearly straight and subpar- 
allel with the dorsal margin along the middle of the shell. Posteriorly 
the ventral margin appears to round up more or less strongly toward the 
dorsal margin, but in none of the specimens obtained, is the posterior ex- 
tremity of the shell perfectly preserved. From a line, extending obliquely 
across the valves, from just behind the beaks to the lower posterior ex- 
tremity of the shell, and forming an angle of about 30° with the dorsal 
margin, the surface curves moderately and quite regularly to the anterior 
margin, and is traversed by about 10 or 12 low, wide, rounded, concentric 
undulations, which decrease in size from the ventral margin toward the 
beaks, where they are quite small. The lower ones round up quite ab- 
ruptly in front, but are more gently curved along the middle. Posterior 
to the oblique line, above mentioned, the surface descends abruptly, and 
with a concave slope, to the hinge line and the posterior extremity, and is 
smooth in the moulds. Length, about 16 mm ; height, 10.5 mm ; depth of 
each valve, 3 mm . 

Prof. Hall has identified this Brazilian form with his Gram- 
my sia par allela of the Hamilton group, New York, he. cit. ; 
but he expresses a doubt as to whether the species is a true 
Grammysia, or belongs to his new genus Pholadella, pub- 
lished in 1869. 

Only a few specimens of this pretty form were obtained 
from the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, Bra- 
zil, associated with Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

Genus EDMONDIA, De Koninck. 

Edmondia Pondiana, sp. nov. 

Shell below the medium size, elongate, nearly two-thirds as high as 
long, sub-elliptical in outline and moderately ventricose, with the great- 
est convexity in the lower posterior part of the umbonal region. An- 
terior end much narrower than the posterior, well rounded and prominent, 
the margin uniting by a moderate curve with the ventral margin, which, 
along the middle one-half of the shell, is quite straight and nearly par- 
allel with the dorsal margin; posterior end strongly rounded, and appar- 
ently slightly truncate in its lower portion; dorsal margin straight 
and about one-half the length of the shell. Beaks situated at a little 
less than one-third the length from the front, broad, very prominent, 
and strongly incurved toward the hinge margin and the front, nearly or 
quite contiguous, and projecting a moderate distance above the hinge. 
The umbonal region is obliquely flattened, the flattened surface inclining 
anteriorly. This flattening, which commences on the beak, appears to 
May, 1875. 9 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

122 Morgan Expeditions. 

extend downward, and somewhat obliquely backward, across the valve; 
but it becomes less and less perceptible toward the ventral margin, 
toward which the slope, for nearly the whole height of the valve, near 
the middle, is only slightly curved ; toward the front, the slope is much 
stronger and it becomes concave in front of, and beneath, the beaks. 
Commencing at the anterior margin, the surface rises at a moderately 
strong angle for one-fifth the shell length, more or less, when, the 
angle of ascent becoming gradually less, it continues to rise with very 
little curvature toward an oblique line, extending across the valve from 
the posterior side of the beak to the lower posterior extremity of the 
shell. Along this line the valve rounds over toward the dorsal and 
posterior margins, quite gradually in the lower part, but more and more 
abruptly near the beak, the curve, from the point of greatest convexity 
of the valve toward the posterior end of the hinge margin, being abrupt 
and slightly sigmoidal. Exterior surface unknown. Length, 22 mm ; 
height, I4 mm ; convexity of single valve. 5.5 mm . 

This species is founded on a single specimen, a very per- 
fect internal mould of the left valve ; but one or two much 
smaller specimens, probably referable to the same species, 
were also obtained from Erere. From the Devonian sand- 
stone of Erere, Prov. of Para, Brazil ; associated with 
Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

(Named after my friends, Mr. Fred. Pond, American 
Consul at Para, and his brother, Mr. Thos. Pond, to whom 
I am indebted for a thousand favors. C. F. H.) 

Edmondia Sylvana, sp. nov. 

Shell small; length a little more than one and one-half times the height; 
outline apparently sub-elliptical. Valves moderately convex and nearly 
symmetrical, most prominent in the umbonal region. Beaks small, sub- 
central and obtuse in the moulds, incurving very little and hardly pro- 
jecting above the plane of the hinge, between which and the apices of 
the beak is quite a space. The dorsal margin is regularly curved, and 
rounds down on each side of the beak to the anterior and posterior 
margins, of which the former seems to be the narrower, and is more 
regularly rounded than the latter; ventral margin nearly straight along 
the middle. The surface of the valves arches very strongly and quite 
regularly from the beaks to the ventral margin, while the curvature along 
the antero-posterior diameter is moderate and nearly regular. Length, 
17 mm ; height, 10 mm ; convexity of single valve, 4 mm . 

Morgan Expeditions. 123 

Although only a single specimen of this species, which 
has been referred with some doubt to Edmondia, has been 
obtained, and that is not a very perfect one, it has been pos- 
sible from it to make out the principal characters of the 
species quite accurately. It is readily distinguished from 
all the other species of lamellibranchs yet found at Erere, 
by the nearly symmetrical valves and sub-central beaks. 

From the Devonian sandstone, Erere, Prov. of Para, 
Brazil, with Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

[Named in honor of my friend, Senhor Jose Gualdino da 
Silva, of Para, to whom I am under many obligations. C. 
F. H.] 


Modiomorpha Pimentana, sp. nov. 

Shell of moderate size, elongate, sub-quadrilateral in outline. From 
the beaks, which are placed at less than one-fourth the length from the 
front, the height increases very gradually to the posterior end of the 
hinge margin, which last equals about three-fifths the length of the shell 
and is straight ; height of shell at beak about five-sixths that at end of 
hinge margin. Anterior margin straight and oblique for about one-half 
its length, forming at the beak an angle of about 135° with the dorsal 
margin. It rounds abruptly to the ventral margin, which, in its posterior 
three-fourths, is nearly straight. The posterior margin is slightly con- 
vex, and extends obliquely backward from the dorsal margin, with which 
it forms an angle equal to about that at the beaks, and curves abruptly to 
the ventral margin. Beaks very small, obtuse and not produced above 
the hinge line. The valves are quite convex, the surface rising rapidly 
from the ventral and anterior margins on the one side, and from the 
dorsal and posterior margins on the other, toward a line running obliquely 
across the valves from the beaks to the lower posterior extremity. Along 
this line the valves are sometimes angular, at others they are regularly 
and strongly rounded ; generally, however, they are angular near the 
beaks and become gradually rounded and flattened posteriorly. Above, 
the surface slopes to the dorsal margin very abruptly and is concave just 
behind the beaks, but the slope becomes more and more gradual toward 
the posterior extremity, and, from very slightly concave at first, it changes 
to very slightly convex posteriorly. The lower and anterior portion of 
the valves is sometimes broadly flattened. Surface marked with numer- 
ous concentric lines of growth. Length, 30 mm ; height, 16 mm ; depth of 
single valve, 5 mra . These dimensions are of the largest specimen found ; 
most of the specimens are much smaller. 

124 Morgan Expeditions. 

This form of Modiomorp7ia, which is quite abundant at 
Erere, although very constant in its outline, varies consid- 
erably in its surface characters, as described above. The 
specimens obtained are all moulds of the interior and ex- 
terior. Associated with Nuculites JVyssa, Spirifera Pedro- 
ana, etc., in the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of 
Para, Brazil. 

Named in honor of Senhor Pimenta Buen6 of Para, to 
whom the expeditions are under obligations. 

Genus PAL.EANEILO, Hall. 

Palaeaneilo sulcata, sp. nov. 

Shell of moderate size, elongate, slightly gibbous, and apparently sub- 
elliptical in outline, with the height less than two-thirds the length. 
Dorsal margin inclining slightly downward in extending backward from the 
beaks. The anterior margin appears to be slightly concave, for about one- 
third its length from the beaks, and forms an angle of nearly 120° with 
the dorsal margin; in its lower two-thirds it is well and regularly 
rounded. Ventral margin nearly straight and suddenly indented toward 
the posterior extremity of the shell, which Is imperfect in all the speci- 
mens of this species yet obtained. Beaks situated at a distance from the 
front, equal to a^little less than half the height of the shell, quite prom- 
inent and incurved to the hinge line. The valves are most convex just 
above and anterior to the middle, with the surface arching quite strongly 
and regularly, the curvature, however, increasing somewhat in strength, 
from the ventral margin to the beaks. A rather deep and well marked 
sinus commences in each valve on the posterior side of the beak, where 
it is very small, and extends obliquely across the valve to the ventral 
margin, near the posterior extremity of the shell, increasing gradually in 
size at the same time, the margin being deeply indented by it. The an- 
terior edge of the sinus is quite abrupt and forms a slight fold on the 
surface of the valve; it makes an angle of about 30° with the dorsal 
margin of the shell; the posterior edge rounds over gradually. From 
the anterior margin of the valve the surface rounds up gradually for a 
short distance, and then extends with very little curvature to the sinus. 
Surface of mould smooth. Length, about 17 mm ; height, 11-5 mm ; depth 
of each valve, 3-5 mm . 

This species of lamellibranch has the external characters 
of the genus Palceaneilo, but the specimens representing it 
are not in a condition to show the character of the hinge, 

Morgan Expeditions. 125 

which is crenulated in that genus. Only a few specimens 
have been obtained. 

From the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, 
Brazil ; associated with Strejptorhynchus Agassizii, etc. 

Palseaneilo ? simplex, sp. nov. 

Shell of medium size, elongate, quite regularly sub-elliptical in outline 
and of moderate convexity ; height about two-thirds the length. Anterior 
margin not quite as high as the posterior; both anterior and posterior 
margins regularly and quite strongly rounded, and passing gradually into 
the ventral margin, which is regularly and moderately rounded. The 
dorsal margin is nearly straight and extends directly backwards from the 
beak ; its length is less than one-half that of the shell. Beaks situated 
at about one-third the length of the shell from the anterior end, quite 
small, rather strongly incurved to the plane of the hinge, and slightly 
elevated above the hinge margin, with the apices acute. The point of 
greatest convexity of the valves is just above the middle. The curvature 
of the surface from the ventral margin to the beaks is moderate and 
nearly regular, growing gradually stronger, however, toward the beaks. 
The curvature along the antero-posterior diameter is quite moderate and 
regular, the slopes toward the anterior and posterior margins from the 
middle being sub-equal. Toward the dorsal margin the slope is moderate 
posteriorly, but grows gradually stronger as the beaks are approached, 
just behind which it is very abrupt. Immediately in front of the beaks 
the surface is slightly concave. Surface markings unknown ; the surface 
of the internal moulds is quite smooth. Length, 16 mm ; height, 12 mm ; 
depth of single valve, 3 mm . 

The above description of this form was made from a 
single, very perfect specimen, an internal mould of the 
left valve, in which, however, the characters of the hinge 
are not preserved. The generic relations of the species 
are thus rendered doubtful ; but it agrees externally with 
Prof. Hall's genus Paloeaneilo in which we place it pro- 
visionally. Besides the single specimen just mentioned, 
there are four or five other specimens of lamellibranchs 
from Erere, which apparently belong to this same species. 
In them the beak is sometimes more acute, and the curva- 
ture of the surface varies slightly. In all the other char- 
acters they agree quite perfectly. This form of Palceaneilo 

126 Morgan Expeditions. 

is readily distinguished from P. sulcata, by the regular 
curvature of the surface from the anterior to the posterior 
end, and by the absence of a sinus. 

From the Devonian sandstone of Erere, Prov. of Para, 
Brazil ; associated with Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

Genus TENTACULITES, Schlotheim. 
Tentaculites Eldredgianus, sp. nov. 

Shell small, rather long, straight, circular in cross-section, at least l mm 
in diameter at the larger end, and tapering very gradually to an acute 
point. Length of the most perfect specimen, a fragment, about 16 mm . 
Annulations narrow, quite prominent, and angular or slightly rounded 
on the summit; the interspaces are generally about twice as wide as 
the annulations, though they vary somewhat in width, and are flattened 
or a little rounded in the bottom ; they are ornamented by fine annular 
raised lines, of which there are about four or Ave in each interspace, 
near the larger end of the specimen. The annulations decrease in size, 
but become more numerous toward the apex. There are about 5 to 7 
in the space of 3 mm near the large end. 

The specimens of this species, so far obtained, are from 
the sandstone, in which they exist as moulds of the exterior 
surface, generally filled up with clay or sandy material. 
The moulds usually preserve the impression of the annu- 
lations very sharply ; the annular raised lines, however, 
are seldom preserved. The casts formed by the filling up 
of the moulds are never exact copies, but in them the an- 
nulations are almost always low and rounded. The full 
length is not preserved in any of the specimens obtained, 
but it was probably not much greater than 16 m '". Although 
the distance between the annulations varies, the variation 
is never very great, and is generally regular through the 
same specimen, the interspaces becoming gradually narrower 
toward the apex. 

From the sandstone of the Devonian age, Erere, Prov. 
of Para, Brazil ; associated with Spirifera Pedroana, etc. 

Morgan Expeditions. 127 

Dedicated to Mr. Rolfe Eldredge, one of Prof. Hartt's 
companions at Erere, on his expedition of 1870. 

Anions: the more obscure remains obtained from the De- 
vonian sandstone beds at Erere, and which it is impossible 
from their imperfect condition to properly identify, are frag- 
ments of crinoidal columns, the valves of a form which 
appears to be related to Beyrichia, M'Coy, fragments of 
wood, etc. They are all, however, in such a poor state of 
preservation, that it would be unwise to attempt anything 
beyond a mere notice of their appearance. The crinoidal 
remains occur as impressions of the detached disks of the 
columns, which are small and thin, and it is seldom that more 
than two or three of the disks are found together. The 
central canal is generally replaced by sandy material, but 
none of the surface markings are retained. Diameter of 
disks, about 2-5 to 3 mm ; thickness of each, about -5 mm . The 
test of Beyrichia (?) is small, sub-ovate in outline, with a 
slight depression near one end. The surface, though imper- 
fect in all the specimens obtained, seems to have been granu- 
lose. Diameter of a medium specimen, 2 mm . The remains 
that have been referred to with doubt as plants have no 
definite or describable shapes and are probably fucoidal. 
Many of the other fragments obtained will undoubtedly be 
explained with the aid of new collections from the same 

128 JSFote on a name in Entomology. 

XIV. — JVote on a name in Entomology proposed by the late 
Coleman Townsend Robinson. 

By AUG. R. GROTE, A. M. 
Read April 19, 1875. 

It was my good fortune to have known somewhat intimately 
the late Mr. Coleman T. Robinson, latterly of New York 
city, who contributed to the Annals of the Lyceum of Nat- 
ural History (vol. IX) two short papers on North American 
Moths, and previously, in conjunction with myself, a longer 
communication, in the Eighth Volume of the Annals, on the 
same subject. I was personally associated with Mr. Robin- 
son from 1864 to 1868, and met him again for a few days 
in 1870. This was the last time that I had the pleasure 
before his premature death in 1872.* 

Although Mr. Robinson had pursued his studies in Nat- 
ural History somewhat fitfully, I know that he has performed 
some good work on the smaller moths, and especially on the 
Tortricidaz. The first part of his projected Revisiou of the 
North American species of that difficult group appeared in 
the Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 
Vol. II, 1869, and I have been anxious to discover his un- 
finished manuscripts for the second part, which I know were 
in existence. His and my owli joint collections passed into 
the Central Park Museum after Mr. Robinson's death. At 
this moment I can only find a brief record of his study of 
the following species, belonging to the Pyralides. 

Siparocerat nobilis, Kobinson. 

?. The type of this new genus and species is in the Central Park 
Museum. It is allied in size to Fabatana oviplagalis, as well as in orna- 

* A list of the scientific papers published by my late esteemed friend, under his sole 
signature, was given by me in the fourth volume of the Canadian Entomologist, pp. 
109-111, June, 1872. 

fThis seems to have been the original writing of the generic term; in the collection 
at the Central Park the name is written " Callocera." 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 129 

mentation. The genus is characterized by a large hollow expansion on 
the fore wings opening outwardly at basal third. This extraordinary 
feature is not shared by the Brazilian Amblyura corusca Led., apparently 
its nearest ally. The basal and terminal fields of the primaries are rich 
purply brown, separated by paler median lines as in corusca. The me- 
dian space is paler. The abdomen is tufted at the anus. The hind wings 
are dark, with paler indications of transverse lines on internal margin. 
The specimen is from New York. 

I have searched the few papers left by Mr. C. T. Robinson 
which have come into my possession, without finding a de- 
tailed description of this species. Mr. Robinson's MSS. 
which I have yet seen consist almost entirely of enlarged 
drawings of the venation of small species of moths with brief 
notes. In 1870 Mr. Robinson exhibited to me prepared 
specimens and a drawing of the abdominal appendage of the 
male Leucarctia acrcea, recently described by Mr. H. K. 
Morrison, in the pages of "Psyche." It had been acci- 
dentally observed by him during its voluntary extrusion. 
He had prepared a paper on the subject which I yet hope 
to discover. 

XV. — Some Observations on the Birds of Ritchie County, 
West Virginia. 

Read March 22, 1875. 

In preparing the following paper, I have adopted the 
systematic arrangement of a faunal list, more for the sake 
of convenience than with any idea that it is deserving to 
take rank as such, for the time spent in the locality was by 
far too brief, for the acquirement of a very perfect knowl- 
edge of its avian inhabitants. However, the results, em- 

130 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

bracing as they clo the joint labors of Messrs. R. Deane and 
Ernest Ingersoll, in addition to those of the author, be- 
tween the dates of April 25th and May 9, 1874, must, I 
think, give a large proportion of the birds which occur at 
that season, and as many little known species were found in 
abundance and under very favorable conditions for observa- 
tion, I have been induced to present a few notes on their 
habits, etc., trusting that they may prove acceptable contri- 
butions to science. The locality explored was the neighbor- 
hood of the little village of Petroleum, a rude hamlet of 
some hundred inhabitants, situated on Goose creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Huse River. The characteristics of the country 
are essentially like those of all the region lying in that lati- 
tude, within the foot hills of the great Alleghanian range of 
mountains ; wild rugged valleys walled in by steep ridges, 
of a nearly uniform elevation of perhaps 500 feet, which, 
in their turn, are here and there cleft by rocky ravines, 
the beds of the mountain torrents. 

With the exception of the creek bottoms, where are a 
few imperfectly cultivated clearings, the whole face of the 
country is covered with a dense and apparently for the most 
part primeval forest, abounding in deer, bears and other 
large game. Consequent upon the small extent of open 
cultivated country, is the scarcity, and iu some cases total 
absence of many species of birds, which might otherwise 
be confidently expected to occur here, although a careful 
examination at other seasons would undoubtedly increase 
largely the present list. In this connection, a comparison 
with Mr. Scott's "Partial list of the summer birds of Ka- 
nawha County" (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 15, p. 
219) would prove interesting, for as the locality which he 
investigated lies but little more than fifty miles to the south, 
and possesses the same general features, his catalogue may 
be relied upon to furnish the data of several summer species 
not detected at the time of our visit in the region about to 
be considered. 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 131 

Several interesting notes made by Mr. Ingersoll, during 
a previous visit in Sept., 1873, have been generously placed 
at my disposal by that gentleman, and I would also express 
my thanks to my friends Messrs. Ruthven Deane and H. A. 
Purdie, to the former of whom 1 am indebted for many 
valuable field notes, and to the latter for much kind assist- 
ance in the preparation of the present paper. It may be 
well for me to state that all differences in voice or habits, 
which I shall describe, are such as compared with the 
normal voice or habits of the same bird in the New England 
States. I shall also, for the sake of uniformity, use the 
terms song and note in their restricted sense, that is, song, 
as descriptive of the vocal performances of the male during 
the breeding season ; notes, the calls of recognition, alarm, 
pleasure, etc., which are used indifferently by both sexes at 
all seasons. At the same time I am fully aware that some 
few exceptions may be found which will mar the uniformity 
of this system, as in the case of the cardinal grosbeak, both 
sexes of which sing equally well. In classification and no- 
menclature I have followed Dr. Coues' Key to North Ameri- 
can Birds. 

Family TURDIDJE. The Thrushes. 

1. Turdns mustelinus Gra. Excessively abundant, and one of the most 
characteristic birds of these woods, affecting alike the hillsides and 
tangled thickets of the ravines. 

By May 1st all had arrived and were paired for the season. In the early 
morning and evening twilight, as many as six or eight males might fre- 
quently be heard singing at once. Their song, as compared with that of 
the Massachusetts bird, was hardly recognizable, being less loud, much 
abbreviated, and lacking all that variety and depth of intonation that 
makes our bird so preeminent among its companion songsters. They 
were also less shy than I have been accustomed to find them. 

2. Turdus migratorius L. Rather common but restricted to the belt 
of cultivated country in the valley. On the 30th of April three nests were 
found, all containing eggs but slightly incubated. 

3. Turdus fuscescens Steph. Apparently rare, a single pair noted by 
Mr. Deane, May 2d. 

1. Turdus Swainsonii Cab. Arrived May 5th and for three or four 

132 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

days were quite numerous. Found them in small companies in the deep- 
est recesses of the woods, where they flitted on ahead in their characteris- 
tically silent and phantom-like way. All the specimens taken were quite 

5. Turdus Pallasii Cab. Frequent in the elevated woods during the 
latter part of April and first three or four days of May, when they all dis- 

6. Mimus Carolinensis (L.) Gr. Very common. Found everywhere 
in the open country, but especially in the briery thickets along the margin 
of the creeks. The only peculiarity of song noticed was the occasional 
interpolation of notes foreign to the ear of a New England collector, but 
common enough here ; such as the call of the tufted titmouse, the chirrup 
of the Carolina wren, and the sharp tchip of the red bird. 

7. Harporhynchus rufus (L.) Cab. Not common. A few were seen 
daily up to about the 1st of May, when they all disappeared. 

Family SAXICOLIDJE. The Saxicolas. 

8. Sialia sialis (L.) Haldeman. Not abundant, but very generally 
distributed, breeding in the dead stubs along the wood edges and creek 

Family SYLVIIDiE. The Sylvias. 

9. Begulus calendula (L.) Licht. More abundant than I have ever 
seen them elsewhere. Found frequently in companies of a dozen or more. 
Associated as they often were, with many of the rarer warblers, they 
proved a great nuisance, for although the characteristic and almost con- 
stant tremulous motion of the wings, together with the small size, never 
failed to identify the little bunch of animated feathers upon a good view, 
yet when dim'y seen among the thick branches, they frequently fell un- 
wished-for victims, in place of some more desirable bird that we had been 
pursuing. None of the males were heard to sing, and by May 9th all had 

10. Polioptila c-cemlea (L.) Scl. Common from the time of our arrival, 
and very generally distributed throughout the woods, although showing 
a rather decided preference for the heavy timber, where they kept high up 
in the trees. When seen one hundred feet or more above the earth they 
remind one more of insects than birds, so active and so very frail and 
slender do they seem. In motions they bear perhaps a greater resem- 
blance to the redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) than to any other bird, like 
him launching out frequently after insects and alighting with spread tail 
and drooping wings, but they have withal an impertinent, quizzical air, 
savoring strongly of cat bird ways ; the song is indeed quite that of the 
latter bird, but in miniature (if I may apply such an expression to sound) 
a quaint mocking little strain, continued half a minute or more at a time 
and full of mewings and harsh chatters, with an occasional full round 
note, but altogether so feeble as scarcely to be audible at twenty yards' 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 133 

distance. The note used by both sexes is a harsh but rather faint lisp. 
A nest, upon which the parent birds were still at work, was discovered by 
Mr. Ingersoll, May 10th, on a horizontal oak branch fifty feet above the 

Family PARIDiE. The Titmice. 

11. Lophophanes bicolor (L.) Pr. A very common bird here, seeming 
to prefer high oak woodlands, though we also sometimes found them in 
the scrub or second growth. By April 25 they were commencing to lay, 
as we dissected several females which contained eggs nearly ready for 
the shell ; no nests were, however, found. In habits and general appear- 
ance they strongly suggest the jays, the only Paridine attributes being 
some of the notes, and the flight, which is undulating, heavy and accom- 
panied by a loud rustling sound. 

They spend much of their time on the ground, hopping about slowly 
among the leaves until a nut or acorn is discovered, when it is taken up 
to some low branch and then hammered vigorously with the bill until 
broken open. 

The crest is nearly always erect and looks much longer than it actually 
is. They are at all times very tame and unsuspicious. 

The song of the male is sure to be one of the first sounds that one 
hears upon entering the woods, for it is very loud, and repeated almost 
incessantly. It is a rolling whistle uttered six or seven times in succes- 
sion ; something like quee dle-t-or, quee dle-t-or, etc. Other notes used by 
both sexes are a faint lisping chirp, a chee de de (almost undistinguishable 
from that of Parus Carolinensis) and a tse-tsip, which latter is, however, 
but seldom heard. 

12. Parus Carolinensis Aud. Common and generally distributed. In 
habits and appearance it much resembles P. atricapillus, though its smaller 
size is at once noticeable. The notes are, however, all quite different. 
The song of the male is quite a pretty one and consists of four measures, 
whistled rather slowly, audible at a considerable distance ; the first syl- 
lable is rather high, the second several octaves higher, the third and 
fourth lower than the first. Altogether, it bears quite a resemblance to 
the song of Dendroica virens, though lacking its peculiar, albeit rather 
pleasing, harshness. The chirp used by both sexes is very faint and par- 
takes somewhat of a Fringilline character. They have also a scolding 
chee de de somewhat similar to that of our Northern species, but much 
feebler. Females of this species were dissected, which contained eggs 
nearly ready to be laid, as early as April 25. 

Family SITTID^E. The Nuthatches. 

13. Sitta Carolinensis Gm. Found sparingly in the woods. Its hank 
sounded a trifle harsher and less loud than at the north. A nest discov- 
ered May 9th, in a natural cavity near the top of a tall beech, must have 

134 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

contained young, as the parent birds passed in at frequent intervals with 
food in their bills. 

Family TROGLODYTID^E. The Wrens. 

14. Thryothorus Ludoviciamis (Gm.) Bp. Rather common. Most par- 
tial to the thickets along fences, brush piles on the edges of the woods, 
and dark rocky ravines. Found them very unsuspicious and easy of cap- 
ture, even when in the most tangled thicket. If shot at and missed they 
seemed at once to become very angry, hopping nimbly from twig to twig 
with tail erect and uttering almost incessantly a shrill chirr ree, chir r r, 
chir r r, chirr ree, and occasionally a harsh chatter precisely like that of 
T. axlon, which bird, indeed, they closely resemble in every look and 
action. The song of the male is a beautifully clear and pure one, but it 
is so always and invariably the same that one soon tires of it. Heard in 
some deep, silent glen or ravine its loudness is positively startling, the 
rocks taking up and flinging back the sound till the air is fairly filled with 
the ringing melody. By May 1st several broods of young were seen fully 
fledged and on wing, and the females were laying again. 

15. Troglodytes mdonV. Two specimens only taken : the first a male, 
April 30th; the second a female; both in deep woods, and silent. 

Family SYLVICOLID^E. The American "Warblers. 

16. Mniotilla varia (L.) V. Perhaps the most abundant of the family 
here, being found everywhere throughout the woods. 

17. Parula Americana (L.) Bp. Frequent from the time of our arri- 
val, but less abundant than the preceding. As their numbers showed no 
sensible diminution with the advance of the season, they probably breed 

18. Helmitherus vermivorus (Gm.) Bp. First specimen taken April 
30th. Soon became common. Most partial to the retired thickets in the 
woods along water courses, and seldom or never found in the high open 
groves. They keep much on the ground, where they walk about rather 
slowly, searching for their food among the dried leaves. In general ap- 
pearance they are quite unique, and I rarely failed to identify one with an 
instant's glance, so very peculiar are all their attitudes and motions. 
The tail is habitually carried at an elevation considerably above the line 
of the back, which gives them quite a smart, jaunty air, aud if the dorsal 
aspect be exposed, in a clear light, the peculiar marking of the crown is 
quite conspicuous. Seen as they usually are, however, dimly flitting 
ahead through the gloom and shadow of the thickets, the impression re- 
ceived is that of a dark little bird which vanishes unaccountably before 
your very eyes, leaving you quite uncertain where to look for it next; 
indeed, I hardly know a more difficult bird to procure, for the slightest 
noise sends it darting off through the woods at once. Occasionally you 
will come upon one winding around the trunk of some small tree exactly 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 135 

in the manner of Mniotilta varia, moving out along the branches with 
nimble motion, peering alternately under, the bark on either side, and anon 
returning to the main stem, perhaps in the next instant to hop back to 
the ground again. On such occasions they rarely ascend to the height of 
more than eight or ten feet. The males are very quarrelsome, chasing 
one another through the woods with loud, sharp chirpings, careering 
with almost inconceivable velocity up among the tops of the highest 
oaks, "or darting among the thickets with interminable doublings until 
the pursuer, growing tired of the chase, alights on some low twig or old 
mossy log, and in token of his victory, utters a warble so feeble that you 
must be very near to catch it at all, a sound like that produced by strik- 
ing two pebbles very quickly and gently together, or the song of Spizella 
socialis heard at a distance, and altogether a very indifferent performance. 

19. Helminthophaga ruficapilla (Wils.) Bd. One or two specimens 
seen every clay, but by no means common. For the most part silent, 
though I heard the song of the male on a few occasions. 

20. Dendroica cestiva (Gm.) Bd. Restricted entirely to the belt of 
willows, etc., along the margin of the creek, where it was not uncommon. 
First specimen noted April 29th. 

21. Dendroica virens (Gm.) Bd. A general arrival May 2d, when the 
males were in full song; comparatively speaking however, they were not 
common. Found them mostly among the taller oak and beech growths. 

22. Dendroica cccrulescens (L.) Bd. Less common than the preced- 
ing, not more than half a dozen specimens being noted. The first (a fe- 
male) was shot May 5th. Apparently most partial to the thickly wooded 

23. Dendroica ccemlea (Wils.) Bd. Decidedly the most abundant of 
the genus here. The first specimen taken May 5th. They inhabit exclus- 
ively the tops of the highest forest trees, in this respect showing an 
affinity with D. Blackburnice. In actions they most resemble D. Pensyl- 
vanica, carrying the tail rather high and having the same " smart bantam- 
like appearance." Were it not for these prominent characteristics, they 
would be very difficult to distinguish, in the tree tops, from Panda Ameri- 
cana, the songs are so precisely alike. That of the latter bird has how- 
ever at least two regular variations ; in one, beginning low down, he rolls 
his guttural little trill quickly and evenly up the scale, ending apparently, 
only when he can get no higher; in the other, the commencement of this 
trill is broken or divided into syllables, like zee, zee, zee, ze-ee-ee-eep. 
This latter variation is the one used by D. c&rulea and I could detect little 
or no difference in the songs of dozens of individuals. At best, it is a 
modest little strain, and far from deserving the encomium bestowed upon 
it by Audubon, who describes it as "extremely sweet and mellow;" de- 
cidedly it is neither of these, and he must have confounded with it some 
other species. In addition to the song, they utter the almost universal 
Deudroicine lisp, and also, the characteristic tchep of D. coronata, which 
I had previously supposed entirely peculiar to that bird. 

136 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

24. Dendroica coronata (L.) Gr. Not very numerous, but saw more 
or less of them every day up to the date of our departure. Associated 
with the other warblers, in the woods. 

25. Dendroica Blackburnice (Gm.) Bd. First specimen May 1st, after- 
wards quite abundant, frequenting the tops of the highest forest trees in 
company with D. ccerulea and Parula Americana. The males were in full 

26. Dendroica castanea (Wils.) Bd. Two specimens observed- and 
one taken, by Mr. Ingersoll, May 14th. 

27. Dendroica maculosa (Gm.) Bd. A male was seen by Mr. Inger- 
soll, May 14th. 

28. Dendroica pinus (Wils.) Bd. On the 7th of May I shot a pair in a 
high oak grove. They were evidently mated, the male warbling at inter- 
vals his simple strain, and the female following him closely through the 
branches. No other individuals were observed during our stay. The 
almost entire absence of coniferous trees, would perhaps explain the 
scarcity here of this and other pine loving species. 

29. Seiurus aurocapillus (L.) Sw. These woods being well suited to 
their habits, they were abundant everywhere, and as usual a great nuis- 
ance, their songs continually repeated from all sides, frequently drowning 
every other sound. Arrived April 29th. 

30. Seiurus Noveboracensis (Gm.) Nutt. Common during our stay. 
Found exclusively along the margin of Goose creek, where, in the early 
morning, I several times heard the beautiful song of the male. Three 
specimens taken vary quite appreciably from all of a large series collected 
in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. The superciliary line is, in 
each, dirty white, with a yellowish tinge where it intersects the eye, while 
in the northern specimens it is at its lightest, decidedly yellowish, inten- 
sifying at the anterior end to a brownish orange. The smallest bill 
among the West Virginia examples also shows an excess in length of -03 
over that of any of the northern birds, and the largest fully -05. As Mr. 
Scott, in his "Partial list of Kanawha County," mentions an individual of 
this species taken there in August, it may very possibly breed here. 

31. Seiurus Ludovicianus (V.) Bp. Not common, only seven speci- 
mens were secured in all. 

While the Northern water thrush was confined to the muddy banks of 
the creek — and I will remark en passant, that I never saw one other than 
in a muddy locality — this species seemed to delight in the pebbly streams 
of the hills ; just such streams as in the New England mountains would be 
called good trout brooks, overshadowed by mighty forest trees, frequently 
choked up by fallen logs, and abounding in beautiful cascades, still, deep 
pools, and wild rocky ravines. 

In the deepest, darkest retreats you were most likely to find him and 
here on several occasions I was fortunate enough to hear his song. It is 
somewhat like that of S. Noveboracensis, being quite as loud, almost as 
rapid, and commencing in nearly the same way but lacking the beautiful 
crescendo termination, and altogether, a less fine performance. 

On the Birds of Ritchie Count;/. 137 

Represented by words it would be nearly as follows: pseur, pseur, per 
.sc-'e ser. 

This is usually uttered several times in succession from some shelving 
rock, or fallen log overhanging the stream, the bird in the intervals be- 
tween each repetition tilting his body incessantly, and looking nervously 
about as if he didn't half like your presence and had a good mind to be off, 
and this expression in the majority of cases soon finds vent in action, for 
he is a very shy little fellow the moment he begins to suspect that he is 
wanted to grace your cabinet. Come upon him suddenly however, as he 
is running nimbly along the margin of some quiet pool or rippling eddy, 
and at times he will seem to pay little regard to your presence and you 
may have a fine chance to observe his motions and sandpiper-like ways, 
as he wades knee deep into the water, or splashes through it in hot pur- 
suit of some aquatic insect. 

I could distinguish not the slightest difference in general appearance 
and actions at such times, between him and his Northern analogue, and 
the sharp chirp of alarm is precisely the same. The larger size and gen- 
eral lighter color of the under parts will, however, usually serve to dis- 
tinguish the Southern bird if you get a good view of him. The first speci- 
men was taken April 29th. 

32. Oporonis formosas (Wils.) Bd. First specimen May 4th. Soon 
became rather common frequenting nearly the same localities as Helmi- 
therus vcrmivorus. Almost exclusively terrestrial in habits it reminded 
me much of 0. agili*, though it was not so shy. You would find it most 
frequently in the vicinity of brush piles, fallen logs, etc., but if suddenly 
startled, instead of seeking refuge in them, it usually flew up to some low 
limb where it sat silent and thrush-like, awaiting further developments. 
On the ground it walked m somewhat the manner of Seiurus aurocapillus, 
though not quite so nimbly. The song of the male, usually delivered 
from some low limb or old stump, is a most beautiful one and very loud, 
but almost impossible of description. It most resembles that of Geo- 
thlypis Philadelphia with the first two notes omitted, is extremely rich and 
full, and altogether one of the best Sylvicolidine performances with which 
I am acquainted. 

The only other note that I heard was a chuck so extremely like that of 
the ground squirrel (Tamias striatus) that I often found it very difficult to 
separate them. 

33. Gcnthhjpis trichas (L.) Cab. Rare. Only three specimens were 

34. Icteria virens (L.) Bd. Not very common and found only in cer- 
tain localities, usually thickets of blackberry bushes and bull briers in 
retired portions of the woods. Arrived May 1st, and for a few days were 
silent, but soon became very noisy, especially when their retreats were 
invaded. Their notes are so varied as almost to defy description. 

What I took to be the song of the male was a series of about eight very 
loud bell-like whistles, commencing quickly, and becoming slower and 
May, 1875. 10 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

138 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

more emphatic toward the end, then after an interval of a few seconds 
would follow a scolding chatter, to be immediately succeeded by a single 
very clear note, then the series of whistles again, but all these notes were 
varied to an almost infinite extent. All this time the bird would be dodg- 
ing through the bushes ahead, keeping always in the thickest places, and 
perhaps after a moment of silence would suddenly strike up directly be- 
hind you. In this way I have frequently pursued one for fifteen or twenty 
minutes without so much as getting a glimpse at him. 

Several times when I came upon him suddenly however, he would put 
on a very innocent and injured air and vociferate his notes directly at me 
as if to dispel any possible suspicion on my part that lie had been running, 
or, to speak more literally, flying away. 

When alive they look much smaller than they really are, and in general 
markings, but especially those about the head, bear a resemblance to 
Oporornis formosus ; their peculiar actions however, readily serve to dis- 
tinguish them. 

The tail is usually carried rather high and frequently flirted in an odd 
independent sort of way. I did not witness their performance so often 
described of singing on wing with dangling legs, etc. 

35. Myiodioctes mitratus (Gm.) Aud. Very common. First specimen 
taken May 1st. Found generally throughout the woods, usually on the 
hillsides, where they sought their food low clown among the undergrowth. 
As the clay advanced the males would frequently ascend to the tops of the 
forest trees, and sing many times in succession sitting perfectly motion- 
less in one place, then with expanded wings and tail would sail to the next 
tree and sing again. The chirp of alarm is a sharp chuck not unlike that 
of M. Canadensis ; the song more resembles that of Dtndruica maculosa, 
being short, clear and quite loud, with a decided emphasis on the last 
syllable ! like ichee, whee, see ser. 

When among the low thickets they are restless and shy, keeping a con- 
siderable distance ahead however fast you may walk, and were it not for 
the loud song they would be most difficult to procure. At such times 
they have a habit, observable in others of the genus, of flirting up six or 
eight feet after an insect and dropping almost perpendicularly again with 
closed wings. 

I rarely observed one on the ground. Although during the last week 
of our stay the males were abundant and numbers shot, only one female 
was seen. 

36. Setophaga ruticilla (L.) In. Arrived April 29 and soon became 
common. Found both in the woods and along the banks of the creek. 

Family TANAGRID2E. The Tanagers. 

37. Pyranga rubra (L.) V. Quite common. Arrived May 1st. Found 
generally throughout the woods. 

38. Pyranga ocstiva (L.) V. A male in fine plumage shot May 5th, 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 139 

was the only specimen noted. It closely resembled the preceding species 
in all its motions, occasionally launching out after an insect, and was 
silent and very shy. The uniformity of its coloring, together with its 
large size, served, however, to identify it at a glance. 

Family HIRUNDINID^. The Swallows. 

39. Hirundo horreorum Barton. Abundant everywhere in the clear- 

40. Tarhycineta bicolor (V.) Cs. Rare. A single specimen observed 
April 29th, by Mr. Ingersoll, in a flock of Prog ne purpurea around a mar- 
tin box. 

41. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say.) Cab. Abundant, arriving May 3rd. 
Nested under the low eaves of a log hut in the village. 

42. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.) Bd. Arrived May 1st, and sev- 
eral colonies of six or eight individuals each were soon established in the 
rocky '-cuts" along the line of the railroad. Here they were evidently 
preparing to build, as each pair had already selected some little projec- 
tion of the rocky cliff, where they would sit together for many minutes at 
a time. Another small company also hauuted the vicinage of a bridge 
over the creek, and had probably selected the stone abutments for a nest- 
ing place, as they frequently passed in and out underneath. 

This bird is readily distinguishable on wing from C. riparia, by its 
greater size and slower flight; indeed, in this latter attribute it much 
more closely resembles T. bicolor, like it sailing much of the time, and 
proceeding in a very leisurely manner; its note is, however, more nearly 
that of the former species, but rather louder and harsher. Like the 
other members of the family they were very fond of lighting along the 
telegraph wires to rest and plume themselves. 

43. Progne purpurea (L.) Boie. Common, breeding in the martin 
boxes put up for their occupancy. No instances of the aboriginal habit 
of nesting in hollow trees came under our observation. 

Family AMPELID^E. 

44. Ampelis cedrorum (V.) Bd. Not common. A few specimens 
were noted by Mr. Ingersoll in September, 1873. 

Family VIREONID.E. Vireos, or Greenlets. 

45. Vireo olivareus (L.) V. Rather common in the woods. Arrived 
May 1st. 

40. Vireo gilvus (V.) Bp. Not very common and apparently re- 
stricted to the belt of willows, etc., along the creek. Arrived May 1st. 

47. Vireo Jlavifrons V. Decidedly the most abundant of the family 
here, being found everywhere throughout the woods. 

140 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

48. Vireo solitarius (Wils.) V. Rather uncommon. May possibly 
breed, as we saw them up to the date of our departure. 

49. Vireo Noveboracensis (6m.) Bp. Several individuals were pro- 
cured by Mr. Ingersoll in September, 1873. Singularly enough it was 
not detected by any of our party, this spring. 

Family FRINGILLID^E. Finches, etc. 

50. Carpodacus purpureus (Gm.) Gr. Rare. A single male seen by 
Mr. Ingersoll, April 29. 

51. Chrysomitris tristis (L.) Bp. Common. On the 8th of May took 
a male in full summer plumage, which is I think rather earlier than the 
change is usually perfected at the north. 

52. Melospiza palustris (Wils.) Bd. Not common. A few individuals 
were observed in the thickets along the creek. 

53. Melospiza melodia (Wils.) Bd. Common. Specimens taken aver- 
age a little smaller than Massachusetts examples, and are very much 
darker, the entire under parts being a strong ashy color, instead of white. 
Although this peculiarity seemed constant in all the individuals observed, 
I suspect that it is due at least in part, to the stain received from the 
charred and blackened logs in the burnt clearings. 

Several other birds, especially the woodpeckers and nuthatches were 
unmistakably disfigured in this way, and I took a Thryothorus Ludovicia- 
nus that was almost entirely black, with the markings but faintly discern- 
ible beneath. 

54. Junco hyemalis (L.) Scl. Three or four specimens were observed 
during the last days of April. 

55. Spizella socialis (Wils.) Bp. Very common. Found everywhere, 
penetrating even quite deep into the woods. 

56. Spizella pusilla (Wils.) Bp. Not uncommon on the clearings on 
the hillsides. 

57. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gm.) Bp. Extremely abundant during our 
entire stay, in flocks, and evidently migrating. The males frequently 
sang, but not so finely as when on their breeding grounds at the north. 

58. Zonotrichia lexicophrys (Forst.) Sw. A single specimen was ob- 
served by Mr. Ingersoll, May 10th. 

59. Goniaphea ludoviciana (L.) Bowditch. Arrived May 1st, after 
which date a few individuals were observed daily. Frequented the 

60. Cyanospiza cyanea (L.) Bd. Not uncommon. Arrived May 8th. 

61. Cardinalis Virginianus (Brisson.) Bp. Very abundant. Their 
most characteristic haunts seemed the thickets along fences and on the 
edges of the woods and the more open ravines. The males usually sang 
from some tree top overlooking their bushy retreat, which they were 
always ready to dive into upon any alarm. The ordinary position of the 
bird is a very erect one, with the tail lowered and the crest nearly always 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 141 

raised. The flight is jerking and labored, and they rarely proceed far at a 
time on wing. The ordinary note of alarm and recognition, is a sharp 
tchip, kept up almost incessantly. The song, though loud, clear and full, 
strikes one as too bold and lacking of sentiment. The bird is nearly 
always in full view at the time, and seems to vaunt his powers to the 
utmost, and his performance, though pleasing at first, soon becomes tire- 
some, although varied to an almost infinite extent ; it has two principal 
changes, of which some idea may be given by words, as follows: quoit; 
queo, queo, queeo, quoit ; or whittu ; ichittu ; whittu ; tu, tu, tu, tu, tu. Occa- 
sionally he begins in a low undertone, then gradually raises his strain to its 
full volume, producing thereby quite a beautiful effect. The female sings 
nearly as much as the male and quite as well, going through all his vari- 
ations. Though not so shy as I have found them in the vicinity of Wash- 
ington, D. C, they were not at all easy to procure here. A whistled 
imitation of the song, would, however, usually bring up the male in full 
response, and I procured many in that way. Although we saw the females 
building as early as the 1st of May, no nests were discovered. 

62. Pipilo erythropthalmus (L.) V. Very abundant everywhere but 
especially so in the scrub on the hillsides. The song of the male was not 
unlike that of the Massachusetts bird, but the ordinary note, a harsh gut- 
tural tou geesh, was very different. A comparison with Northern examples 
reveals a slightly darker shade in the brown of the throat of the Virginia 

Family ICTERID^. American Starlings. 

63. DoHchonyx oryzivorus (L.) Sw. A few individuals of this species 
were seen May 14th, by Mr. Ingersoll, in the grassy meadows along the 

64. Molothrus pecoris (Gm.) Sw. Abundant from the time of our 
arrival and generally distributed. Although all its habits were quite 
familiar, some of its notes differed very much from any that I have heard 
at the north. One in particular a hissing z-z-zeep was quite unique, though 
apparently universal here. 

65. Agelceus pho?7iiceus (L.) V. Common but restricted to the belt of 
swampy land along the creek. Notes very different from those of our 
Massachusetts bird and as a rule decidedly harsher. 

66. Sturnella magna (L.) Sw. Apparently not common, owing prob- 
ably to the almost total absence of its favorite meadow land in this sec- 

67. Icterus spurius (L.) Bp. Arrived May 8th and on the succeeding 
day several individuals were observed in the trees along the banks of the 
creek. On the evening of our departure I heard a male in full song at 
Laurel Junction, a station some two miles from Petroleum, where we were 
awaiting the arrival of the eastward bound express train. The slanting 
rays of the setting sun streaming through the gaps in the Western divide, 
in places tinged the floating mists with a beautiful rosy hue, in others 

142 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

where the beams fell more directly, threw so strong a light that the small- 
est insect floating in the still clear air was discernible at hundreds of 
paces, and as the chorus of bird voices swelled to the utmost, we heard 
many of our newly acquired feathered friends to the best possible ad- 
vantage. The cardinals as usual were most prominent and their bold 
ringing notes quite drowned the efforts of some of the more modest per- 
formers though the lofty reverie of the wood thrush stole up occasionally 
from the valley below, and the bell like calls of the chat came almost in- 
cessantly from the thickets on the opposite mountain side. Above all, 
however, rose at intervals a clear loud warble resembling the spring song 
of Passerella iliaca, but possessing withal a wild abandon, that to my ear 
rendered it even more beautiful. Suspecting the author we approached 
the spot and soon caught a glimpse of his fine chestnut and black plum- 
age among the branches of a tall sycamore. After singing for some time 
longer he dove down into a low thicket where we had a good chance to 
observe his motions. His relatively longer tail and more slender shape 
gave him quite a different aspect from his cousin the Baltimore, though 
his ways were very similar. 

When closely approached he glanced at us suspiciously, jerking his tail 
and uttering a note closely resembling that usually given by Agelceus phoe- 
niceus when on wing. Mr. Ingersoll informs me that their numbers did 
not materially increase after our departure, and the species must be con- 
sidered rather a rare one in this section. 

68. Icterus Baltimore (L.) Daudin. Arrived April 29th and soon be- 
came common. Noticed many old nests in the cottonwoods along the 
creek. The song differed slightly from that of Northern individuals. 

69. Quiscalus purpureus (Bartr.) Licht., var. seneus Riclg. Common, 
nesting in small colonies in the holes of the decayed Cottonwood trees. 
All the specimens taken were quite typical of this variety. 

Family CORVID^l. Crows, Jays, etc. 

70. Corvus Americanus Aud. Quite common everywhere. 

71. Cyanurus cristatus (L.) Sw. Common everywhere in the woods. 
A nest found by Mr. Deane contained four fresh eggs. 

Family TYRANNID^. Flycatchers. 

72. Tyrannus Carolinensis (L.) Bd. Arrived April 28th and soon 
became rather common. Frequented for the most part, the belt of timber 
along the creek. 

73. Myiarchus crinitus (L.) Cab. Abundant, affecting alike the open 
oak woods and the heavy undergrowth of the ravines. Their ordinary 
note is a single whistle, extremely loud, and possessed of something of a 
weird character, making it peculiarly noticeable in the gloomy depths of 
the forest where it is usually heard. In addition to this they utter a loud 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 143 

and rather harsh rattle. Their habitual attitude is an erect one, and they 
have a peculiar habit of sailing from tree to tree with spread wings and 
tail, somewhat in the manner of Ptrisoreus Canadensis. 

74. Sayornis fuscus (Gm.) Bd. Extremely common. A few were 
breeding under the railroad bridges along the creek, but by far the greater 
number clung to their aboriginal proclivities, and nested in the rocky ra- 
vines of the mountain brooks. 

A nest found by Mr. Ingersoll, April 26th, contained six eggs, every one 
of which was spotted, and some of them as much so as average specimens 
of Contopus virens. This nest was attached to the stone abutments of a 
bridge and differed not appreciably from northern examples in either ma- 
terial or architecture. 

75. Contopus virens (L.) Cab. The first specimen, taken May 9th, 
afterwards became rather numerous. Found exclusively in the woods. 

76. Empidonax minimus Bd. A siugle individual taken May 7th was 
the only specimen noted. (E. Acadicus undoubtedly occurs as Mr. Inger- 
soll who is well acquainted with the species observed several old nests in 
the woods). 

Family CAPRIMULGID^. Goatsuckers. 

77. Antrostomus vociferus (Wils.) Bp. Very common, as many as five 
or six individuals being frequently within hearing at one time. A male, 
which 1 heard on the evening of May 9th, after commencing in the usual 
way, regularly finished his song by omitting the first syllable on the last 
eight or ten repetitions thus : poor-ioill, poor-will, poor-will, etc. 

78. Chordeiles Virginianus (Briss.) Bp. Rare. A single specimen 
noted at Laurel Junction, May 9th. 

Family CYPSELID.E. Swifts. 

79. Chcetura pelasc/ia (L.) Steph. Arrived April 29th and soon became 
abundant. AVhether or not they resorted to hollow trees in this section, 
for breeding, I was unable to ascertain, but if they breed here at all, I 
think such must be the case, as the small, narrow chimneys of the log 
houses in the village, are but ill adapted to their wants. 

Family TROCHILID^. Humming birds. 

80. Trochilus colubris L. Rather numerous in the woods. Arrived 
May 2d. 

Family ALCEDINID.E. Kingfishers. 

81. Ceryle alcyon (L.) Boie. Very common. Several nests were dis- 
covered in the banks along the creek, but none of them explored. 

144 On the Birds of Ritchie County. 

Family CUCV LID M. Cuckoos. 

82. Coccysus erythrophthalmus (Wils.) Bd. Rare. One specimen seen 
by Mr. Deane, May 5th. 

Family PICID^E. Woodpeckers. 

83. Hylotomus pileatus (L.) Bd. Only a few individuals noted, 
most of which were observed well up on the mountain sides, though I 
shot a line male on one occasion, in the very outskirts of the village, 
coming upon him suddenly as he was hammering away at an old pros- 
trate log. 

84. Picus villosus L. Not rare. Found usually in the woods. Spec- 
imens average considerably smaller than those taken in New England 
but differ not appreciably in other respects. 

85. Picus pubescens L. Rather more common than the preceding but 
still hai-dly abundant. Confined principally to the woods. 

86. Centurus Carolinus (L.) Bp. Not common, about half a dozen 
individuals noted in all. In habits, it seemed to me to resemble most 
closely Melanerpus erythrocephalus, like that bird showing great skill in 
winding about the tree trunks and keeping always on the side farthest 
from the observer. 

The only note heard was a raucous cr-ruk very like the croak of a frog. 
Its tapping roll was also peculiar and rather more feeble than in most 
of the family. This tapping is so far as I have observed, a regular 
spring note or call and never (in its restricted sense) heard at any other 
season. It is likewise specifically characteristic, and in Maine where 
the Picidae are very largely represented, I have always been accustomed 
to rely quite as much upon the tapping as a means of identification as 
upon any of the vocal notes. Thus, P. pubescens has a long unbroken 
roll, P. villosus a shorter and louder one with a greater interval between 
each stroke: while S. varius commencing with a short roll ends very 
emphatically with five or six distinct disconnected taps. In this latter 
species I am convinced it is literally a call of recognition, as I have 
repeatedly seen the bird after producing it, listen a moment when it 
would be answered from a distance and its mate would shortly appear 
and join it. 

87. Melanerpes erythrocephalus (L.) Sw. Rather common, but appar- 
ently restricted almost altogether to the forest. 

88. Colaptus auratus (L.) Sw. Very common. Found everywhere. 

Family STRIGIDiE. Owls. 

89. Scops asio (L ) Bp. A single specimen in the red plumage was 
noted by Mr. Deane, April 27th. It was surrounded by a mob of small 
birds and was too shy to admit of its capture. 

On the Birds of Ritchie County. 145 

Family FALCONID^E. Diurnal Birds of Prey. 

90. Accipiter Cooperi Bp. Saw a female of this species May 2d. This 
(with one of the larger Buteos which could not be satisfactorily identi- 
fied) was the only member of the family observed here. 

Family CATHARTID^. American Vultures. 

01. Cathartes aura (L.) Illiger. Was informed by the inhabitants 
that in former years it was very abundant, but for some unknown reason 
had almost totally disappeared. A single specimen which I saw sailing 
high over the valley was the only one noted during our stay. 

Family COLUMBID^. Pigeons. 

92. Zenaidura Carolinensis (L.) Bp. Very abundant and one of the 
characteristic birds of this region. Though never molested by the in- 
habitants who regard them very much as the English do the robin red- 
breast, they were very shy and difficult to obtain. Although females 
containing eggs ready to be laid were dissected as early as Ma}' 1st, 
they almost invariably flew and fed in flocks, but on the latter occasion 
I noticed that the paired birds usually kept together. Early in the 
morning and again at sunset the deep resonant cooing of the males 
might be heard from all sides. At a distance this sound resembles the 
syllables ichoo, ichoo, whoo ; or sometimes with only two repetitions whoo, 
whoo, but a short preliminary note with a rising inflection which always 
precedes this cooing is lost, unless the listener is very near. The bird 
when thus employed usually sits on the top of some lofty tree in the 
forest and, with his superlatively graceful attitudes and fine plumage 
glistening in the sunlight, presents a very beautiful appearance. In 
common with other members of the family they have the peculiar habit 
of oscillating the head and neck when approached and upon the slightest, 
suspicious movement on your part they are off giving three or four pow- 
erful raps of the tips of the wings under the body, as they start, which 
warning is usually acted upon immediately by all the others within 

Family TETRAONID^E. Grouse, etc. 

93. Bortasa umbellus (L.) Steph. Abundant everywhere in the woods 
where we started more or less of them every day and frequently heard 
the drumming of the males. 

94. Ortyx Virginianus (L.) Bp. Apparently not very numerous. The 
males were first heard whistling bob-white on the 8th of May. 

146 Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 

Family SCOLOPACID.E. Snipe, etc. 

95. Philohela minor (Gm.) Gr. Probably not very common, an indi- 
vidual flushed by Mr. Deane, being the only specimen noted. 

96. Totanus flavipes Gm. Noted a single bird of this species April 
29th, in a wet meadow near the creek. 

97. Totanus solitarius Wils. Quite numerous along the creek during 
our stay, but undoubtedly was on its way north. 

98. Tringoides macularius (L.) Gr. Common along the creek. 

Family ARDEIDtE. Herons. 

99. Ardea c&ralea L. On the 30th of April I saw a fine adult bird of 
this species on the banks of the creek and identified it to my complete 
satisfaction, but owing to an unfortunate accident failed to obtain it. 

100. Ardea virescens L. Not common; a few specimens only, observed. 

XVI. — Notes on the Sub-generic Character of Helix Jamai- 
censis, Ghemn., and on certain Terrestrial Mollusks 
from Haiti; with Description of a New 
Species of Helix from Colorado. 

Read March 8, 1875. 

Helix Jamaicensis, Chemn. (Thelidomus). 

This well known Jamaica species is given by v. Martens 
(Albers, 2nd. eel., 147) as the type of the subgenus Liochila, 
in which he also places II. picta, Born, and H. sulphurosa, 
Morelet, of Cuba. 

W. G. Binney and myself have shown (Annals, X, 341, 
pi. xvi, figs. 1, 2, 1873) that H. picta has the same form of 
jaw and dentition as the Cuban H. muscarum, Lea (Amer. 
Jour, of Conch., VI, 204, pi. 9, figs. 4 and 16), which v. 

Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 147 

Martens (1. c, 146) has as the type of Polymita. We as- 
signed both muscarum and picta to Polymita, proposing that 
other species, the dentition of which we had examined, em- 
braced in that subgenus by v. Martens, should form a dis- 
tinct group under the name of Hemitrochus, Swainson. 

We expressed the opinion that the curious lingual denti- 
tion of H. picta might be found in H. sidphnrosa, but not 
in //. Jamaicensis, adding "the latter, which is the type of 
Liochila, will therefore remain undisturbed in its systematic 
position, unless indeed, it belongs to Thelidomus, in which 
case the name Liochila will be placed in the synonymy of 
the last named subgenus." 

Through the kindness of Mr. V. P. Parkhurst, who lately 
visited Jamaica, I am enabled to solve the doubt as to the 
subgeneric position of H. Jamaicensis. He brought from 
that Island, and placed at my disposal, one living and two 
dead specimens (in alcohol) of the species in question. I 
am indebted to W. G. Binuey for the following description 
of the jaw and dentition : — 

II. Jamaicensis has a jaw high, slightly arcuate, ends attenuated; no 
median projection to cutting edge; anterior surface with 13 decided ribs, 
varying in size and irregularly disposed, but denticulating either margin. 

Lingual nlembrane long and narrow; teeth about 41-1-41, of the usual 
Helicince type. Centrals with the base of attachment longer than wide, 
and lower lateral angles greatly developed ; side cusps subobsolete, side 
cutting points absent, median cusp stout, reaching only half way to the 
lower edge of the base of attachment, beyond which projects slightly the 
cutting point, whose outer lower sides are somewhat bulging. Laterals 
same as centrals, but unsymmetrical as usual, and very gradually changing 
into the marginals. The latter are a simple modification of the laterals, 
with a very short, blunt, broad, bluntly bifid cutting point. 

Comparing the forms of jaw and lingual teeth with those, 
especially of H. asj?era (Amer. Jour, of Conch., YI, 204, 
1870) and H. discolor (Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 51, pi. 
x, fig. 1, 1874), belonging to Thelidomus, there can be no 
doubt as to the correctness of placing H. Jamaicensis in that 

148 Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 

There is a variety of 77. Jamaicensis, notice of which I 
have not* seen mentioned. The aperture is remarkably pro- 
duced laterally, the columella!" margin is oblique, having a 
very broad callus, with denticles across its edge ; in one of 
my specimens there are two, and in another three, denticles. 
In this respect the species shows an alliance with //. aspera. 

This variety has moreover, usually, a small tooth on the 
parietal wall. Ferussac's figure (Hist., t. 9 B, fig. 10) 
shows the form of aperture above mentioned. 

The other form of the species, which is generally smaller, 
has a much less oblique columella, without the broad callus, 
and the aperture is more oval than lunate. 

Helix obliterata, Fer. (Eurycratera) . 

In the description of this species (Fer. Hist., 342, N. 
406, pi. 61, figs. 3-4) the habitat quoted is Porto Kico, on 
the authority of Mange. In Chemn., ed. 2, and by PfeifFer 
(Mon. Hel.), the same habitat is given. 

The late Mr. R. J. Shuttleworth (Diag. n. Moll., 45), 
referring to the species, says, "ex afBnitate maxima cum H. 
angulata, Fer. verisimiliter Portoricensis, sed nuperrime non 

Shuttleworth, in his correspondence with me in 1854-5, 
expressed surprise that Blauner had not found H. oblit- 
erata, and some doubt as to its specific distinctness from H. 

v. Martens (Die Heliceen, ed. 2d, 147) assigns, but I do 
not know on what authority, H. angustata to Haiti and Ja- 
maica, H. obliterata to Haiti, and II. angulata to Porto Rico 
and Jamaica, but most certainly neither the first nor the last 
occurs in Jamaica. 

Mr. V. P. Parkhurst lately spent a few days in Haiti, at 
Port au Prince and its immediate northern vicinity, where 
he found not only specimens (dead) of H. bizonalis (see 
ante p. 81), but one dead specimen of II. obliterata, which 

Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 149 

he has kindly presented to me. The shell is destitute of 
epidermis, and white, without any trace of brown bands. 
Deshaves (in Fer. Hist., 1. c.) mentions that the bands are 
on the epidermis only, on removal of which the shell is 

The dimensions of my specimen are as follows : Diara. 
maj., 49 ; min. 35 mill. ; Alt. 20 mill. 

The surface of II. obliterate! is described as covered with 
coarse granulations, of H. angulata, with numerous stria3, 
but the nuclear whorls of the latter and the stria? are finely 
granulated ; this character, at least of the three upper 
whorls, is distinctly seen in young specimens. 

I am disposed, from Mr. Parkhurst's discovery, to con- 
sider that Haiti may be the true habitat of //. obliterata, 
presenting another illustration of the remarkable connection 
of the land shell fauna of Haiti with that of Porto Rico (see 
ante p. 81-2). "With respect to the doubt of Shuttleworth 
as to the specific difference of obliterata and angulata, 1 
would remark that the latter may be fairly treated as a geo- 
graphical variety of the former, as may H. Luquillensis of 
II. Audebardi. 

Helicina intusplicata, Pfr. 


Helicina intusplicata, Pfr., Zool. Proc, p. 98, 1850. 

Helicina intusplicata, Sow., Thes., Ill, N". 37, figs. 60-61, 

Helicina intusplicata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. N. 25, pi. iv, 
fig. 25, 1873. 

Helicina Smithiana, Pfr., Malak. Blat., p. 90, 1866. 

I have no doubt of the identity of H. Smithiana and in- 
tusplimta; of the latter the habitat is not given by the 
authors who refer to it. 

H. Smithiana was discovered by Mr. Smith (brother of 
my friend Mr. Sanderson Smith) on Mount Plat on, about 

150 Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 

thirty miles northeast from Aux Cayes, and I sent specimens 
to Dr. Pfeiffer, who described it in 1866. 

Mr. V. P. Parkhurst, during his late visit to Haiti, collected 
a considerable number of specimens near Port au Prince. 

The aperture of II. intusplicata is described as "parum 
obliqua, semiovali-subtriangularis, altior quam lata, ad colu- 
mellain angulata et plica intus fere ad marginem decurrente 
munita," of H. Smithiana as "obliqua, late semiovalis, juxta 
columellam plica approximata, parallela canaliculata." 

Specimens received from Messrs. Smith and Parkhurst 
agree with each other, slightly varying in size only, and with 
the figures of Sowerby and Reeve. 

Helicina Cumingiana, Pfr. 


Helicina Cumingiana, Pfr., Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 121, 

Helicina Cumingiana, Chemn., ed. II, No. 35, taf. 6, 
figs. 13-14, 

Helicina Cumingiana, Pfr., Mon. Pneu., I, 359, 1852. 

Helicina Cumingii, Sow., Thes., Ill, N. 165, figs. 
282-3, 1866. 

Helicina Cumingii, Reeve, Conch. Icon., N. 62, pi. viii, 

I am indebted to Mr. Parkhurst for one dead specimen, 
found near Port au Prince, Haiti. 

Pfeiffer was ignorant of the habitat, but by Sowerby and 
Reeve this species is assigned to St. Domingo under the 
name of Cumingii, the latter erroneously referring to the 
Zool. Proc. of 1845. 

The species is readily identified by its well developed 
stria?, subangular periphery, etc. 

Among other species, also collected by Mr. Parkhurst 
near Port au Prince and in its vicinity, were Cyclotus flocco- 

Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 


sus, Shuttl., Cyclostomus Aminensis, Pfr., Chondropoma 
serraticosia, Wein., Helicina rugosa, Pfr., unci Paivana, Pfr., 
Helix pubescens? Pfr., crispata and indixtincta, Fei\, cepa, 
Mull., Cylindrella gracilicollis, Fer., and Macroceramus 
Klatteanus, Bland. 

Species not yet determined, among them an Oleacina, 
believed to be new, will be described on another occasion. 

Helix Ingersollii, now sp. (Mcrophysa). 

T. umbilicata, discoidea, tenuis, translucida, sublevis, alba; spira plana, 
vertice, subimmersa; sutura impressa; anfr. 5-i convexiusculi, lente ac- 
rescente's, ultimus non descendens, infra peripheriam convexior; umbili- 
cus fere 1 mill, latus; apertura subverticalis, altior quam lata, lunaris; 
perist. simplex, acutum, marginibus remotis, columellari brevissime pa- 
tente, basali subsinuato. 

Shell umbilicatcd, discoidal, thin, translucid, nearly smooth, white; 
spire flat, summit subimmersed; suture impressed; whorls 5k rather con- 
vex, slowly increasing, the last not descending, more convex below the 
periphery; breadth of umbilicus nearly 1 mill.; aperture subvertical, 
higher than broad, lunate; perist. simple, acute, margins remote, columel- 
lar margin slightly reflexed, basal margin subsinuate. 

Diam. maj. 4; min. 3| ; alt. 2jz mill. 

Station and Habitat. Howardsville, Baker's Park, 9300 
ft. above the sea, abundant in wet places on the mountains ; 
not uncommon at Cunningham Gulch, near the former local- 
ity, clinging to the almost vertical face of a trachyte cliff, at 
an elevation of about 11,000 feet; the finest specimens came 
from this spot ; found also on the southern slope of the Sa- 
guache Mountains, in the Las Animas and La Plata valleys, 
in the same stations as affected by Succinea. 

152 Helix Jamaicensis, etc. 

All the localities mentioned are in the southwestern corner 
of Colorado (Inger&oll !). 

Remarks. This species was discovered by Mr. Ernest 
Ingersoll, Naturalist of the United States Geological Survey 
of the Territories, under Professor Hayden. It can scarcely 
be compared with any known North American species. 

The magnified h'o-nres herewith given, from drawings made 
by my friend Mr. A. Ten Kyck Lansing, faithfully represent 
the shell. 

At first sight I was disposed to consider the species a 
Zoniies, but examination of the animal by Mr. W. G. Binney 
proved it to belong to the Helicinw ; I am indebted to him 
for the following particulars : — 

Jaw low, wide, slightly arcuate, ends slightly attenuated; whole anter- 
ior surface with about 22, broad, flat, slightly separated ribs, whose ends 
denticulate either margin. This form of jaw is unusual among the Heli- 
cince. It is of same type as in H. Lansingi (Ann. Lye. N. II. of N. Y. 
XI, 74, fig. 2.) 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth about 16-1-16. Centrals 
as usual in the Helicinm : the side cusps and cutting points are well de- 
veloped, the base of attachment longer than wide. Laterals of same 
type, but unsymmetrical and consequently only bicuspid. The change 
from laterals to marginals is very gradual, there being no splitting of the 
inner cutting point. Marginals low, wide, with one inner, long, blunt 
cutting point, and one outer small blunt cutting point. 

Geostilbia Gundlachi, Pfeiffer. 

Through the kindness of Dr. H. E. van Pygersma, I 
have lately received specimens of this species, with the ani- 
mal (in alcohol), collected by him in the Island of St. Mar- 
tin. The species was described as Aohatinci Gundlachi by 
Pfeiffer in 1850. 

In 1867, M. Crosse established the genius Geostilbia, 
(Jour, de Conch., p. 184), for a species from New Cale- 
donia., and referred Achatina Gundlachi to the same genus 
in 1874 (1. c. p. 88). 

Helix Jamakensis, etc. 153 

Dr. van Rygersma informs me that he had an opportu- 
nity of examining the animal and could discover no eyes. 
He says it has "four tentacles, of which the lower ones are 
very small, scarcely perceptible, the upper thick, cone elon- 
gated, without any black spot, indicating eyes. The animal 
citron yellow in color ; the foot long and narrow." 

v. Martens (Die Heliceen, ed. 2) has A. Gundlachi, Pfr. 
in Acicula, subgenus of Qionella; he mentions that Acicula 
is without eyes, but gives no other particulars of the animal. 

Arango (Repertorio, I, 128) assigns the species under con- 
sideration to the genus Coecilianella, Bourguignat. While 
for the purposes of the present note, I have adopted Geostil- 
bia, I have much doubt as the necessity for its establishment. 

Mr. W. G. Binney, to whom I sent the specimens received 
from St. Martins, has obliged me with the following particu- 
lars : 

Jaw low, wide, slightly arcuate, ends attenuated ; whole surface covered 
with about 22 crowded, broad, flat ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth 18-1-18, with 4 perfect 
laterals. Centrals with their base of attachment long, narrow, their re- 
flected portion about one-half the length of the base of attachment, tricus- 
pid; the middle cusp stout, with a short blunt cutting point, side cusps 
subobsolete, but with small, distinct cutting points. Lateral teeth with 
their base of attachment subquadrate, much longer, and very much 
broader than that of the centrals, tlie reflected portion short, stout, tri- 
cuspid, the middle cusp very stout and long, reaching the lower edge of 
the base of attachment, beyond which projects the short, stout cutting 
point; side cusps subobsolete, but bearing distinct, though small cutting- 
points. There are four perfect laterals, the fifth tooth being a transition 
to the marginals, by the base of attachment being lower, wider, not ex- 
ceeding the reflected portion, with one inner large cusp bearing one outer 
large cutting point representing the outer cutting point of the first four 
lateral teeth and one inner, still larger, cutting point, representing the 
middle cutting point of the first four laterals, and one smaller, outer cusp 
bearing one small, sharp, bifid, cutting point, representing the outer side 
cutting point of the first four laterals. The sixth tooth has the largest 
cutting point bifid. The balance of the teeth are true marginals. They 
are very low, wide, with two low, wide cusps, bearing each several irreg- 
ular, blunt cutting points. 
May, 1875. 11 Axx. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

1;34 Helix Jcwtaicensis, etc. 

The dentition of this species is, as would be anticipated, of the same 
type as the allied Ccecilianella acicula as figured by Lehmann (Lebenden 
Schnecken Stettins, p. 128, pi. xiii, fig. 43, and Sordelli, 1. c, fig. 26). 
The jaw, however, has no appearance of the "brace" like ribs described 
in that species by Sordelli (Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat., xiii, 1870, 49, pi. i, 
fig. 25). The ribs are quite like those figured of Helix Lansingi (Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., XI, p. 75, fig. 2 A) although they are narrower. 

For a figure of a similar type of dentition, see that of IStenoyyra hasta, 
Pfr., in Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1875, pi. xx, fig. 3. 

G. GundlacJd is widely distributed ; it occurs in Cuba, 
Jamaica, Haiti, St. Thomas, St. Martin and Barbados. A 
closely allied, it not identical, species, has recently been 
collected by M. Marie in Guadeloupe. 

Notes on Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. 155 

XVII. — JVbtes on Ceraurus jrfewexant/iemus, Green.* 


Read June 7th, 1S75. 

The writer has had the opportunity, by his residence at 
the type-locality of the Trenton Limestone, to make some 
investigations upon the structure and habits of the trilobites 
of that interesting horizon. The results of these observa- 
tions and studies, he hopes to present from time to time, as 
they shall become sufficiently definite to call for permanent 

In the present article, it is proposed to consider certain 
facts of occurrence, which seem to bear upon the habits and 
mode of life of one of the principal species of the Trenton 
rocks, Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. Asaphus and other gen- 
era are referred to here, only as giving additional evidence 
on the points involved. 

Ceraurus pJeurexantJiemus is one of the most character- 
istic trilobites of the Trenton Limestone, in numbers and 
distribution exceeded only by Asaphus gigas, A. meglstOs, 
and Calymene senaria. It has a wide geographical, as well 
as vertical, range. Entire specimens, however, are rare in 
most localities, the head and the hypostoma being the parts 
usually found. At Trenton Falls, N. Y., in the upper third 
of the limestone, the separated heads are found in immense 
numbers ; in many places, the surface of the rock is nearly 
covered with them, while only an occasional pygidium or 
portion of the thorax is seen. 

About twenty-seven feet below the coarse crystalline lime- 

* The genus Ceraurus (Green, 1832, Monograph, p. S4) was founded upon specimens 
not clearly showing all the characteristics of the genus, as subsequently known. The 
description, however, was sufficiently accurate for the ready identification of the 
genus, and of the species, C. pleurexanthemus. The name should therefore stand; and 
C hcirunis of Beyrich (1815), must be regarded as a synonym ; since the objection raised 
to Green's figure, on the ground of its indistiuctness, is not tenable. The use of Chei- 
rums by authors is not allowable, under the rule as to priority of date adopted by the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, twelfth meeting, 1812. 

November, 1S75. 12 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

156 JVotes on Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. 

stone that caps the upper portion of the ravine at Trenton 
Falls, there is a thick layer of uneven gray limestone ; upon 
this rests a thin layer of shale and clay, varying from a 
quarter of an inch to an inch in thickness. This was the 
sea-bed where the remains of trilobites, crinoids, and other 
forms of animal life lay when buried by the overlying de- 
posit, which now is a thin layer of blnish-gray limestone, 
one to two inches thick. Attached to the under surface of 
this layer, the following species of fossils have been found : 

Slenojwra fibrosa, S. lycoperdon, Ptilodictya acuta, P. 
recta, Aulopora arachnoidea, tStellipora antheloidea, Slictopora 
elegantida, Alecto inflata, Intricaria reticulata, three species 
of Heterocrinus, two of Glyptocrinus, one each of Anomalo- 
cystites and Glyptocystites, one of /Stenaster, Lingida quad- 
rata, Trematis jilosa, Trematis n. s., Leptmxa sericea, Stro- 
phomena alternata, OrtJiis testudinaria, O. lynx, Rhynchonella 
recur virostra, Crania Trentonensis, Comdaria Trentonensis, 
Asaphus gigas, Calymene senaria, Ceraurus pleurexanthemus, 
Acidaspis Trentoneiisis, Acidaspis n. s., Proetus parvius- 
culus, Phacops callicephalus, Dalmanites. 

These fossils are generally found in groups of associated 
species, but often commingled, so that trilobites, crinoids, 
cystids, brachiopods, and bryozoans occur on the same slab of 
stone. The prevailing and characteristic fossil is Ceraurus 
pleurexanthemus. Individuals from three-sixteenths of an 
inch to two inches in length, are scattered over the surface, 
often to the exclusion of all other fossils. In a space thirty 
by forty feet, 326 entire specimens were seen. Of this 
number, and of many seen before, a record was kept ; eight 
lay with the dorsal surface up ; the remainder were on their 
backs, attached by the ventral surface of the dorsal shell to 
the under side of the layer. The view that this was the 
natural position of the trilobite is sustained by the following 
considerations : — 

1. Individuals of all stages of growth are preserved en- 
tire ; which would not have been the case, had they been 

Notes on Ceraarus pleurexanthemus. 157 

subjected to the action of the water in drifting them into the 
position found. The thorax is easily dismembered and 
broken, and could not have withstood such transportation. 

2. Very few fragments are found, and when consisting of 
the head or pygidium, they have the dorsal surface down. 

3. Upon all uneven layers, and those showing the action 
of strong currents, and holding coarser fossils, the trilobites 
are distorted and broken up. 

4. When found upon smooth layers above the Ceraurus 
layer, they are invariably back-down. Fine specimens show- 
ing the interior of the shell, are obtained from the upper 
surface of several layers. 

5. The drifting of the shell into the position found, would 
not probably have taken place, as the shell is nearly flat. 
Asaphus might, from its boat-like shape, assume such a posi- 
tion ; but a force sufficient to place a trilobite like Ceraurus 
upon its back, if the natural position when living was the 
reverse, would not have left the bryozoans and crinoids as 
they grew, without breaking the more delicate portions, 
which are often like fine hairs of stone, lying loosely in the 
imbedding clay, and breaking at the slightest touch. 

6. The trilobites never have shells or corals drifted into 
them, or lying on them, when upon the upper surface of the 
layers. Occasionally a coral encrusts the upper surface, and 
frequently a coral (Stenopora I y coper don) has taken the 
interior or ventral surface as a base for its growth, showing 
clearly that the shell had assumed the inverted position prior 
to the growth of the coral. 

Fortjr specimens of Acidaspis Trentonensis were associ- 
ated with the Ceraurus, — every individual upon its back. 
Cahjmene senaria, when not coiled (numerous), Proetus par- 
viusculus, Asaphus gigas (one only), and Dalmanites, were 
uniformly back down. 

Upon the upper surface of the Ceraurus layer, a layer of 
clayey shale was deposited, giving the same conditions as 
below the Ceraurus layer. Attached to the under surface of 

158 Notes on Ceraurus pleurexanihemus. 

the succeeding layer, or imbedded in the clayey shale, were 
bryozoans, cystids, crinoids, brachiopods, and trilobites of 
the following genera: — Ceraurus, Acidaspis, Calymene, 
Phac&ps, and Spherocoryplie. The trilobites, without excep- 
tion, were back-down. In the succeeding layer, which is six 
inches thick, many of Asapkus gigas and A. megistos have 
been found, scattered through the lower three inches of its 
thickness. Of seventy-five noted, thirty were back-down, 
twenty-nine presented the dorsal surface up, sixteen were in 
various positions, coiled, perpendicular to the layer, and 
edgeways. The succeeding five feet of the stratum is of the 
same nature as that below. Fossils are rare, especially 
trilobites. Above this, the coarse earthy limestone extends 
to the thick crystalline strata. 

Prof. Burmeister, in his "Organization of Trilobites,"* 
gives the following among other conclusions, as the result 
of comparison of the trilobites with the recent Crustacea. 

1. That these animals moved only by swimming; that 
they remained close beneath the surface of the water ; and 
that they certainly did not creep about at the bottom. 

2. That they swam in an inverted position, the belly up- 
wards, the back downwards, and that they made use of their 
power of rolling themselves into a ball, as a defence against 
attacks from above. 

4. That they most probably did not inhabit the open seas, 
but the vicinities of coasts, in shallow water; and that they 
here lived gregariously in vast numbers, chiefly of one spe- 

If the first and second conclusions are correct, we should 
look in a quiet, undisturbed deposit for evidence as to the 
position of the trilobites while living, by their position when 
buried in the sediment after death. As before stated, the 
conditions are such in the species mentioned, as to preclude 
the idea of their arrangement by other causes tlym the nat- 

* Page 52, conclusions 1, 2, 4. 

Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. 159 

ural position of the living animal, which must, therefore, have 
been with the back downward. 

The Asapkus is more frequently broken ; bat the finest and 
most perfectly preserved specimens, with but few exceptions, 
are found on their backs. 

That portion of the fourth conclusion in reference to trilo- 
bites living gregariously in vast numbers, is true of Ceraurus 
pleurexanthemus, Asaphus gigas, and A. megislos, as found 
in the stratum mentioned. 

Note. To October 16th, 1875, 1160 specimens of Ceraurus 
pleurexanthe?nus have been noted on the under surface of the 
thin layer ("Ceraurus layer"). Of these 1110 lay on their 
backs ; while but fifty presented the dorsal surface up. 
Forty-five of these fifty were very small, the remaining 
five of medium size. 

XVIII. — Description of the Interior Surface of the Dorsal 
Shell of Ceraurus pleurexanthemus, Green. 


Read June 7, 1S75. 

This interesting species, which has been referred to in the 
preceding pages, has already been described by earlier writ- 
ers,* as regards the general features of its structure and the 
outer surface of its shell. In this article, therefore, I shall 
omit all detailed reference to any of these points, and con- 
fine the description, as closely as may be, to the inner, or 
ventral, surface of the dorsal shell. This description is de- 

* Green, Monograph of Tnlobites, 1SJ2, page Si, fig. X. Hall, Palaeontology N. Y., 
vol. I, page 242. 

160 Ceraurus pleurexantheraus. 

signed to be compared with the several figures m Plate XI, 
which have been drawn from the combined evidence obtained 
by the examination of numerous specimens. 

It should be borne in mind, that as the shell, in the fol- 
lowing description, is supposed to be placed back-downward, 
as shown in figure B, Plate XI, the words upper and under, 
etc., when used in this article, are to be taken in their strict 
sense, as compared with figure B, and not in the sense that 
they usually have, when a trilobite is placed with its back 

Head. Anterior, lateral, and free posterior margins bordered by a 
" doublure." Glabellar depression, concave, longer than broad, narrowed 
posteriorly ; anterior margin a semi-lunate curve, to which the hypostoma 
is attached by a suture (hypostomatic suture) ; from the extremities of 
this suture, lateral ridges extend to the posterior lateral margins of the 
central neck depression. Tour short processes project obliquely back- 
ward from each ridge into the glabellar depression. The four anterior 
processes are rudimentary and concealed by the hypostoma. The four 
posterior processes have rounded knob-like tubercles upon their upper 
extremities ; the posterior pair attached opposite the inner posterior 
angles of the occipital depressions. A low arching ridge separates the 
glabellar and neck depressions. 

The occipital depressions include the spaces within the " doublure," 
glabellar ridges, and neck depression. Occipital cavity in the anterior 
lateral third. Glabellar and occipital depressions finely punctate. 

The neck depression extends laterally as shallow grooves under the 
"doublure," deepest towards the central depression. Central depression 
a concave groove, the posterior margin reflected upward and forward, 
terminating in a thin edge, which articulates with the articular fold of the 
first thoracic segment. 

The facial sutures arise a little on each side of the centre of the posterior 
margin of the frontal "doublure, pass forward crossing the "doublure," 
and curve under its anterior margin, thence obliquely backward to the 
anterior margin of the occipital cavities, then into those, describing a 
curve around their anterior lateral bases, and passing out at their pos- 
terior lateral margins; thence they extend obliquely outward and back- 
ward to the lateral margins of the cephalic shield at their posterior third, 
obliquely cut the "doublure," and terminate at its inner margin, at the 
posterior lateral angles of the occipital depressions. 

Hypostoma subovate, with wing-like extensions of the anterior lateral 
margins; central convex portion surrounded by a sinus, and an elevated 
margin ; this margin, at the anterior half, widens, and forms a slightly ele- 

Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. 161 

vated projecting surface : outer surface granulated. Interior concave, the 
margin a reflected, edge or "doublure." Anterior margin a semi-lunate 
curve, attached to the anterior margin of the glabellar depression by the 
hypostomatic suture. 

Thorax. Each segment may be divided into three parts, viz. : 1, 
Axial groove; 2, Thoracic pleurae; 3, Free pleurae. The axial groove 
consists of the axial ring, anterior "articular fold," and a reflexed pos- 
terior articular margin. The " articular fold " rests upon the thin edge of 
the reflected posterior articular margin of the next anterior segment. 
The anterior margin of the " articular fold" describes a curve from the 
anterior lateral extremities of the axial ring, forward into the axial 
groove, nearly concealing the preceding axial ring. The anterior margin 
of the axial ring is thickened, as a base for the articular fold, and also as 
the base of a pair of processes extendiug from the lateral extremities 
obliquely backward one-fourth the distance across the axial groove. Each 
process is a plate-like projection, surmounted at its upper extremity by 
a small knob-like elevation. 

Thoracic pleurae of each segment divided by diagonal ridges into two 
triangular depressions upon each pleura, separated from the axial groove 
and circular cavities, by short transverse ridges. Circular cavities situ- 
ated between the triangular depressions and the free pleurae ; they are 
deeper than the triangular depressions. Anterior and posterior margins 
of the pleurae parallel. 

The free pleurae curve outward and backward, terminating in falcate 
extremities. The hollow interior of each opens into the thoracic cavity 
at the inner extremity, which has upon its upper margin a crescent- 
shaped surface or slight sulcus. The whole thorax narrows posteriorly. 

Pygidium semicircular, concave, and surrounded by a strong "doub- 
lure," which has a smooth subcrescentiform surface upon each anterior 
lateral margin. Anterior lateral margins parallel to those of the posterior 
segment of the thorax. The articular fold rests upon the axial ring of 
the posterior segment. The pygidium is composed of four anchylosed 
segments; the anterior one, penetrating the." doublure" and lateral mar- 
gins, is produced into long curved spines. Four pair of axial processes 
project into the axial depression; the anterior pair well developed, the 
posterior pair as rudimentary tubercles under the " doublure." Upon the 
posterior surface of the anterior anchylosed segment, there are two 
minute oval openings, one on each side of the median line, the longer 
axis extending obliquely upward and backward. 

Formation and locality, upper third of the Trenton Lime- 
stone, Trenton Falls, Oneida Co., N. Y. 

162 Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. 


Figure A. Section of thorax at fourth segment ; enlarged to two diame- 
a. Axial groove. 
bh. Axial processes. 

cc. Thoracic pleura? and triangular depressions. 
del. Circular cavities. 
ee. Free pleurae. 
gg. Inner extremities of thoracic pleurae. 

Figure B. Interior of the dorsal shell; enlarged to two diameters. 

1. Hypostomatic suture. 

2. Hypostoma. 

3. "Doublure." 

4. Occipital depression. 

5. Occipital cavity. 

G, 7. Facial sutures cutting "doublure." 

8. Glabellar depressions and processes. 

9. Neck depression. 
10. Spines of the head. 

a. Axial groove. 

bb. Axial processes. 

cc. Triangular depressions. 

dd. Circular cavities. 

ee. Free pleurae. 

/. Crescent shaped surface on free pleurae. 

m. Elevated margin of the hypostoma. 

rr. Axial processes. 

s. Smooth crescent-shaped surface on " doublure." 

t. Pygidium. 

x. Oval openings. 

z. " Doublure." 

Figure C. Longitudinal section at median line ; enlarged to two diame- 

1. Hypostomatic suture. 

2. Hypostoma. 

3. "Doublure." 

4. Head. 

5. Thorax. 
G. Pygidium. 

Figure D. Section of segment at median line; enlarged to five diameters. 

1. Posterior reflected articular margin. 

2. Outer surface of segment. 

3. Union of articular fold and axial ring. 

4. Articular fold. 

A Neiv Species of Jay, etc. 163 

XIX. — Description of a J^eio Species of Jay of the Genus 

Cyanocitta; also of a supposed JSFew Sj)ecies of 

the Genus Cyanocorax. 

Read October 11, 1875. 

Cyanocitta pulchra. 

A narrowband on the front next the bill, the lores, the sides of the 
head and the chin are deep black; entire crown and occiput silvery bluish- 
white; a band of bright ultravnine bine crosses the hind neck, becoming 
deeper in color and gradually merging into the smoky black of the upper 
part of the back, where it inclines to brownish, the lower part of the back 
and upper tail coverts are deep cobalt blue; wings and tail of a rich co- 
balt blue, brighter than the color of the body; the under surface of the 
wings and tail glossy black; throat cobalt blue, breast and sides of the 
neck smoky black, abdomen and sides dark cobalt blue like the back, 
under tail coverts smoky black ending with cobalt blue, thighs smoky 
brown washed with blue ; bill and feet black. 

Length, 11 in.; wing, 5^; tail, 5£ ; bill, 1$; tarsus, l£. 

Habitat. Ecuador, Quito. Type in my collection. 

Remarks. Compared with C. armillata it is shorter and 
proportionally stouter, the bill very much stronger and the 
tail not so long ; it cannot be mistaken for that species as 
they differ throughout in color and markings. In C armil- 
lata the vertex, occiput and nucha are of a light blue, which 
merges into the fine dark ultramarine blue of the back ; 
whereas in the new species, the silvery bluish- white of the 
head, is separated from the smoky black back, by a rather 
narrow band of blue ; the throat patch in C. armillata is of 
a clear ultramarine blue, strongly defined and separated from 
the darker blue of the under parts by a black collar ; in the 
new species the throat mark is rather dull in color and 
without any collar below it. It is unlike any species which 
I can find described, and I compare it with C. armillata that 
its characteristics may be more clearly elucidated. 

164 A New Species of Jay, etc. 


Male. Fore part of the head as far as upon a line with the middle of 
the eye, sides of the head aud of the neck, throat and upper part of the 
breast, deep black ; moustache, a spot over the hind part of the eye, the 
central portion of the upper and lower eye lids, and a mark from the 
lower eye lid to the moustache, white ; occiput, nucha and under plumage, 
pure white ; back, wings aud two central tail feathers dark cobalt blue, 
all the other tail feathers and the ends of the two middle ones are pure 
white, the under surface of the two middle tail feathers is deep black; 
the outer webs of the primaries are of a dull rather light blue for about 
half their length, the color of the terminal portion of the webs still paler 
and of a greenish shade ; inner webs of the quills black, on their under 
surface the quill feathers are of a dark silvery-gray : the concealed parts 
of the feathers of the back are largely pure white, on the rump the ends 
of the feathers only are blue; "eyes yellow;" bill, tarsi and toes, black. 

Length, 12£ in.; wing, 5|; tail, 6; bill, 14; tarsus, 1|. 

Habitat. North Peru, Pacasmayo and Ticapa, Oct., 1874. 

Remarks. This species belongs to the group represented 
by C. cayanus, but differs in being smaller, with the back 
very differently colored, and in having all the tail feathers 
pure white except the two central ones, whereas in G. cay- 
anus all the tail feathers are more or less blue on their basal 
portions, the ends only white. 

I find but two species of this genus described as having 
the tail feathers white, with the exception of the two middle 
ones ; these are, Cyanocorax mystacalis, Geoff. Mag. de 
Zool., 1835 ; and C. uroleucus, Heine Jour, fur Orn., 1860, 
p. 115. 

C mystacalis is admitted as a valid species by G. R. Gray, 
Hand List 11, p. 5, and Sclater and Salvin, Nomenclator, 
p. 39. It is referred to C. cayanus by Bonaparte, Cons. 
Av. 1, p. 379 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. 1, p. 224; Heine, 
Jour, fur Orn. 1860, p. 116, and Schlegel Mus. des Pays 
Bas, Liv. 9, p. 51. According to its description, the tail is 
white with the exception of the two middle feathers ; this 
seems to debar it from being considered identical with C. 

A New Species of Jay, etc. 165 

From C. ?nystacalis the bird under examination appears 
to differ, as follows : in having no tendency to bluish reflec- 
tions on the top of the head, and the feathers of the back, 
rump, smaller wing coverts and scapularies, being uniform 
in color, and without grayish margins, as is stated to be the 
case in C. mystacalis. The upper plumage of C. mystacalis 
is given as " bleu clair." The shades of blue being so va- 
rious it is sometimes difficult to understand satisfactorily the 
color intended by the description, and among the Jays one of 
the most distinguishing characters, is that of the different 
shades of this color, especially in the group now under dis- 
cussion, in which the pattern of coloration is much the same. 
In my bird the back, wings and middle tail feathers are of a 
uniform dark cobalt blue. The tail of O. mystacalis is stated 
to be 4^ inches Ions, and the two middle feathers to have 
one-quarter their length at the end white, and at the extreme 
end a small spot of bluish-black ; in the present bird the 
tail is 6 inches long, with the white ends of the central 
feathers rather less than one-sixth their length in extent, and 
immaculate. The inner webs of the quills are given as 
brown in Q. mystacalis, in the bird before me they are black. 
These differences seem sufficient, I think, to show the two to 
be possibly distinct species. 

C. uroleucus Heine, I have not seen recognized by any 
writer as a good species, it is noticed by Gray (Hand List, 
11, p. 5) and referred to C. mystacalis, Geoff. ; to which 
species he also refers O. bellies Schlegel, Mus. des Pays Bas 
Liv. 9, p. 50. This last Schlegel describes as having the 
basal portions of all the tail feathers more or less blue, and 
therefore it is unlike C. mystacalis. 

Judging from the description of C bellus, it seems to me 
to be entitled to a distinct position, for with the cobalt blue 
back in connection with the markings of the tail, it appears 
to differ from all other species. 

O. uroleucus is described as having the quills and wing 
coverts "fuscis" broadly margined with blue — this does not 

166 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonala. 

apply well to the specimen before me, as the wing coverts 
are blue, uniform in color with the back, the quills are black 
on the inner webs and blue on the outer ; the under surface 
of the middle tail feathers is also given as "fuscis," in my 
bird the color is deep black. The color given of the upper 
plumage is "creruleus." Jn size it is stated to be larger than 
C. cay anus, my bird is smaller than that species. In neither 
C mystacalis nor C uroleucus is there any allusion to the 
feathers of the back having pure white bases as in my bird. 

Mr. Gray may be correct in considering C. uroleucus the 
same as C. mystacalis, and the bird I have described may be 
the same also, but the differences pointed out seem sufficient 
for its separation, and should it prove to be distinct, I pro- 
pose to name it after my friend Prof. James Ortou, it would 
then stand as Cyanocorax Ortoni. 

There are two specimens of this handsome species, in a 
small collection from Northern Peru ; these were lately re- 
ceived by Prof. Orton of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, and 
sent to me for determination. 

It is much to be desired that the types of O. mystacalis, 
C. uroleucus and C. bellus, may be carefully examined, and 
their status more satisfactorily determined. 

XX. On the Genitalia, Jaw and Lingual Dentition of cer- 
tain species of Pulmonata. 

By w. g. binney. 

[With a Note on the Classification of the Achatinellse, by Thomas Bland.] 

Read October 11, 1875. 

In the following pages I have not considered it necessary 
to offer a full description of the dentition in cases where a 
figure is given. In the Proceedings of the Academy of 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 167 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1875, p. 145, full expla- 
nation will he found of the terms I use. In the plates, I 
have endeavored to give a perfect idea of the several forms 
of teeth on each lingual membrane by figuring the central 
with the first lateral tooth, the transition from lateral to mar- 
ginal teeth, and a decided marginal, usually the last. The 
position of each tooth from the median line is indicated on 
the plates by numerals. The plates must, however, be 
studied with the text. It will be seen that the cutting points 
of the teeth are shaded. I have not, also, considered it 
necessary fully to describe the genitalia in cases where I have 
given a figure of the system. I have rather confined m}'self 
to pointing out the characteristic feature of each. In the 
lettering of the plates, I have not deemed it important to 
indicate the testicle, epididymis, accessory gland, prostate, 
vas deferens, ovary or oviduct, as those organs cannot fail to 
be recognized. I have, however, indicated the penis sac, 
retractor of same, genital bladder with its duct, and any 
accessory organs that may occur. As in my former publica- 
tions, I apply the terms ovary and testicle as does Dr. Leidy 
in the first volume of "Terrestrial Mollusks of the United 

Glandina truncata, Say. 

On plate xiv, fig. F, I have given a figure of the central tooth of this 
species which is more accurate than that given in Proc. Phila. A. N. S., 
1875, pi. i, fig. 1. It will be seen to agree with the figure of Morse (lb. 
p. 156, fig. 2) as regards the presence of a distinct cusp. The figure was 
drawn from the lingual membrane of a large Florida specimen. 

It will be of interest to note here that the largest speci- 
mens of Glandina found by me near St. Augustine, were in 
the centre of the clumps of large, coarse grass covering the 
marshes at the edge of Matansas River. Mr. Say also 
speaks of finding the largest specimens in the marshes imme- 
diately behind the sand hills of the coast. 

168 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 

Nanina radians, Pfr. (Microcystis). 

Rarotonga Isl., Mr. A. Garrett. 

Plate xvi, fig. 1, represents one central, lateral and marginal tooth. 
There are 40-1-40 teeth, 8 being perfectly formed laterals. The mar- 
ginals are sometimes trifld. 

For the identification of this and of the following Society 
Island species I am indebted to Mr. Garrett. They form a 
part of an extremely interesting collection of Society Island 
laud shells, preserved in spirits, just received from him, 
through Dr. W. D. Hartman of West Chester, Pa. 

Wanina conula, Pease. 

Island of Huahine, Mr. A. Garrett. 

Central and lateral teeth as in N. radians, Pfr. (see above). Lateral 
teeth seven in number. Marginals aculeate, multifld, very numerous. 
The species is viviparous. 

Nanina calculosa, Gould. 
Island of Huahine, Mr. A. Garrett. 

Jaw as usual in the genus. Lingual membrane long and narrow. 
Teeth 38-1-38. Centrals and (7) laterals as in N. radians (see above), the 
latter, however, have slightly developed, inner, side cutting points. First 
15 marginals bifid, the balance multifld. 

The species is viviparous. 

Trochomorpha Cressida, Gould. 
Island of Huahine, Mr. A. Garrett. 

Jaw arched, high; ends blunt; cutting margin with a median beak-like 

Lingual membrane (pL xvi, fig. H.) with 55- 1-55 teeth. The bifur- 
cation of the cutting point of the marginals commences in the 11th tooth. 
There are no side cusps to centrals and laterals, which have a long, 
narrow base of attachment. 

I figure one central, one lateral and one marginal tooth. 

Von Martens puts the species in Discus, a subgenus of Nanina. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 169 

Zonites cerinoideus, Anthony. 
Charleston, S. C, Mr. W. G. Mazyck. 

The animal has the distinct locomotive disk and the parallel furrows 
above the margin of the foot, meeting above a distinct, caudal mucus 
pore, characteristic of the genus. It has also a dart and sac, as in Z. li- 

Jaw as usual in the genus. Lingual membrane (pi. xiii, fig. B), 
as usual in the genus. (See Proc. Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, 161). Teeth 
34-1-3-4 with 9 perfect laterals. 

Limax montanus, Ingersoll. 

(Report on Nat Hist, of U. S. Geolog. and Geogr. Survey of the Territories, 

1874, p. 130.) 

This species was found by Mr. Ernest Ingersoll, in the 
mountains of Colorado, at "camps 9-11, Blue River Val- 
ley," while attached to the Survey of the Territories, in 1874. 

The animal is about 18 - 25 mill. long. It presents no peculiar external 
characters. Its color is brown, with mantle, head, tentacles and eye- 
peduncles black : bottom of foot white. On opening the animal I found 
it does not agree in dentition with L. campestris, the only native species 
whose presence could be expected there. 

The jaw is as usual in the genus. The lingual membrane is long and 
narrow. Teeth 50-1-50 (pi. xviii, fig. D), arrauged as usual in the 
genus Limax. The central teeth have decided side cusps and cutting 
points. The lateral teeth are like the centrals, but unsymmetrical and 
consequently bicuspid ; there are about 16 perfect laterals. The marginals 
are purely aculeate in form, are arranged as usual in the genus (see Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila., 1875, 172), and all have a slightly developed side spur, 
making the tooth bicuspid. 

L. camj)estris has no side spur to its inner marginals, though it has such 
on the outer ones. Otherwise the dentition is about the same. 

In its genitalia also, this species is nearly allied to L. campestris, as 
will be seen in comparing my figure (pi. xii," fig. 4), with that of Dr. 
Leidy (Terr. Moll. U. S. pi. ii, fig. 6). Limax Ingersolli, however, differs 
in the shape of its genital bladder-and the shortness of the duct. 

With Limax montanus were specimens whose dentition (pi. svili, 
fig. F), differs only in having a less number of teeth, 34-1-34, with 12 
perfect laterals. The teeth are of the same type as in L. montanus. The 
animal is shorter, by about one-half. This form has been noticed as L. 
castancus by Mr. Ingersoll, 1. c. p. 131. 

In dentition and genitalia L. montanus differs from all the other species, 
native and introduced, thus far known to exist in North America. 

170 Jaiv and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Patula Cumberlandiana, Lea. 
Sewance, Tenn. Dr. Jno. B. Elliott. 

Jaw of the same type as in P. aHemata (see Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pliila. , 
1875, 177, fig. 21). There are coarse vertical stria?. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xv, fig. E) long and narrow. Teeth of same 
type as in P. solitaria, alternata, etc. (see same reference, 178). The 
centrals and laterals have, however, a much shorter median cusp. Side 
cusps subobsolete, and side cutting points wanting on the centrals and 
first two laterals, the third lateral beginning to show them; the outer 
laterals, as the seventh lateral etc (see plate), have them well developed. 
The transition to marginals is very gradual and is not formed by the bifur- 
cation of the inner cutting point, which remains simple to the extreme 
outer edge. The smaller, outer cutting point is sometimes bifid in the 
outer marginals. These last are usually but a simple modification of the 
laterals, as shown (see plate) in the 20th and 30th teeth. 

There are 30-1-30 teeth, with hardly 13 laterals, and certainly not so 
many absolutely perfect ones. 

In P. alternata (see as above, p. 180, pi. vii, fig. 5) there are decided 
prominent side cusps and cutting points to centrals and first laterals. The 
shape of the centrals and first laterals also in alternata, is quite different 
from those of this species. 

The genitalia agree with those of P. alternata figured by Dr. Leidy, in 
Terr. Moll. U. S., I. pi. vii, fig. 2, excepting, perhaps, that in Cumberland- 
iana, the genital bladder is smaller, and its duct longer and narrower. 

For the specimens examined I am indebted to Dr. Elliott, 
a son of the late Bishop Elliott, who so generously contrib- 
uted specimens from southern localities a number of years 
ago, most materially assisting Mr. Bland and myself in our 

This species was described by Dr. Lea, from Jasper, Mar- 
ion Co., Tenn. Sewanee, the University Place of Bishop 
Elliott, is in Franklin, the adjoining county. These are the 
only localities of the species thus far known. 

Patula mordax, Shuttl. 

East Tennessee. 

I have lately had an opportunity of examining its genitalia, and find 
them to agree with those of the typical alternata. The dentition is also 
the same (see Proc. Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, pi. VII, fig. 7). 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pidmonata. 171 

Patula alternata, Say. 

I have also examined and here figure (pi. xvii, fig. 15), the genitalia 
of the heavily ribbed form of P. alternata, from Eastern Tennessee (Mr. 
A. G. Wetherby). It agrees with the typical P. alternata, and also in 
dentition. In both forms I found the duct of the genital bladder much 
longer than is figured by Leidy, in the Terrestrial Mollusks U. S. In P. 
Cumberlandiana also it is loug, thus agreeing with alternata. 

Patula Huahinensis, Pfr. 

Huahine Isl., Mr. A. Garrett. 

Lingual membrane, with 18-1-13 teeth, of which about six are later- 
als. The type of dentition is about the same as in Endodonta incerta, 
herewith described. The margiuals are, however, different, the two cut- 
ting points being bifid, the base of attachment low and wide. (Plate 
xvii, fig. 17). 

Endodonta incerta, Mousson. 
Huahine Island, Mr. A. Garrett. 

I am indebted to Mr. Garrett, for the identification of this 
and all the Huahine species herewith described. 

I regret not succeeding in obtaining the jaw of any species of this 
group, the more because some doubt about its existence has been ex- 
pressed. It is, however, probable that it will be found, as no aguathous 
genus has yet been noticed with the quadrate marginal teeth, which charac- 
terize E. incerta, and also E. tumnloides, Garrett (Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 
Phila., 1875, p. 248, pi. xxi, fig. 6). 

Lingual membrane (pi. xvii, fig. 16) with 11-1-11 teeth, of which i are 
perfect laterals. The marginals (of which the last is shown in the figure) 
are but a simple modification of the laterals. They differ from those of 
tumuloides, unless, indeed, I have, from their exceeding minuteness, failed 
rightly to interpret them. 

Helix Ingersolli, Bland (Microphijsa). 
Mr. Ernest Ingersoll : U. S. Survey of Territories, 1874. 

Jaw low, wide, slightly arcuate, ends slightly attenuated : whole an- 
terior surface with about 22 broad, flat, slightly separated ribs, whose 
ends denticulate either margin. 

This form of jaw is unusual among the Helicina:. It is somewhat like 
that of H. Lansingi (see Phila. Pr., 1875, p. 169). 
November, 1875. 13 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., v l. xi. 

172 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pidmonata. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth about 16- 1 - 16. Centrals 
as usual in the Helicince (pi. xviii, fig. C). The side cusps and cutting 
points are well developed, the base of attachment longer than wide. 
Laterals of same type, but unsymmetrical, and consequently only bicus- 
pid. The change from laterals to marginals. (8th and 9th teeth of figure) 
is very gradual, there being no splitting of the inner cuttiug points, at 
least uot as in most species (see pi. xii, fig. E). Marginals (16th tooth of 
figure) very low, wide, with oue iuner, long, blunt cuttiug poiut, aud one 
outer, small, blunt. 

The low, wide marginal teeth of this species are peculiar. 

Helix rufescens, Pennant (Fruticicola). 

Extracted from a dry English shell furnished by Mr. A. 
G. Wetherby. I include it here because the species has 
been introduced at Quebec. I was uot able to illustrate it 
when treating of the Lingual Dentition of North American 
Land Shells, in Proc. Ac. 1 " Nat. Sc. Phila., 1875, 214. 

There are 26-1-26 teeth. The characters of all are shown in my fig- 
ures. It will be seen that the transition from laterals to marginals (16 to 
19), see also Lehmann, in Malak. Blatt. xvi, is gradual. The inner cut- 
ting point is not bifid. 

Helix pubeseens, Pfr. (Fruticicola). 

Haiti. Mr. V. P. Parkhurst to Mr. T. Bland. 

Jaw (pi. xv, fig. C) thin, semitransparent, low, slightly arcuate, 
ends scarcely attenuated, blunt ; upper margin with a strong muscular 
attachment: no median projection to cutting edge; anterior surface with 
about 20 ribs denticulating either margin; these ribs appear in most cases 
to be broad, flat, with narrow interstices, but iu others there are appear- 
ances such as I have described in Bulimulus Umnceoides (see below). 

Lingual membrane long and narrow (pi. xv, fig. D). Teeth as usual 
in the Helicince. The change from laterals to marginals is very gradual, 
not formed by the splitting of the inuer cutting point. The 12th tooth 
(figured) shows the commencement of the transition. The 22d (figured) 
is a marginal tooth. The iuner cuttiug point of the marginals is rarely 

Teeth about 24-1-24. 

Helix Studeriana, Fer. (Stylodoii). 

Seychelles, Consul Pike to Mr. T. Bland. 

Jaw stout, strongly arched, ends but little attenuated, blunt; anterior 
surface without ribs ; there are, however, a few, coarse, broad, vertical 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pidmonata. 173 

wrinkles. One jaw had a slightly developed median projection to its cut- 
ting edge, another has no approach to a projection. 

Plate xiv, fig. C, shows the lingual dentition. Teeth 69-1-69, 
with about 22 laterals. There is considerable resemblance to the denti- 
tion of H. fringilla herewith described. The cutting points on centrals 
aud laterals are, however, more pointed. 

This species is viviparous. 

Helix dentiens, Fer. (Dentellaria). 

See Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1874, p. 57. I now offer fig. G of pi. 
xvi, to give more full details of the changes of the teeth from centrals to 
marginals, especially the side cusp and cutting point of the outer laterals, 
and the transition from laterals to marginals. Tooth 33 is the last. 

Helix aspera, Fer. (Thelidomus). 
Jamaica. Mr. V. P. Parkhurst to Mr. T. Bland. 

For jaw and lingual membrane see Amer. Journ. Conch. VI, 204. 

PI. xii, fig. 2, represents the genital system. The genital bladder 
(g. b.) is elongated oval, on a short, stout duct. The penis- sac (p. s.) 
is stout, long, tapering bluntly to its apex, someway below which is the 
entrance of the vas deferens. The retractor muscle is inserted at about 
the middle of the length of the penis-sac. 

Helix Jamaicensis, Chemn. (Thelidomus). 

Jamaica. Mr. V. P. Parkhurst to Mr. T. Bland. 

Mr. Bland has already called attention (Ann. Lye. N. H. 
of N. Y. XI, 146, 1875) to the true subgeneric position 
of this species. I propose here only to give a figure of the 
dentition and genitalia. 

There are 41-1-41 teeth on the long and narrow lingual membrane 
(pi. xiv, fig. B). 

Jaw thick, arcuate, ends attenuated : anterior surface with 14 decided 
but unequal, irregularly disposed ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Genitalia figured on pi. xiii, fig. F. The peculiarity of it is the ex- 
tremely long epididymis (e), convoluted at either end. The penis-sac 
has a contraction at its middle, below which it is black, above it, white. 


174 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Helix crispata, F6r. (Eury crater a). 
Port au Prince. Mr. V. P. Parkhurst to Mr. T. Bland. 

Lingual membrane and jaw already described (see Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sc, 1874, 57, pi. x, fig. 9*). 

Plate xii, fig. 8, represents the lower portions of the genital system. 
The genital bladder (g. b.) is very small, globular, on a long duct, which 
is very narrow in its upper half and gradually enlarges below until it be- 
comes very stout. On the penis-sac (p. s.), above the junction of the re- 
tractor muscle, is a small globular mass, of character unknown to me. 

Helix spinosa, Lea (Stenotrema) . 
Tennessee. Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

Plate xii, fig. 3, represents the genital system of this species. The 
penis-sac (p. s.) is very long, attenuated at either end, greatly swollen at 
the median third of its length. The genital bladder is oval, on a short 

Helix stenotrema, F6r. (Stenotrema). 

Tennessee. Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

The genitalia are as figured for hirsuta by Dr. Leidy, in Terr. Moll. U. S. 
There is, however, in this species, a much greater development of pros- 
tate, testicle and epididymis. The last named organ is scarcely convo- 
luted. The margins of the first named are scalloped. 

Helix bartoigera, Redf. (Stenotrema). 
Genitalia as in the last species. 

Helix tridentata, Say (Triodopsis). 

On pi. xvii, fig. 19, I have given the genitalia of this species. They 
may be compared with those of the other species of Triodopsis given be- 
low. The genital bladder with its duct offer slight variations in all these 
species ; whether constant or not must be decided by future study. My 
figures will draw attention to this point. 

Helix fallax, Say (Triodopsis'). 
Genitalia (pi. xvii, fig. 11). See last species. 

♦ There are decided side cutting points to centrals and laterals, though I failed to 
see them in the lingual figured. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 175 

Helix Hopetonensis, Shuttl. (Triodopsis). 
City of Charleston, S. C. 
Genitalia (pi. xvii, fig. H). See above, H. tridentata. 

Helix Van Nostrandi, Bland, MS. (Triodopsis). 
Aiken, S. C. Miss Emma Van Nostrand. 

Jaw as usual in Triodopsis : ribs 17. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xvii, fig. 8) long and narrow. Teeth 24- 
1 - 24, with 10 laterals. The centrals have no distinct side cusps or cut- 
ting points, but the latter are replaced by decided bulgings on the median 
cutting point. The figure gives the central with the first, tenth, eleventh, 
nineteenth and twenty-fourth teeth ; the last two are marginals. 

Genitalia (pi. xvii, fig. 12). See above under H. tridentata. 

Helix Rugeli, Shuttl. {Triodopsis). 

East Tennessee. Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

Genitalia (pi. xvii, fig. 18). See above under H. tridentata. 

Helix Harfordiana, J. G. Cooper (Triodopsis). 
California. Mr. Henry Hemphill to Mr. T. Bland. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xviii, fig. A) as usual in the subgenus (see 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1875, 206). Teeth 26-1-26, with 12 laterals. 
The side cutting points to central and lateral teeth are well developed. 

Jaw as usual in the subgenus (see same references as above), with 
over 12 ribs. 

Helix fringilla, Pfr. (Merope). 
Admiralty Island. Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

The dried remains of the animal iu the shell of a cabinet 
specimen furnished the lingual membrane and jaw here de- 
scribed. The shell is the variety with the pink peristome. 

Jaw with numerous, crowded, stout ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xiv, fig. A, pi. xv, fig. A) long and narrow. 
Teeth 28 - 1 - 28, with about 1 1 laterals. Centrals with base of attachment 
longer than wide ; side cusps obsolete, side cutting points wanting ; 
middle cusp broad, blunt, with a very short, broad, blunt cutting point. 

176 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Laterals like the centrals, but unsymnaetrical : the cutting point becomes 
longer as they pass ofl' laterally, and at the 12th tooth it commences to be 
bluntly trifid. The marginals are peculiar; their base of attachment is 
subquadrate with a single broad cusp, bearing a very broad, oblique, ex- 
panding, trifid cutting point; the outer division very small, pointed; the 
median longer, very broad, squarely truncated ; the inner one about half 
the size of the median, recurved and sharply pointed. 

In pi. xiv, fig. A, I have represented the dentition of that portiou of 
the lingual membrane where the cutting points are least developed. Pi. 
xv, fig. A, represents that portion where they are most so. It must 
always be borne in mind that such differences of development exist in all 

The dentition of this species is peculiar, resembling that common in 
Orlhalicus rather than the type usual in Helix. 

Helix leporina, Gould (Polygyra). 
Texas. Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

Jaw as usual in the subgenus (see Phila. Proc. 1875, 201), with 12 

Lingual membrane as usual in the subgenus (see id.). Teeth 18 - 1 - 18, 
with 8 laterals (pi. xviii, fig. B). The loth tooth figured is from another 
portion of the membrane from that furnishing the 13th. The extreme 
right hand figure of my plate represents a deformed first lateral tooth. 

Helix auriculata, Say {Poly gyro) . 

St. Augustine, Florida, under the ruins of the sugar house 
chimneys at Hanson's deserted plantation. 

Having collected specimens of undoubted identity at Mr. Say's original 
locality, I have compared the genitalia with those figured by Leidy (Terr. 
Moll. U. S., I. pi. ix) and find them to agree. This is important, as the 
name " auriculata" was used in that work to cover several species. 

I have also given (pi. xviii, fig. E) a better figure of the dentition 
than in Proc. Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, pi. viii, fig. 12. There are 2G - 1 - 26 
teeth. The inner cutting point of the 13th tooth is bifid, so that there are 
12 laterals. 

Jaw with 10 ribs. 

Helix uvulifera, Shuttl. (Polygyra). 
Genitalia as in H. auriculata. 

Helix septemvolva, Say (Polygyra). 

St. Augustine, Florida. 

Plate xii, fig. 6, represents the genital system of the large form of this 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 177 

species. It is characterized by its extreme length, as would be expected 
from the form of the shell. The vagina (v.) is extremely long and narrow. 
The genital bladder (g. b.) is elongated oval, on a short, slender duct. 
The penis-sac (p. s.) is very long, attenuated to' a point above, where the 
retractor muscle is inserted. 

The digestive system is also very much elongated. The oesophagus 
especially is excessively loug, as are also the ducts to the salivary glands. 

This species is extremely coramou all over St. Augustine 
and its vicinity. The large form I found almost restricted 
to the moat of the old fort, especially at the foot of the main 
western wall; 

Helix Febigeri, Bland (FoTygyrd). 
Near Mobile, Alabama. Dr. E. R. Showalter. 
Genitalia as in H. septemvolva (see pi. xii, fig. 6). 

Helix cereolus, Muhlf. (Polygyra). 

For this and many species of Key West I am indebted to 
the kindness of Mr. W. W. Calkins. 

Jaw as usual in the subgenus (1. c), with over 14 ribs. 

Lingual membrane as usual (pi. xvi, fig. C). Teeth 22-1-22, with 9 
laterals, the inner cutting point of the 10th tooth being bifid. Marginals 
with base of attachment low, wide, with one inner, long, oblique, bifid 
cutting point, and one short, bluntly bifid, small, outer cutting point. 

Genitalia as in last species. 

Helix Carpenteriana, Bland (Polygyra). 
Key West. Mr. W. W. Calkins. 

Jaw as usual in the subgenus : (1. c.) : ribs over 12. 

Lingual membrane as usual (pi. xiii, fig. K). Teeth 22-1-22. The 
character of the various teeth is shown in the figures. There are 9 laterals, 
the 10th tooth having a bifid inner cutting point. 

I can now state that H. cereolus, Carpenteriana, septemvolva, volvoxis, 
and Febitjeri have the same dentition. In all, the splitting of the inner 
cutting point commences at the tenth tooth. 

Genitalia as in //. septemvolva described herewith. 

178 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Helix exoleta, Binn. (Mesodon). 

I have already referred to the peculiarity of this species in sometimes 
having, and sometimes wanting, side cutting points to outer lateral teeth, 
and a bifurcation to the inner cutting point of the marginals (see Proc. 
Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, 243). I here figure teeth from a lingual mem- 
brane differing in this respect from that figured by me before (1. c. pi. xi, 
fig. 7). The cutting point of the central and first lateral teeth have a lat- 
eral bulging which represents the side point.* This point appears about 
the 11th tooth. 

Plate xvi, fig. D. E. The 60th tooth is the last. 

Fig. E represents an inner marginal tooth from another membrane, 
agreeing with my former figure in having a simple, not bifid, inner cutting 

I am sure of the identity of each individual examined, having verified 
it by the peculiar genital bladder and penis-sac, figured by Leidy, 1. c. 

Helix ruficincta, Newc. (Arionta). 
Catalina Is]., California. Mr. Henry Hemphill. 

Plate xiii, fig. A, shows the genitalia. There are no peculiar acces- 
sory organs, as in ramentosa, Nickliniana, Kelletti, etc. (see Proc. Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sc, 1874, pi. iii, iv). A dart sac ? (d. s.) is, however, pres- 

Helix Carpenteri, Newc. (Arionta).- 

Coronado Islands, coast of Lower California. Mr. Henry 

Genitalia as in H. dSTickliniana (see Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1874, pi. 
iv, fig. 3). The flagellate ends of the vaginal prostate are shorter in 
this species. 

Jaw as usual in the subgenus (see Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1875, 216), 
with over seven ribs. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth 48 - 1 - 48, with 20 laterals. 
See pi. xv, fig. B. It will be seen that the central and first lateral teeth 
have no side cusps or cutting points ; it appears first on the 8th tooth. 
The change from laterals to marginals is formed as usual, the inner cut- 
ting point of the 21st tooth being bifid. A marginal is shown in the 34th 

* I fear that in my figure of the dentition of M. albolabris (1. c.) I have mistaken this 
bulging for a distinct cutting point. The membranes of all our species should be 
carefully restudied with the view of learning whether there is any difference other than 
of degree between this bulging and a distinct cutting point. The figures of Semper 
(Phil. Archip.) should be carefully studied, as they show best the two planes of the 
cusp and cutting point. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 179 

Helix Ayresiana, Newc. (Arionta). 

San Miguel Isl., California. Mr. H. Harford. 

Genitalia as in H. Traski (see Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., XI, 30, pi. 
vi, fig. 4). The flagellate extensions of the vaginal prostate beyond 
the bulbs in this species are, however, much shorter and stouter. 

Helix exarata, Pfr. (Arionta). 

Alameda Co., Calfornia. Dr. L. G. Yates. 

Genitalia as in H. Nickliniana, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1874, pi. iv, 
flg. 3. 

Helix Diabloensis, J. G. Cooper. (Arionta). 
Alameda Co., California. Mr. L. G. Yates. 

Jaw as usual in the genus, (see Proc. Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, 216), 
with 5 ribs. 

Liugual membrane (pi. xv, flg. G), as usual in the subgenus. The 
central and first lateral teeth have no side cusps or cutting points; these 
appear on the 13th tooth. The 18th tooth has its inner cusp bifid; there 
may, therefore, be said to be 17 laterals. The marginals (see figure for 
the last one), are low, wide, with one inner, long, oblique, bifid cutting 
point, and one outer small cutting point. There are 37-1-37 teeth. 

Genitalia as in R. exarata. 

Helix arrosa, Gould (Arionta). 

Plate xii, fig. 5, gives the genital system. 

The penis-sac is extremely long and gradually tapers into a flagellum. 
It receives the retractor muscle beyond the middle of its length, and the 
vas deferens at three-quarters of its length from the vagina. The genital 
bladder (g. b.) is very small, oval, on a very long duct, which has a very 
long, stouter, accessory duct (a. d.). 

From H. Nickliniana, H. arrosa differs greatly in the total want of the 
peculiar accessory organ, probably a vaginal prostate, which characterizes 
that species (see Phila. Proc. 1874, 41, pi. iii, fig. 4). From H. Town- 
sendiana, it still more widely differs (see same, 1873, 254, pi. i, flg. 4), in the 
character of the penis-sac and genital bladdei*. 

Helix facta, Newc. (Arionta). 

Sta. Barbara Island, California. Mr. H. Hemphill. 

In my account of the dentition of North American Land Shells in Proc. 
Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, I was unable to include this species. 

180 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 

Jaw already described. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow (pi. xvii, fig. 13). Teeth 2G - 1 - 26, 
as usual in Arionta. The fourth has decided side cusp and cutting point, 
which on the central and first three laterals are replaced by a prominent 
bulging of the large cutting point. The thirteenth tooth has its inner 
cutting point bifid. My figures give the central with the first, fourth, 
twelfth, thirteenth, seventeenth and twenty-sixth teeth, the last two being 

Genitalia (pi. xvii, fig. 9) without the accessory duct of the genital 
bladder, and with a dart sac (?). They resemble nearly those of II. rufi- 
cincta (see above), differing chiefly in the length of the duct of the genital 
bladder. At the base of the dart sac there appear two simple, thread-like 
organs, reminding me of those of H. Steamsiana, but without their ter- 
minal complications. I have not figured them, being uncertain whether 
they should be considered as a part of the genital system. 

Helix Tryoni, Newc. (Eaparypha) . 
Sta. Barbara Island, California. Mr. H. Hemphill. 

Jaw already described by me (L. & Fr. W. Shells, I. 179). 

Lingual membrane (pi. xvii, fig. 5) long and narrow, quite as in 
Arionta. Teeth 42-1-42. The eleventh lateral has a decided side cusp 
and cutting point. The 14th has its inner cutting point bifid. The char- 
acters of the individual teeth are shown in the figure, which gives the 
central, the first, eleventh, fourteenth, thirty-seventh and forty-second 

Genitalia (pi. xvii, fig. 10) as usual in Arionta, especially in H. Steams- 
iana, but with this important difference, that from the base of the dart 
sac one thread-like organ alone proceeds, the other being replaced by a 
sponge-like process, evidently a form of vaginal prostate. 

Anadenus ? 

Himalaya Mts. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, through Mr. Anthony. 

On pi. xviii, fig. 1, I have figured the dentition of this slug, whose 
specific name is unknown to me. There are 58-1-58 teeth. 

The jaw is thick, low, wide, slightly arcuate ; ends but little atteuuated : 
anterior surface with 14 stout, unequal, separated ribs, denticulating 
either margin. 

The dentition is of the same type as described in the genus by Heyne- 
mann, Malak. Blatt. X, 1863, p. 13S. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 181 

Orthalicus undatus, Brug. Var. 

Key West. W. W. Calkins. 

This is the form figured as O. zebra, Miill., in Terr. 
Moll. U. S., IV, pi. lxxviii, fig. 12, and L. & Fr. W. 
Sh. N. A., I. p. 216, fig. 370 (not fig. 371). It has also 
been found on Indian Key, Sandy Key, Cape Sable and Key 

Mr. Calkins kindly sent me specimens preserved in spirits. The gen- 
italia are like those of the typical 0. undatus, from Jamaica (see Ann. 
N. Y. Lye, N. H., XI, 41). So also is the jaw. 

The lingual dentition I have figured on pi. xiii, fig. E. giving one cen- 
tral with its adjacent lateral, and one marginal tooth. There are 126-1 
-126 teeth. The cutting points are somewhat more developed than in 
the typical undatus (see Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1875, pi. vi, fig. D)'. 

Ariolimax Hemphilli (n. sp). 

From Mr. Henry Hemphill I have received specimens of an 
undescribed species of Ariolimax, collected by him at 
Niles Station, Alameda Co., California. 

It is from 25-31 mill, long, of a transparent flesh color, much more 
slender than the other known species, with a much more pointed tail. 
The mantle is also longer. These characters, even in specimens pre- 
served in alcohol, readily distinguish the species. On dissecting the 
specimens, I also found distinguishing specific characters in the genitalia 
(pi. xii, fig. 7). The testicle (t.) embedded in the liver, is brown, com- 
posed of thickly packed fasciculi of long, blunt cceca, the mass formed 
by them is cuneiform. The ovary (ov.) is narrow and pointed. The gen- 
ital bladder (g. b.) is small, oval, with a short, narrow duct, which be- 
comes much more swollen at its junction with the vagina. The penis 
sac (p. s.) is extremely short, globular, receiving the vas deferens at its 
upper posterior portion, and the retractor muscle at its farther end. Oppo- 
site the mouth of the penis sac the vagina is greatly swollen. 

A comparison with my figures of the genitalia of A. Andersoni? (pi. 
xii, fig. 9), and A. Columbianus, Californicus and niger (Phila. Proc, 1874, 
pi. ii and xi), will show how widely they differ from those of the present 

The jaw is thick, low, wide, slightly arcuate, ends scarcely attenuated ; 
anterior surface with 8-12 decided ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xviii, fig. H) as usual in the genus (see Phila. 
Proc, 1875, 193). Teeth 31 - 1 - 31. 

182 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pidmonata. 

Ariolimax Andersoni, J. G. Coop. ? 
From Mr. L. G. Yates I have received specimens of an 
Ariolimax found in the mountains of Alameda Co., Cali- 
fornia. From the fact of the reticulations of the surface of 
the animal having the foliated appearance noticed in Avion 
foliolatus, Gld., Prophysaon Hemphilli, Bl. & Binn., and 
Avion Andersoni, J. G. C, I am inclined to refer the spec- 
imens to one of those species. I am entirely unacquainted 
with the first (see Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. H.,X, 297), the 
second is generically distinct, the latter may be identical.* 
The specimens have all the characters of Ariolimax (see 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. of Phila., 1874, 33). They are about 
35 mill. long. 

The jaw is as usual in the genus, wide, low, with about 13 broad, sep- 
arated ribs, denticulating either margin. The lingual membrane is as 
usual. Teeth 48-1-48. The characters of the teeth are sufficiently 
shown in my flg. G, of plate xii. The change from laterals to marginals is 
very gradual (43), the latter being but a simple modification of the former. 

The genitalia (pi. xii, fig. 9) are very much like those of A. niger (see 
Phila. Proc. 1. c, pi. xi, fig. C), especially in the shape of the penis-sac, 
and the peculiar accessory organ (v. p.), probably a vaginal prostate. 
The genital bladder differs somewhat in shape, and also the testicle. 

The rudimentary shell has decided concentric layers. The caudal 
mucus pore is as in A. Columbianus (Phila. Proc. 1. c, pi. ii, fig. B). 

Should this not prove the species described as Avion 
Andevsoni by Dr. J. G. Cooper, it must receive a new name. 
It is a true Ariolimax, most nearly related to A. niger. The 
latter species wants the foliated reticulations, and has its 
posterior termination more blunt, with a decided lateral cleft 
at the mucus pore. 

*I have lately received from Dr. Cooper, \mder the name of Arion Andersoni, spec- 
imens agreeing perfectly with the form of Prophysaon referred to as probably unde- 
scribed on p. 296, and pi xiii, flg. 5, of Ann. of Lye. of N. H. of N. Y., vol. X. Should 
Dr. Cooper's Arion Andersoni prove, therefore, to be a Prophysaon, it will retain its 
specific name, while the slug before us may also retain the specific name Andersoni. . 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pidmonata. 183 

Binneya notabilis, J. G. Coop. 
Sta. Barbara Island, California. Mr. Henry Hemphill. 

Mr. Hemphill, who has contributed so largely to our 
knowledge of the land shells of the Pacific coast, has lately 
visited the Island of Sta. Barbara. Among the species found 
by him is Binneya notabilis, which was originally described 
from thence by Dr. J. G. Cooper. Mr. Hemphill has kindly 
sent me living specimens, as well as others preserved in 
spirits. I am, therefore, able to give a full generic descrip- 
tion, with a figure (pi. xvii, fig. 4) of the animal as it 
appears when half extended. I did not succeed in inducing 
it to protrude itself fully. The descriptions will supersede 
those formerly given by Mr. Bland and myself in L. & Fr. 
W. Sh. N. A., I. 67. 

When received, the living examples were furnished with the 
peculiar epiphragm described by Dr. Cooper. On becoming 
again active, this epiphragm was left entire, still adhering to 
the surface on which the animal had formed it. In one indi- 
vidual I observed a second, inner epiphragm, simple, without 
the perpendicular walls. 

The Mexican genus Xanthonyx, is no doubt nearly allied 
to Binneya, but it does not appear from the figures of 
alcoholic specimens given by Messrs. Fischer and Crosse 
(Moll. Mex. et Guat.) that the mantle of Xanthonyx is ex- 
tended anteriorly, and the position given by them of the 
respiratory office is different. Should future study of the 
living animal prove Xanthonyx identical with Binneya, the 
former will be considered as a synonyme of the latter. 

Dr. Pfeiffer (Mon. Hel. Viv. VII) suggests the identity 
of Binneya with Daudebardia, ignoring entirely the distinc- 
tion of the first divisions now recognized among the Geojjhila 
of presence or absence of a jaw, or of aculeate or quadrate 
teeth. By the modern arrangement these two genera are 
most widely separated. 

184 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

The surface of the animal is dirty white, with about seventeen vertical 
rows, on each side, of dark blue or slate blotches, interrupted by the 
longitudinal reticulations running parallel to the foot, but again com- 
mencing and extending to the edge of the foot. These blotches diverge 
in all directions from under the shell and mantle, running almost perpen- 
dicularly on the side of the animal, but very obliquely in front and behind. 
The tail is quite keeled with oblique blotches. These blotches also run 
obliquely from a median line on the fore part of the extended animal. 
Tentacles, eyepeduncles and front of head slate color. Lips developed 
and kept constantly in motion as tentacles. The reticulations of the sur- 
face are large and few. 

In specimens preserved in alcohol there appears a locomotive disk. 
There is no caudal pore. The respiratory and anal orifices are far behind 
the centre of the mantle edge on the right of the animal. The genital 
orifice appears somewhat behind the right eyepeduncle. The mantle is 
scarcely reflected upon the shell, even in front. When the animal is fully 
extended, Dr. Cooper says the mantle equals one-fourth of its length. 
The mantle exudes mucus freely. It seems fixed to the shell, not chang- 
ing its position with the movements of the animal. 

One of the shells collected by Mr. Hemphill is twice as large as that 
whose measurements are given by Mr. Bland and myself. 

The jaw is thick, slightly arcuate, ends blunt: anterior surface with 
six well developed ribs denticulating either margin, situated on the central 
third of the jaw, and as many subobsolete ribs on each outer third : no 
median projection. PI. xvii, fig. 2. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xvii, fig. 3) long and narrow. Teeth 31-1-31, 
with about fifteen laterals, but the change into marginals is very gradual, 
the latter being a simple modification of the former. My figures give a 
central with the first, sixteenth and thirty-first teeth. 

The genitalia I did not succeed in extracting, they being but imperfectly 
developed in the individuals received. The nervous ganglia and the di- 
gestive system present no peculiar features. 

The generic description will be as follows : — 

Animal heliciforme, antice obtusum, postice rapide acuminatum. Palli- 
um subcentrale, extra testam antrorsum prolongatum. Discus gressorius 
distinctus. Porus mucosus caudalis nullus. Apertura respiratoria et 
analis ad dextram sita, in parte posteriore marginis pallii. Apertura 
genitalis post tentaculam dextram oculigeram. 

Testa externa, paucispira, haliotoidea, animal non includens. Pars 
cxclusa in hibernis epiphragmate albido, duro, membraueo protecta. 

Maxilla arcuata, costis validis exarata. Dentes linguales quadralae, 
centrales tricuspidata?, laterales et marginales bicuspidatae. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 185 

Coecilianella Gundlachi, Pfr. 
St. Martin. Dr. PI. E. Rygersma to Mr. T. Bland. 

Mr. Bland has already noticed this species, in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of 
N. Y., XI, 152, 1875, where a detailed description of the jaw and lingual 
membrane will be found. 

I add a figure of the jaw (pi. xiii, fig. D), with a still more enlarged 
view of a portion of it (fig. G), to show the character of the ribs. As 
stated in the article referred to, these ribs are quite different from those 
described by Soi'delli for C. acicula. 

PI. xiii, fig. H gives a camera lucida drawing of a central, lateral and 
marginal tooth. Fig. 1 gives a still more magnified view of the transition 
and marginal teeth, not drawn, however 1 , by camera lucida. 

Jaw low, wide, slightly arcuate, ends attenuated ; whole surface cov- 
ered with about 22 crowded, broad, flat ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth 18-1-18, with 4 perfect 
laterals. Centrals with their base of attachment long, narrow, their re- 
flected portion about one half the length of the base of attachment, tri- 
cuspid ; the middle cusp stout, with a short blunt cutting point, side cusps 
subobsolete, but with small, distinct cutting points. Lateral teeth with 
their base of attachment subquadrate, much longer, and very much 
broader than that of the centrals, the reflected portion short, stout, tri- 
cuspid, the middle cusp very stout and long, reaching the lower edge of 
the base of attachment, beyond which projects the short, stout cutting 
point; side cusps subobsolete, but bearing distinct, though small cutting 
points. There are four perfect laterals, the fifth tooth being a transition 
to the marginals, by the base of attachment being lower, wider, not ex- 
ceeding the reflected portion, with one inner large cusp bearing one outer 
large cutting point representing the outer cutting point of the first four 
lateral teeth aud one inner, still larger, cutting point, representing the 
middle cutting point of the first four laterals, and one smaller, outer cusp, 
bearing one small, sharp, bifid cutting point, representing the outer side 
cutting point of the first four laterals. The sixth tooth has the largest 
cutting point bifid. ^ The balance of the teeth are true marginals. They 
are very low, wide, with two low, wide cusps, bearing each several irreg- 
ular, blunt cutting points. 

The dentition of this species is, as would be anticipated, of the same 
type as the allied Coecilianella acicula as figured by Lehmanu (Lebenden 
Schnecken Stettins, p. 128, pi. xiii, fig. 43, and Sordelli, 1. c, fig. 26). 
The jaw, however, has no appearance of the "brace" like ribs described 
in that species by Sordelli (Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat, XIII, 1870, 49, pi. i, 
fig. 25). The ribs are quite like those figured of Helix Lansingi (Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., XI, p. 75, fig 2 A) although they are narrower. 

186 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Stenogyra juncea, Gld. 
Island of Huahine. Mr. A. Garrett. 

The species was described originally as a Bulimus, in which genus it 
is retained by Pfeiffer. I do not find it in die Heliceen, ed. 2. 

Lingual membrane with 28-1-28 teeth, eight of which are laterals. 
Teeth as in S. hasta as figured by me, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phila., 1875, pi. 
xx, fig. 2. 

Strophia incana, Binney. 
Key West. Mr. W. W. Calkins. 

Jaw already described (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1875, p. 190, 
fig. 37). 

Lingual membrane (see above reference) with 27-1-27 teeth. The 
change from laterals to marginals is as shown in the ninth and tenth tooth. 
There is the usual splitting of the inner cutting point beyond the ninth 
tooth. The extreme marginals are low, wide, with one inner, long, 
bluntly bifid cutting point and one outer,, short. 

All the changes from centrals to extreme marginals are shown in the 
figures. PI. xiii, fl<. r . J. 

The splitting of the inner cutting point of the marginals was not 
detected by me before in S. iostoma and mumia. I have, however, 
lately found it in those species. 

Bulimulus pallidior, Sowb. 
Lower California. Mr. A. G. Wetherby. 

Plate xii, fig. 1, represents the genital system. The penis sac is long, 
tapering at its end, where the retractor muscle is inserted. The genital 
bladder (g. b.) is globular, on a long, stout duct. 

Bulimulus limnseoides, Fer v 
St. Kitts. Dr. Branch to Mr. T. Bland. 

Jaw (pi. xvi, flg. A.) low, wide, semitransparent, slightly arcuate, 
ends scarcely attenuated, blunt : anterior surface with about sixteen ribs, 
denticulating either margin. It is extremely difficult to decide upon the 
character of these ribs. Some appear to be a simple thickening of the 
jaw formed by the overlapping of distinct separate plates. Others remind 
me of the distant narrow ribs of most of the Bulimuli, of the character 
of the ribs in Cylindrella, etc. At other points upon the jaw there seem 
to be broad, flat ribs with narrow interstices. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 187 

Lingual membrane long and narrow (pi. xvi, fig. B.). Teeth as 
usual in the Helicince. The change from laterals to marginals is very 
gradual, the latter being but a modification of the former, with two cut- 
ting points, the inner the longer. Thus it appears that this species in its 
dentition agrees with B. cinnamomeo-lineatus, pallidior, chrysalis, deal- 
batus, Guadalnpensis, alternatus, sporadicus, solutus, sepidcralis, durns, 
Peruvianas, rhodolarynx, and not witli laticinctus, Bahamensis, auris-leporis, 
papyraceus, Jonasi, membranaceus, trigonostomus, flavidns, virginalis, con- 
vexus, Vincentiims, Lobbi, altemans, mnltifasciatus, primularis (see Ann. 
Lye. N. H. of N. Y., XI, 34 et seqq.). 

Teeth 30-1-30 with about ten laterals. The outer cutting point of the 
marginals is sometimes bifid. 

Cylindrella Poeyana, Orb. 
Key West. Mr. W. W. Calkins. 

Jaw as usual in the genus, with about 40 delicate ribs. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow (pi. xv, fig. F). Teeth 14-1-14 
of the same type as I have already shown to exist in this subgenus Gon- 
gylostoma (see C. elegans, Pfr. Proc. Phil. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1875, pi. xx, fig. 6). 

Cylindrella ornata, Gundl. (Gongylostoma). 
Cuba. Cabinet of Mr. Bland. 

Jaw not observed. 

Lingual membrane with 18-1-18 teeth, of which three only are well 
formed laterals, the change to marginals being very gradual. The type 
of dentition is the same as I have described in C. Poeyana (see above). 
It will be noticed in my figure F of plate xv, that there is a slender, 
simple, upper prolongation or pedicle above the inner, palmate cutting 
edge, as well as the pedicle on which the outer cutting edge rests. This 
is the case also in C. eleyans and C. Poeyana, and may, therefore, be con- 
sidered characteristic of the section Gongylostoma. 

Amphibulima Rawsonis, Bland in lift. 

Governor Rawson to Mr. T. Bland. Island of Montserrat, 
between Nevis and Guadeloupe. 

Plate xiii, fig. C, represents the genital system. There are no acces- 
sory organs. 

The jaw is as usual in the genus (see Proc. Phila. Ac. Nat. Sc, 1874, 
pi. viii, fig. 2, for that of A. rubescens). About 33 ribs, those at the 
upper centre of the jaw running obliquely and meeting or ending before 
reaching the lower margin. 

November, 1875. 14 Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

188 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xiv, fig. E) as usual in the genus. Centrals 
with the base of attachment very much larger than that of the laterals, 
and with an enormous, single, broad, long, rapidly and obtusely pointed 
cutting point. No side cusps or side cutting points. Laterals of the form 
usual in the Ileliciiice, with a stout, inner cusp, bearing a broadly truncated, 
short cutting point, and a small side cusp bearing a short cutting point. 

The change from laterals to marginals is shown in the 10th, 15th and 
27th teeth in the plate. 

The marginals (28th and 68th teeth in the plate) have a long, narrow 
base of attachment, which near its lower margin bears a short, slightly 
expanding, bluntly trifid cusp: from this cusp springs a short, expanding, 
bluntly denticulated, broad, cutting edge, the inner denticle the largest. 
This cutting edge is shown in the G7th and 08th teeth on a more enlarged 
scale. There is great variation in the denticulation of the cutting edge. 

There are G8 - 1 - 68 teeth. 

The peculiarity of this membrane is the enormous development of the 
central tooth. 

I have (1. c.) given figures of the dentition of A. jpatula, 
Brug., of St. Kitts and of Dominica, of A. cqjpendiculata, 
Pfr. of Guadeloupe, and of A. rubescens, Fer. of Martin- 
ique.* Dr. Fischer (Journ. de Conch. XXII, 1874, pi. v), 
figures that of A. depressa of Guadeloupe, and A. jpatula of 

Dr. Fischer also (1. c.) figures the dentition of A. rubes- 
cens. He gives inner side cutting points to the lateral teeth 
which I did not find in my specimens. His figure of the 
dentition of the Guadeloupe A. jpatula is certainly specifi- 
cally distinct from the St. Kitts and Dominica form. It 
seems as if there were the following distinct species of 
Amphibulima : depressa, appendiculata, rubescens, palula of 
Guadeloupe, jpatula of St. Kitts and Dominica -and Raivsonis. 

It is with extreme regret that I find the Amphibulimai still 
treated as species of Succinea by Dr. Pfeiffer in vol. VII of 
his Monographia, even as late as the present year. Messrs. 
Fischer and Crosse, as well as Mr. Bland and myself, have 

* My friend Mr. Eland and myself were indebted to Gov. Rawson of Barbados, Jor 
Bpecimens of this last, as well as for many other valuable West Indian species. The 
sense of our great obligation to him is increased at this moment by hearing that he 
has left Barbados to settle permanently in England. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 189 

shown the genus to be widely distinct from Succinea, in its 
jaw, its lingual membrane, and its genital system. 

Succinea campestris, Say. 
St. Augustine, Fla. 

Genitalia as in S. obliqua, Say, figured under the name of S. ovalis, by 
Leidy, Terr. Moll. U. S., I. pi. xiii. fig. 1-3. 

Succinea pallida, Pfr. 
Raiatea Isl. Mr. A. Garrett. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xvii, fig. 7) with 30-1-30 teeth, with about 
eleven laterals, but the change into marginals is very gradual. The figure 
shows a central, first lateral and a marginal in the fifteenth tooth. 

Jaw as usual in the genus : no anterior ribs. 

Succinea papillata, Pfr. 
Huahine Isl. Mr. A. Garrett. 

Jaw as usual : no anterior ribs. 

Lingual membrane (pi xvii, fig. 6) with 25-1-25 teeth; nine laterals, 
the teuth tooth having its inner cutting point bifid. Some of the outer 
laterals have their outer cutting point bifid. 

Tornatellina aperta, Pease. 
Huahine Isl. Mr. A. Garrett. 

Among the species received from Mr. Garrett were two 
of this genus, T. aperta, Pse. and T. oblonga, Pse. I did 
not succeed in extracting the jaw of either. With the 
lingual membrane I was more fortunate, which is the more 
satisfactory from the fact of the dentition being quite similar 
to that which Mr. Bland and myself have described for 
Achatinella, s. s., Partulina, etc., sub-genera of Achatinella 
(Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., X. 331). From the exceeding 
minuteness of the individual teeth I find great difficulty in 
counting the cutting points. They seem to be about eight, 
in the form of regular denticles, not of unequal size as in 

190 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Tornafellina is recognized as a genus by Pfeiffer (Mon. 
VI), but by von Martens (Die Heliceen) is considered as a 
subgenus of Cionella. It now remains to be seen whether 
this peculiar dentition is shared by other species. 

I am indebted to my friend, Mr. A. 

T. E. Lansing, for the drawing of the 

teeth here given. It represents the 

central, with the first and second side 

^r w> "VI teeth. There are an exceedingly 

vj«y^X] f V large number of teeth beyond this, 

I /Jy of the same type quite to the exterior 

,*V margin of the membrane. The teeth 

are arranged obliquely in waving 

rows, as is also the case in Achatinella. 

Tornatellina oblonga, Pease. 
Island of Huahine. Mr. A. Garrett. 

Dentition same as in the preceding species. 


Already in connection with my friend, Mr. T. Bland 
(Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., X, 331, pi. xv), I have 
described and figured the jaw and lingual dentition of sev- 
eral groups or subgenera of Achatinella. Recently, I have 
received from Mr. J. G. Anthony, some more specimens in 
alcohol. I am indebted to Mr. J. H. Redfield for their 

I find A. marmorata, Gould, of which A. plumbea, Gul., already exam- 
ined, is a synonyme, of the subgenus Partidina,* to have the same denti- 
tion as we have shown to characterize that subgenus as well as Achatinella 
s. s. 

Of Lrptachatina there was the following : textilis, For. The dentition 
is as in the other species of the subgenus examined by me. There are 
26-1-2G teeth, with 8 laterals. On pi. xiv, fig. G, I figure the transition 
from lateral to marginal teeth, and two decided marginals. These last 

* I use the subgeneric names of Von Martens. 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 191 

show the two cutting points which characterize the section b (see my 
paper referred to above, p. 334). On the same membrane, however, are 
some marginals having three cutting points and some which are quite 
pectinate, being, therefore, like my section c to which I formerly referred 
the subgenus. This variation shows that my distinction between b and c 
was not well founded. 

Of Laminella there was one species : A. obesa, Newc. The jaw is like 
my fig. 7 (1. c). Teeth 27- 1-27, of same type as other species of the 
subgenus (see my paper, 1. c). I have, however, figured the 19th tooth 
(pi. xiv, fig. H), to show that here, again, I do not find the character of 
only two cutting points to be constant in the marginals, the outer cutting 
point being trifid in the tooth figured. 

Of Newcombia there was A. vcnusta, Mighels. There are 24-1-24 
teeth, with about 8 laterals (pi. xiv, fig. D). Here, again, the marginals 
figured are pectinate, though others are simply with two cutting points 
as I formerly (1. c.) supposed the case in all species of this subgenus. 
Jaw slightly arcuate, with blunt ends; a few vertical wrinkles. 

From my finding the variation I have noted above in the marginal 
teeth of Leptachatina and Newcombia, I am forced to doubt the accuracy 
of the distinction in my sections b and c (see 1. c). 

There were also specimens of Achatinella auricula, Fer., which is in- 
cluded in Achatinella by Pfeifler (Mon. VI), but referred by von Martens 
to Partula. The dentition proves it to be an Achatinella, being of the 
same type as Achatinella s. s., and Partulina. 

Note on the Classification of the Achatellinoz. 


In the paper by my friend Mr. W. G. Binney and myself, 
" On the Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of Achatinella and 
other Pulmonata" (Annals X, 1873), we adopted and gave 
particulars of the classification of v. Martens (Die Heliceen, 
ed. 2) and came to the following conclusion, viz., that three 
groups are indicated by the forms of lingual dentition in the 
genus Achatinella. 

a. Partulina, Achatinella s. str. 

b. JVeivcombia, Laminella. 

c. Leptachatina. 

As regards the subgenera (of v. Martens) not represented 
among shells received from Mr. Gulick, we concluded, judg- 
ing from the shell alone, that Bulimella and Apex belong to 
the group a, and Labiella rather to b or c than to a. 

192 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 

Considering the intimate acquaintance of my friend, Mr. 
Gulick, with the genus, and his publication of a classification 
of the Achatellince (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1873), it seems to me 
very desirable that his views should be compared with those 
of v. Martens, with especial reference to the results obtained 
from examination of the dentition. 

In the foregoing paper by Binney, he expresses doubt as 
to the validity of our group c, and for my present purposes 
I therefore adopt two groups only, a and b, as indicated by 
the dentition of the species. 

Gulick's classification is as follows : — 


A. Arboreal Genera. 

1. Achatinella, Swainson. 

Type A. vulpina, Fer. 
This is equivalent to the s. g. Achatinella s. str. of v. Martens. 

2. Bulimella, Pfeiffer. 

Type B. rosea, Sw. 
This agrees with the s. g. Bulimella of v. Martens. 

3. Apex, v. Martens. 

Type A. decora, Fer. 
This also agrees with the s. g. Apex, v. Mart. 

4. Laminella, Pfeiffer. 

Type L. gravida, Fer. 
Laminella, Gulick, includes section b of Newcombia, v. Mart., but 
otherwise agrees with Laminella of that author. 

5. Partidina, Pfeiffer. 

Type P. virgulata, Mighels. 
Gulick embraces in this s. gen. two sections, Perdicella and Ebur- 

nella, proposed by Pease, the type of the former placed in Lept- 

achatina by v. Martens, of the latter in Partulina. 
Partulina, Gulick, otherwise agrees with the same s. gen. of v. 


6. Newcombia, Pfeiffer. 

Type N. Cumingi, Newc. 
. Gulick, in a measure, agreeing with Pfeiffer, confines this s. gen. to 
the plicated species of section a. Newcombia, v. Mart. A. picta 
of that section is in Laminella, Gulick. 

7. Auriculella, Pfeiffer. 

Type A. auricida, Fer. 
Gulick and Pfeiffer correctly treat A. auricula. That and other 
species of the s. gen. (Bland & Binney, 1. c.) have the same denti- 

Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 193 

tion as species of Partulina and Achatinella, by no means of Par- 
tula in which A. auricula is placed by v. Martens. Gulick adopts 
Frickdla, Pfeiffer, as a section of this s. gen. 

B. Terrestrial Genera. 

8. Carelia, H. & A. Adams. 

Type C. adusta, Gould. 
V. Martens places C adusta (as syn. of bicolor, Jay) in Carelia, s. 
gen. of Achatina. Pfeiffer includes species of Carelia in Spiraxis, 
C. B. Ad. 

9. Amastra, EL & A. Adams. 

Type A. magna, C. B. Ad. 
This embraces species placed both in Laminella and Leptachatina by 

v. Martens. His type, A. tarritella, Fer., of Leptachatina, is in 

Amastra of Gulick. 
10. Leptachatina, Gould. 

Type L. acuminata, Gould. 
Gulick includes section Labiella, Pfr., treated by v. Mart, and 

Pfeiffer, as a separate s. genus. 

In explanation of Gulick's views I add the following ex- 
tract from a letter addressed to me by him, dated China, 
April 11, 1874. 

"It appears from the teeth, that Pfeiffer was right in putting Auriculella 
with the Achatellinre. I am sorry that when last in the Sandwich Islands, 
I did uot succeed in getting any specimens of Carelia or Newcomhia for 
examination. The latter is undoubtedly allied to Partulina, the former 
is more nearly allied to Amastra, but the form is so different, it would be 
very interesting to know about the teeth.* 

Achatinella, Dulimella and Apex are evidently closely allied, but any 
classification which, like Pfeiffer's, recognizes the difference between the 
first two should also recognize the last, which is quite as distinct. 

Achatinella and Bulimella are completely graded together by the varie- 
ties of A. casta and A. oviformis, Nevvc. and of B. Sowerbyana, Pfr. 

Under the name Laminella I group only a few species, viz., L. gravida, 
straminea aud sanguinea on Oahu, citrina and venusta on Molokai, tetrao on 
Lanai, bulbosa on E. Maui, and picta on W. Maui ; these are all arboreal 
in their habits aud sinistral in form, while the numerous species of Amas- 
tra are, with but rare exceptions, confined to the ground and dextral in 
form. A. soror and A. acuta are the only sinistral species that I now re- 
member. Of most of the species, sinistral specimens have never been 

* I am disinclined to adopt the views of Pfeiffer and v. Martens, that Carelia be- 
longs either to Achatina or Spiraxis. 

194 Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Puhnonata. 

The result of Barney's examination of the dentition of 
species of the genus Achatinella, as classified by Gulick, is 
as follows; group a, Achatinella s. str., Bulimella, Apex, 
Parttdina, Auriculella, group b, Laminella, Amastra, Lept- 
achatina. The subgenera of Gulick, of which the dentition 
is unknown, are Newcombia and Carelia. 

It will be seen that the dentition of Gulick's arboreal s. 
genus Laminella, the species of which are said to be sinis- 
tral, is the same as of his terrestrial s. genera Amastra ^the 
species with rare exceptions dextral) and Leptachatina. 

V. Martens and Gulick place various species in different 
subgenera ; this surely shows that the distinctions derived 
from consideration of shell alone are arbitrary, and the 
limits of the subgenera ill defined. 

Pfeiffer, from form of shell alone (Mon. VI, 161), adopts 
the following names for the sections in which he arranges 
the species of Achatinella ; the letters a and b indicate the 
group to which each section belongs from consideration of 

a 1. 


b G. 

. Laminella. 

a 2. 


? 7. 

Newcombia, a. 

b 3. 


b ? 8. 

" b. 

a 4. 


b 9. 


(= Achatinella s. 


a ? 10. 


b 5. 


a 11. 


Jaw and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. 195 



1. Bulimulus pallidior, Sowb. 

2. Helix aspera, Fer. 

3. Helix spinosa, Lea. 

i. Limax montauus, Ing. 
5. Helix arrosa, Gld. 

Plate XII. 

Genitalia of:— 

6. Helix septemvolva, S.iy. 

7. Aviolimax Hemphilli. 

8. Helix crispata, Fer. 

9. Ariolimax Andersoni, J. G. Coop. 

p. s. penis sac. 

v. p. vaginal prostate. 

r. retractor muscle. 

g. b. genital bladder. 

d. g. b. duct of same. 

a. d. accessory duct of same, 

ov. ovary, 

t. testicle. 

. d. 

vas deferens. 










external orifice. 



Plate XIII. 

A. Genitalia of Helix ruflcincta, New. 
d.s. Dart sac? 

B. Zonites cerinoideus, Anth. Central, lateral and marginal teeth of the lingual mem- 


C. Genitalia of Amphibulima Rawsouis, Bl. 
r. Xhe retractor muscle of the penis sac. 

D. Coecilianella Gundlachi, Pfr. Jaw. 

E. Orthalicus undatus, Brug. var. 
Central, lateral and marginal teeth. 

F. Genitalia of H. Jamaicensis, Chemn. 
e. Xhe long epididymis. 

G. Same as D; enlarged still more to show the nature of the ribs. 
H. Central, lateral and marginal teeth of same. 

I. Same. Xransition and marginal teeth. 

J. Strophia incana, Binn. Central, lateral, transition and marginal teeth. 
K. Same of Helix Carpeuteriana, Bl. 








Plate XIV. 
Lingual Dentition of: — 
See also pi. xv, fig. A. 

Helix fringiila, Pfr. 
Helix Jamaicensis, Ch. 
Helix Studeriana, Fer. 
Achatinella venusta, Mighels. 
Amphibulima Rawsonis, Bl. 
Glandina truncata, Say. 

Central and first-1 iteral tooth and part of the latter still more enlarged. 
Xransition and marginal teeth of Achatinella textilis, Fe>. 
An inner marginal tooth of Achatinella obesa, Newc. 

196 Jaw and Lingual .Dentition of Pulmonala. 

Plate XV. 
Fig. Lingual dentition of: 

A. Helix fringilla, Pfr. See also pi. xiv, fig. A. 

B. Helix Carpentcri, Newc. 

C. D. Helix pubescens, Pfr. 

Jaw and teeth. 

E. Patula Cumberlandiana, Lea. 

F. Cylindrella Poeyana, Orb. 

G. Helix Diabloensis, J. G. Coop. ? 

Plate XVI. 
Fig. Jaw and lingual dentition of: — 

A. B. Bulimulus limnreoides, Fer. 

C. Helix cereolus, Muhlf. 

D. E. Helix exoleta, Binney (see -p. 178). 

F. Helix rufescens, Penn. 

G. Helix dentiens, Fer. 

H. Trochomorpha Cressida, Gld. 
I. Nanina radians, Pfr. 

Plate XVII. 

I. Cylindrella ornata, G. The central, first and last teeth. 
II-IV. Binneya notabilis. Jaw, animal in half repose, and the central, first, 
sixteenth and last teeth. 
V. Helix Tryoni, Newc. The central, first, eleventh, thirteenth, fourteenth, 

thirty-seventh and last teeth. 
VI. Succinea papillata, Pfr. Central, lateral and marginal. 
VII. Succinea pallida, Pfr. Central and first and fifteenth teeth. 
VIII. Helix Van Nostrandi, Bl. Central, first, tenth, eleventh, nineteenth and 
twenty-fourth teeth. 
IX. Helix facta, Newc. Genitalia. 
X. Helix Tryoni, Newc. Genitalia. 
XI. Helix fallax, Say. Genitalia. 
XII. Helix Van Nostrandi, Bl. Genitalia. 

XIII. Helix facta, Newc. Central, first, fourth, twelfth, thirteenth, seventeenth 

and twenty-sixth teeth. 

XIV. Helix Hopetonensis, Shuttl. Genitalia. 
XV. Helix alternata, Say, var. Genitalia. 

XVI. Endodonta incerta, Mouss. Central, first and last teeth. 

XVII. Patula Huahinensis, Pse. Central, lateral and marginal. 

XVIII. Helix Rugeli, Shuttl. Genitalia. 

XIX. Helix tridentata, Say. Genitalia. 

Plate XVIII. 

Fig. Lingual dentition of:— 

A. Helix Harfordiana, J. G. Coop. 

B. Helix leporina, Gld. 

The right hand figure, shows an abnormal first l.itera . 

C. Helix Ingersolli, Bland. 

D. Limax montanus, Ing. 

E. Helix auriculata, Say. 

F. Var. castaneus of D. 

G. Ariolimax Ander9oni, J. G. C. ? 
H. Ariolimax Hemphilli. 

I. Anadenus. 

Note on certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 197 

XXI. — Notes on certain Terrestrial Mollusks ■', with descrip- 
tion of a New Species of the Genus Amphibulima. 


Read October 11th, 1S75. 

Helix Sagemon, Beck. (Caracolus). 

In former papers (Annals XI, 81 and 148) I mentioned 
the receipt from Haiti of dead specimens of H. bizonalis, 
Desk., and referring to H. Gaskoini, Pfr., of Santo Domingo, 
remarked as follows : " looking at the variability of H. Sag- 
emon of Cuba, I am much inclined to consider that II. Gas- 
koini is a variety of bizonalis." I am now indebted to 
Professor Linden of Buffalo, for several living specimens, 
collected by himself on Gonave Island, of a species not only 
very closely allied in every respect to, but I believe identical 
with the variety of 77. Sagemon, described as II. Arangiana 
by Poey.* « 

The Gonave shells differ only from a Cuban specimen of 
Arangiana, received from my friend Don Rafael Arango, in 
having a white instead of a. reddish brown peristome. 

Seeing that this Cuban form belongs also to the Haitian 
fauna, and comparing II. Gaskoini with varieties of H. Sag- 
emon, I am led to the conclusion that the former belongs to 
the latter group, and is not a variety of bizonalis. Indeed 
H. Gaskoini is strikingly similar to H. marginelloides, Orb., 
as figured by Pfeiffer (Nov. Conch, taf., XCI, figs. 9 and 

I submitted the animal of the Gonave shell to my friend 
W. G. Binney, who examined that of the Cuban Arangiana 
received from Arango. Binney reported that in jaw and 
dentition they agree, but the former has an outer small cut- 

* Poey, in his Introduction to the Catalogue of Land and Fresh Water Mollusks of 
Cuba, by Arango (Repertorio I, 71), acquiesces in placing Arangiana and other allied 
species in the synonymy of Sagemon. 

198 Note on certain Terrestrial Molluslcs. 

ting point to the outer laterals and marginals, appearing first 
on the ninth tooth. 

In correspondence on the subject of this difference, Binney 
remarked as follows : 

" I have reexamined the Unguals of the Gonave and Cuban 
shells, with a view of verifying the existence of the side cut- 
ting point. In the Cuban Arangiana (Notes, Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., pi. XXI, fig. 1) you will see in the 8th and 
11th teeth, an approach to a side cutting point by the bulging 
on the side of the main cutting point. This sometimes occurs 
on the extreme marginals also, both of Arangiana and Sag- 
emon (1. c. fig. 4), while in the Gonave species it is very 
much more pronounced on the outer laterals. The difference 
is quite worth noting ; whether it be specific may well be 
doubted, especially as we have never examined many Unguals 
of any one species to ascertain the limits of variation." 

The occurrence in Haiti of the Cuban Sagemon affords 
additional evidence of the faunal connection of the two 
Islands. Identical species are, however, rare. The following 
may be mentioned as the most important : Helicina rugosa, 
Pfr., Succinea ochracina, Gund., Zonites Gundlachi, Pfr., 
Helix Boothiana, Pfr., Montetaurina, Pfr., vortex, Pfr., 
Oleacina oleacea, Fer., Strophia striatella, Fer., microstoma, 
Pfr., Macroceramus Gundlachi, Pfr., Coecilianella Gund- 
lachi, Pfr., Stenogyra hasta, Pfr. 

Helix cepa, Mull. (Cepolis). 

Prof. Linden found in the vicinity of Port au Prince, 
living specimens of H. cepa, var. minor. The color is an 
uniform, very dark (blackish) chestnut, — rather more rufous 
at the apex ; the pale band scarcely perceptible. 1 had not 
previously seen fresh specimens of this curious species. 

Liguus virgineus, L. 
This species doubtless lives on Gonave Island. 

Note on certain Terrestrial Mottusks. 199 

Prof. Linden found specimens inhabited by living Pagurus, 
"moving about briskly in an old pasture, at a distance of 
two miles from the nearest sea beach." 

Bulimulus Bahamensis, Pfr. 

One specimen was found by Prof. Linden near Port au 
Prince (at Fort Jacques), of the var. of B. Bahamensis 
collected by my friend Mr. D. Sargent, at Durham Creek, 
Great Inagua. 

In a former paper (Annals X, 318) I remarked on the 
faunal connection of that Island with Haiti. 

Amphibulima Rawsonis, now sp. 

T. ovato-oblonga, tenuis, subrugulos'o-striata, lineis impres- 
sis sutura parallelis subdecussata, nitens, vix pellucida, 
fusco-cornea, maculis rufis raris ornata ; spira brevis, obtusi- 
uscula, rubescens ; linea rufa infra suturam impressam posita ; 3, ultimus convexus, antice perdeflexus, columella 
callosa, recedens ; apertura obliqua, peroblongo-ovalis, intus 
nitido-caerulescens ; perist. simplex, leviter incrassatum, 
margine dextro siuuato, columellari arcuato. 

Shell ovate-oblong, thin, with rather rib-like stria; irregularly decus- 
sated by impressed lines parallel with the suture; shining, scarcely pel- 
lucid, rather dark horn-colored, ornamented with a very lew reddish spots ; 
spire short, rather obtuse, rufous; with a reddish line beneath the im- 
pressed suture; whorls 3, the last convex, much deflexed at the aperture; 
columella callous, receding; aperture oblique, oblong-oval, coerulescent 
within ; perist. simple, slightly thickened, right margin sinuous, colu- 
mellar margin arcuate. 

Long. 18; Diam. 10 mill.; Ap. longit. max. 14; Diain. max. (infra 
medium) 9 mill. 

Habitat. Island of Monts'errat, West Indies. 

Remarks. This species is most nearly allied in form to 
A. pardalina, Guppy, of Dominica, but very distinct from 
A. patula and rubescens. The single specimen found was 

200 Note on certain Terrestrial Mollusks. 

sent to me for determination by Sir Rawson W. Rawson, to 
whom I dedicate the species. 

W. G. Binney, in the preceding paper, has described the 
jaw and dentition of the animal, pointing out the peculiarities 
of the latter as compared with other species of the genus. 

As might be expected from the geographical position of 
Montserrat, the land shells inhabiting it, belong to the same 
fauna as that of the neighboring islands. With A. Jlaivsonis, 
were found II. Josephince, B. exilis, Helicina Guadehipensis 

Helix Van Nostrandi, nov. sp. (Triodopsis) . 

This species is in form and character of the aperture very nearly allied 
to H. introferens, but is more decidedly costate, more convex at the base, 
with smaller umbilicus, and without the internal tubercle. It connects 
introferens and vultuosa with, but is quite distinct fvom fallax. 

The measurements of a specimen with G£ whorls, are, diam. max. 124 : 
min. 11, mill. Alt. 7 mill. Of a specimen with 6 whorls; diam. max. 10; 
min. 8 mill. ; alt. 5 mill. 

Several specimens were collected at Aiken, S. Carolina, in 
the winter of 1874-5 by Miss Emma Van Nostrand, daughter 
of my esteemed friend Mr. Henry D. Van Nostrand. 

Mr. W. G. Binney has, in the preceding paper, described 
the dentition of this species. 

On the so-called Sterna Portlandica. 201 

XXII. — Some Additional Light on the so-called Sterna 
Portlandica , Iiidg way . 

Read Nov. 1, 1875. 

Shortly after Mr. Ridgway's article on this supposed 
species appeared in the " American Naturalist," I published 
a few additional notes on the same subject in the "American 
Sportsman" (Jan. 16, 1875). Having since been enabled by 
the acquisition of a fine series of terns to make some further 
investigations into the matter, I am now not a little disposed 
to question the specific validity of S. Portlandica, and trust in 
the course of the present paper to show clearly its true posi- 

Among the terns before me are eight specimens collected 
on Mnskegat Island, Mass., between the respective dates of 
July 1st and August 9th ; of these I will briefly describe the 
most extreme example. 

In size and proportion of parts, similar to S. hirundo. Forehead, sides 
of head, neck all around, throat and entire under parts, clear, pure white. 
Mantle, rump, and upper surface of tail, pale pearly blue. Occiput, crown, 
and space around eye, sooty black. A dark, slaty, cubital bar on the 
wings. Bill deep glossy black, tipped with pale yellow, and with but the 
faintest possible suspicion of a reddish tinge at the base of the lower 
mandible. Tarsi and feet black, also with a slight shade of reddishness, 
perceptible however, only when the parts are exposed to the strongest 

Of the remaining seven specimens five are precisely simi- 
lar in every respect but one, namely, in the slightly increased 
reddishness of the feet and tarsi. The seventh bird has the 
tarsi dark red with a blackish cast, while at the base of the 
otherwise perfectly black bill is a small but distinctly out- 
lined area of brick red, confined almost entirely to the lower 
mandible and encroaching but slightly upon the upper. In 

202 On the so-called Sterna Portlandica. 

the eighth bird we find the tarsi and feet clear, bright coral, 
the bill black, with the lower mandible dull red as far out as 
the gonys. Through this series of eight specimens there 
runs but little variation of plumage, excepting that the in- 
creasing reddishness of the tarsi and bill is regularly corre- 
lated with a whiter shade in the color of the rump and upper 
surface of tail, and a gradual decadence of the dark bar on 
the wing, which mark, well known to indicate immaturity, 
is altogether wanting in the last specimen. 

We now pick up a tern of a still more advanced stage. 
The white of the forehead is encroached upon^and narrowed 
down by the black of the crown, the tarsi and feet are coral 
without any tinge of duskiness, the bill is bright, clear, red 
as far out as the angle of the gonys on both mandibles, and 
the rump is now for the first time entirely white. From this 
specimen we find an easy and complete transition through 
birds with redder and still redder bills and white foreheads 
spotted and blotched with black, up to the typical, adult 
Sterna hirundo, with its black cap and red bill simply tipped 
with black. A more complete and perfect series could not 
be desired than that we have before us connecting the bird 
first described with the typical Sterna hirundo. Let us 
compare this same black billed, black legged hirundo with 
our specimen of Sterna Portlandica, taken at Muskegat 
Island, July 1st, 1870. 

The two birds placed side b} r side, a careless observer 
would say at once they are the same, and indeed the general 
effect is surprisingly similar. The pattern of the head is 
precisely identical, the under parts in both are pure white, 
the mantle dark pearly ash, and the cubital bar nearly equal 
in color and extent. But the rump of Portlandica is 
emphatically white in decided contrast with the ashy one of 
the other bird, and upon comparing the shape and propor- 
tions of the tarsi, feet, bill, etc., the two in this respect, are 
found to differ irreconcilably. Evidently S. Portlandica is 
not to be confounded with the bird we have been studying. 

On the so-called Sterna Portlandica. 203 

What then care its true affinities? Let us take up a specimen 
of Sterna macrura, and ignoring for the moment all discrep- 
ancies of color, compare it carefully with Portlandica. Part 
for part it agrees perfectly ; not a measurement of bill, feet, 
tarsi, wings or tail, hut can be exactly matched in the series 
of •macrura before us. Undeniably then the difference is 
purely one of color. 

But it may be urged the Arctic tern never in any plumage 
possesses a black bill and feet. True it has never been knoivn 
to have these parts so colored, neither has S. hiruado ; and 
yet we have just traced a bird of the size and proportions of 
hirundo, but with the bill and feet black, or nearly so, 
directly and unmistakably up through closeby connecting 
forms, into the ordinary typical plumage of that bird. Now 
why should not S. macrura be subject to the same variations 
of color? It is a bird very closely allied to hirundo and 
with — so far as is known — nearly the same seasonal changes 
of plumage. What can be more likely than that S. Port- 
landica bears the same relation to macrura that our black 
billed bird does to the adult hirundo. With as good a series 
of skins of Sterna macrura as that now at our command of 
S. hirundo, there can be but little doubt that this point could 
be directly established. At present we have only analogy 
to reason by, but the indirect evidence is most strong. The 
fact that Portlandica has the rump white is very pertinent, 
inasmuch as Sterna macrura is the only species among those 
we have named, whose nestlings have not that part more or 
less washed with slate or pearly blue. Two specimens of 
undoubted young macrura before us, though not sufficiently 
feathered to fly at the time of their capture, still have the 
rump of most immaculate whiteness. Our specimen of 
Portlandica has the bill, tarsi and feet, absolutely black; but 
in this respect it probably represents an extreme and perhaps 
accidental limit of variation. 

The Smithsonian specimen we have never seen, but in the 
past connection, mark the following clause taken from Dr. 
November, 1S75. 15 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

204 On the so-called Sterna Portlandica. 

Cones' description of that example (Birds of the Northwest, 
p. 691). He says, "bill and feet black, but the latter with 
a perceptible redcUshness."* Now here we have an approach, 
however slight, to the red bill and feet of S. macrura, the 
first link in fact of a chain or series of specimens which is 
required to connect the two stages of plumage. 

Dr. -Cones in the article above quoted, compares Portland- 
ica with Dougalli; but if our specimen be identical with the 
type (and it has been unqualifiedly declared to be so, by the 
best judges, Dr. Coues himself included), he is surely at 
fault, for in almost every respect does our bird differ. The 
wings are much longer, the tarsi shorter and "the size of 
the white areas on tlie inner webs of the primaries" is decid- 
edly not "exactly as in Dougalli." In Dougalli these white 
areas run along the entire length of the feather on its inner 
edge, narrowing as they approach the tip, where they again 
broaden out and including the extreme point of the feather, 
extend a little way back on the margin of the outer web. 

In Portlandica they come entirely to an end a full inch 
from the tip of the feather, and in this and every respect the 
pattern of coloration of the primaries is precisely the same 
as in S. macrura. Neither is the bill of our specimen at all. 
"identical" either in "shape or size" with that of any 
example of S. Dougalli, young or old, in the series of some 
forty specimens of that bird before us, but as previously 
stated it is precisely similar to the average bill of Sterna 

Another point of resemblance to macrura exists in the 
presence of a few feathers on the under parts, which are 
tipped with plumbeous, faintly but yet distinctly. These 
feathers are somewhat isolated and give the plumage a soiled 

Again the Massachusetts specimen of Portlandica was 
taken on a portion of Muskegat Island, where the Arctic 

*The italics are our own. 

On the so-called Sterna Portlandica. 205 

terns breed apart from the other species, and at Portland, 
Me., whence the type specimen was obtained, Sterna macrura 
is one of the most abundant terns. 

Now supposing the relationship of JPortlandica to macrura 
to be granted, as we consider that of our other black billed 
tern to hirundo, to be proven, the question at once arises, 
what is this peculiar condition of plumage, and how accounted 
for? The young of hirundo and macrura are not described 
as with black bill, tarsi and feet, in their first fall and winter 
plumage, and assuredly these members cannot become darker 
as the bird advances in age. Now strange as it may appear, 
this is precisely the fact. With the special purpose of 
obtaining information on this point, another expedition was 
made to the breeding ground of the terns after the capture 
of the black-billed birds in July and August, and a large 
series of young and fall specimens of Sterna hirundo col- 
lected, careful notes being taken on the color of the bill, 
feet, etc., while the birds were freshly killed. The facts 
elicited by a careful comparison of specimens are briefly as 
follows. The color of the bill and feet in chicks a few days 
old varies individually to a considerable extent, but in the 
average the tarsi and feet are light, while on the bill, reddish 
or orange-colored areas predominate over the dusky or black. 

In birds nearly or just able to fly the bill averages much 
darker, in most instances the whole of the upper mandible 
being black or dark brown with the exception of the maxil- 
lary tomium, which is light, like the lower mandible. After 
this period, as the bird advances in age the black area of the 
bill spreads, the forehead whitens and the brown and gray 
tipping of the feathers of the back wears off.* To this rule 
there are, however, a few exceptions, some birds with a 
nearly pure mantle and snow white forehead, having the 

* All the specimens of which we are now speaking are birds of the year, collected 
in Sept. and Oct., but owing to the persistency with which their nests are broken up by 
the eggers, their ages are various, several taken at the latter date being scarcely able 
to fly. 

206 On the so-called Sterna Portlandica. 

lower mandible red as for out as the gonys, but in by for the 
greater number of cases, where the mantle has nearly lost 
its rusty spotting, and the forehead becomes pure white, the 
bill is nearly and in some examples, entirely black, with but 
a slight reddishness at the base. 

With the greater or less amount of black on the bill is 
usually correlated a darker or lighter color of the feet and 
tarsi, but this rule also has one or two exceptions in the 
series. Now to return. The black-billed birds taken in 
July and August cannot be birds hatched this season. That 
is manifestly impossible, for they are all in perfectly devel- 
oped plumage, and the mantle is as clear and immaculate as 
in mature specimens. What then are they? They are birds 
that have completed the first year only of their existence ; 
birds that in the fall of the previous year had the mantle 
slightly obscured by brownish blotchings, the bill nearly 
black and the tarsi and feet dark : in short, birds like the 
ones we have just been examining. The dark color of the 
bill and legs has since spread and intensified. Indeed one 
of the October specimens is so nearly like these summer 
birds, that had not its age been carefully determined by dis- 
section, we should hesitate before calling it a bird of this 
season. Its bill and feet are quite as dark as the average of 
the summer specimens, and the mantle has become nearly 
immaculate. Now in this same category we would place 
Sterna Portlandica, referring its parentage of course, as 
before stated, to macrura instead of liirundo. Only one 
more question remains to be answered, namely ; why are 
these black-billed birds so rare, if they represent a regular 
stage or plumage of species so common as S. macrura and 
S. hirundof Here we are obliged to confess ourselves nearly 
at fault and can offer little more than conjecture. 

It is, however, nearly certain that neither species while in 
this plumage breeds, and this is decidedly the opinion of the 
gentlemen to whom we are indebted for the most interesting 
and important specimens, an opinion founded moreover on 

On the so-called Sterna Porllandica. 207 

dissection and observation of the habits while in life. Now 
such being the case, the natural tendency to wander, in 
individuals which are burdened by no family cares and have 
nothing to do but enjoy themselves, will scatter them away 
from the breeding grounds and thus render their capture 
much less likely. We do not, however, at the present time, 
feel at all sure that all the young of either macrura or 
hirwido, assume this plumage, and do not breed the first 
season ; this is a point which future investigation can alone 

In conclusion, we desire to express our great indebtedness 
to Mr. E. B. Towne, Jr., of No. Eaynham, and Mr. Jesse 
Warren of Newton, Mass. A large portion of the material 
investigated during the preparation of the present paper 
was collected by these gentlemen, and many of the conclu- 
sions herein arrived at were the result of their careful study 
while in the field, and were first suggested by them. 

We have also to express our thanks to Messrs. G. N. 
Lawrence, J. A. Allen and C. J. Maynard, for the use of 
valuable specimens. 


Literature of Manganese. 

XXIII. — Index to the Literature of Manganese, 1596-1874. 


Bead December 14, 1874. 

* General Literature, 1740-1874 ; for Minerals see next Section. 














Kaim and 




de Morveau 
de Morveau 

1781 Ilseman 

1782 Bindheim 









Chameleon ( ? ) 

Chameleon mineral 

Use of MnO 2 in prep- 
aration of chlorine 

Dendritic figures 

Examen chymicum magnesiae vitriari- 

orum, Germanis Braunstein. Miscell. 

Berolinensia, VI. 40. 
Versuch einer Geschichte des Eisens. 

Abh. Schw. Akad. Wiss., 1765. 251. 
Vetensk. Acad. Handl., 1765. 241. 
Mineral. Abhandl., 1767. 
See: Scheele's Chem. Essays. London. 


De metallis dubiis. Viennae, 1770. 4to. 
Opuscula, I. 227. 

Abhandl. Schw. Akad. Wiss., XXXVI. 95. 
Vetensk. Acad. Handl., 1774. 89. 
Crell's N. Entd., I. 112 & 146. 
Scheele's Chem. Essays.. London, 1786. 
Vetensk. Acad. Handl., 1774. 196. 
Abhandl. Schw. Akad. Wiss., 1774. 201 
Scheele's Chem. Essays. Loudon, 1786. 
Vetensk. Acad. Handl., 1774. 194. 
Abhandl. Schw. Akad. Wiss., 1774. 199. 
Bergmann's Opuscula, II. 201. 
Crell's Ann., 1784. II. 397. 
Crell's N. Entd. I, 156, 1781. 
Abh. Acad. Wiss. Berlin, 1775. 3. 
Journ. de Phys., XV. 223. 
Nova. Acta. Acad. Nat. Curios. VI Ap- 
pend. 329. 
Vet. Acad. Handk, 1778. 82. 
Abhandl. Schw. Akad., 1778. 78. 
Crell's N. Entd., VI. 164. 
Journ. de Phys., XIII. 470. 
Journ. de Phys., XVI. 348. 
Vet. Acad. Handl. 1780, 1, 282. 
Crell's N. Entd. VIII, 191. 
Crell's N. Entd. IV, 24. 
Crell's N. Entd. V, 70. 
Schw. Berl. Ges. Naturf. Fr. IX, 101. 
Beob. Berl. Ges. Naturf. Fr. V, 451. 
CrelFs Ann. 1785, II, 433. 

Vet. Acad. Nya. Handl. 1785, 141. 
Crell's Ann. 1785, I, 56. 

*For explanation of abbreviations, see the end of this paper. 

Literature of Manganese. 






















11 j elm 


















de Morveau 





Vauquelin and 


Preparation of O 
from MnOa 

Alloy with copper 
Separation from iron 

Preparation of O 

from M11O2 
Preparation of metal 

by wet process 

Preparation of metal 
by wet process. 

Occurrence in Spathic 


Chameleon mineral 

Separation from iron 
by tartaric acid 


Preparation of metal 
from sulphate 


Sulphate, etc. 
Separation from iron 
Tech. estim. 
Magnetic properties 


Occurrence in vege- 

table kingdom 


Separation from iron 



Magnetic properties 


Mn. in steel 




Occur, in meteorites 


Purification of Au, Aj 

by MnO« ( ? ) 


Occurrence in mete- 

oric 'iron 

Crell's Ann. 1780. I, 316. 

Crell's Ann. 178G, I, 357. 
Crell's Ann. 1787. 1, 152 and 296. 
Crell's Ann. 1787, 1, 158 and 446. 
Crell's Ann. 1788, II, 3. 
A. c. p. (1), I, 303. Phys. XXXIII, 436. 
Abh. Acad. Wiss. Berlin, 1788-89, 32. 
Vet. Akad. Nya. Handl. 1789, 161. 
Neue Abh. Schw. Akad. 1789, 149. 
A. c. p. ri), VI, 31. 

Crell's Ann. 17S9. 

A. c. p. (1), VI, 6. 

Schrift. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin. IX, 101. 

A. c. p. (1), VI, 15. 

Crell's Ann. 1789. II, 31 and 117. 

Vet. Acad. Handl. 1789. 

Crell's Ann. 1790, 1, 129. 

A. c. p. (1), IX, 97. 

Gren's. J. d. Physik. I, 264. 

J.d. m. XVI II, 215. 

J. de. Phys. XXXVII, 28. 
Crell's Ann. 1790, II, 441. 
J. de. Phys. XXXVII, 386. 
Geschichte des Mn. Jena. 1791. 
Crell's Ann. 1792, II, 315. 

A.c.p. (1). XIII, 137. 

Crell's Ann. 1792, 1, 225. 

A. c. p. (1), XIX, 359. 

Crell's Ann. 1793, I, 99. 

A. c. p. (1), XIX. 307. 

A. c. p. (D'VII. 287. 

Crell's Ann. 1794, 1, 407. 

Beitriige. 1, 29. 

Crell's Ann. 1796, II, 300. 

Crell's Ann. 1797, II, 436. 

Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. VI, 177. 

Gilb. Ann. VI, 405. 

J. de Phys. XLVIII, 469. 

J. d. M. V, 15. 

Phil. Mag. (1), V, 214. 

Gilb. Ann. IV, 20. 

A. c. p. (1), XXXVI. 61. 

Crell's Ann. 1801,11,326. 

A.c.p. (1), XLF, 150. 

Gehlen's J. Ill, 429. 

Gilb. Ann. XXIV. 284, 296, 380. 

Gehlen's, J. II, 692. 

Gehlen's, J. V, 397. 
Schweigg. IV, (1),23. 


Literature of Manganese. 



A. c. p. (1). LVI. 86. 




Encyclopedic Methodique. IV, 672. 



Gilb. Ann. XXIII, 214. 


cle la Melherie 

Catalogue of analyses 

J. de Phys. LXII, 337. 



Occurrence in an 

Gilb. Ann. XXIV, 198; 207. 




Gilb. Ann. XXV, 204. 


J. F. John 


Gehlen's, J. 111. 452; IV, 436. 
Ann. Phil. II, 172 and 263; III, 413. 
J. d. M. XXII, 130, 245 et seq. ; XXIII, 




Use in mnf. of steel 

Repert. Arts and Mnftrs. XII, 151. 


Vauquelin ami 

Occurrence in boues 

Ann. Mus. d' Hist. Nat. XII, 136. 
Brugnatelli, G. I, 497. 


Berzelius and 


Schweigg. II, 160. 




Gilb. Ann. XXXIX, 432. 

Ann. Musee. d. Hist. Nat. XVII, 16. 



Separation from Fe. 

J. d. Mines. XXX, 301. 
A.c. p. (1), LXX1X, 310. 
Ann. Phil. 11,287. 



Separation from Fe. 

Schweigg. IV, 368. 



Hyd rated protoxide 

Schweigg. VII, 514. 




Schweigg. VII, 191. 




Trommsd. J. d. Pharm. (2), II, 359. 
Schweigg. VII, 76. 
A. c. p. (2), V. 149. 



Chameleon Sol. a test 
for AseOd 

Schweigg. VII, 420. 




Schweigg. X, 329. 



Occurrence in steel 

Schweigg. X, 96. 



ride Roloff 

Schweigg. XII, 194. 




Schweigg. XIV, 377. 



Sep. from Fe. 

Ann. phil. II, 343. 
Schweigg. XIV, 352. 




Schweigg. XIV, 336. 



Occurrence in hair 

Schweigg. XII. 194. 




A.c. p. (2), III, 42. 

Phil. Mag. L, 291. 

Schweigg. XX, 324. 

Trommsd. J. d. Pharm. (2), II, 188. 



Sep. from Fe. 

Schweigg. XX. 272. 



M11O2 conducts elec- 

Schweigg. XXI, 391. 


Clievillot and 

Examination of " cha- 

Trommsd. J. d. Pharm. (2). II, 199; III 



meleon mineral " 

A. c. p. (2), IV, 287; VIII, 237. 
Schweigg. XX, 332. 




A.c. p. VI, 204. 



At. Wt. 

Schweigg. XXII, 336. 




Schweigg. XXIII, 456. 



Occurrence in steel 

Gilb. Ann. LVIII, 156. 




A I'handl, Fysik. K. och. M. 1818, 222. 
Journ. de Phys. LXXXVI, 464. 
Schweigg. XLII. 202. 
Ann. Phil. VII, 267. 
Trommsd. N. J. Pharm. X, 170. 

Literature of Manganese. 





Edinb. J. Sci. IV. 

Phil. Mag. (2), IV, 22 and 96. 

Karsten's Archiv. XIV, 359. 

Schweigg. XXVI, 166. 



Separation from Fe. 

Quart. J. Sci. VI, 357. 



Sep. from Fe. 

Schweigg. XXVI, 91. 



Reduction of oxides 

Gilb. Ann. 1XII, 353. 




Ann. Gen. des Sci. Phys. VI, 1820, 368. 


Van Mons 

Ann. Gen. des Sci. Phys. V, 1820, 284. 



Prep, of O by Mn O2 

Schweigg. XXVIII, 247. 

and H» SOi 

A. c. p. (2), XVI, 109, 267. 



Two acids 

Trommsd. J. d. Pharm. VI, (1), 277. 
Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. 
Ann. Phil. (1) XVI, 130. 
Quart. J. Sci. X, 175. 



Blowpipe reactions 

Schweigg. XXIX, 308. 




Ann. Phil. (2), I, 50. 



Mn in waters 

A. c. p. (2), XVIII, 223. 
Schweigg. XXXIII, 487. 



Action H»S on Mn SO4 

Schweigg. XXXIII, 475. 



Sep. from Fe. 

Ann. Phil., N. S. Ill, 95. 
A. c. p. (2), XX, 304. 
Schweigg. XXXII, 452. 



Dingier pol. J. r VIII, 451. 



Researches on oxides 

A.c. p. (2), XX, 186. 
Dingl. pol. J. IX, 243. 
Schweigg. XXXVI, 303. 



Cyanide Mn and K. 

Schweigg. XXXVI, 223. 



Permanganic Acid 

Schweigg. XLI, 257. 
Pogg. XXXI, 677. 



Colored salts 

Schweigg. XLIV, 327. 




Pogg. I, 50. 



Geiger. Mag. Pharm. XI, 27. 




Pogg. 1,24. 




Pogg. 1,197. 




Abh. Schw. Akad., Wiss. 1825. 

Pogg. VI, 454. 

A. c. p. (2), XXXII, 87. 



Physiological action 

Schweigg. J. XLIII, 110. 

of. Mn 

Edinb. Med. Surg. J. XXVI, 137. 




Pogg. VII, 24 and 143. 




Dingier, pol. J. XXI, 331. 



Trommsd. J. Pharm. (1), IX, 36. 
Pogg. VII, 322. 



Use in coloring porce- 

Schweigg. XL VI, 79. 




A. c. p. (2), XXXIII, 390. 
Berz, Johresb, VII, 112. 




Pogg. VII, 274. 



Doeb. Lehrb. d. Chem. 1826. 



At. Wt. 

Pogg. VIII, 185; XIV, 211. 




Pogg. VII, 55 and 180. 



Ann. Phil. 1827, 341. 
Dingier pol. J. XXIV, 371. 




Schweigg. L, 346. 


Literature of Manganese. 



















IT. Rose 





H. Rose 







Gay Lussac 
Phillips and 

Henry and 






1830 I Brandes 

Sep. from CaO and 
Ala 3 

Sep. from Fe. 

Prep, of CI 


Separation from Fe. 




Alloy with Cu 
Occurrence in soils 
Estimation of 

Ca Cl 2 O s by Mn Cls 
Purification of oxide 


Hg CU with Mn Cb 


Mn Cb and alcohol 

Sep. froniFe. 
"Warwick oxyd" 



Metal and oxides 

Mn. in blood 

Preparation of man- 

At. Wt. 

Pogg. XI, 169. 

Schweigg. LI, 222. 

Geiger's Mag. Pharm. XXII, 339. 

Schweigg. LI, 225. 

Pogg. IX, 019. 

A. c. p. (2), XXXVII, 101. 

Pogg. IX, 33 and 224. 

Pogg. XI, 400. 

Ann. Phil. 1827, 142. 

J. of Roy. Inst. XXII, 231. 

Phil. Mag. I, 313. 

Pogg. XI, 165 ; Quart. J. Sci., II, 475. 

A. c. p. (2), XXXVI, 82. 

Berz. Jahresb. VIII, 177. 

Geiger's Mag. Pharm. XXI, 122. 

Journ. de Pharm. 

A.c. p. (2), XXXIV, 198. 

Pogg. XII, 87. 

Schweigg. LIII, 121. 

Phil. Mag. 1828. 

Pogg. XIV, 211. 

Geiger's Mag. Pharm. XXVI, 111. 

Dingier. J. XXX, 74. 

J. techn. Chem. I, 33. 

J. techn. Chem. Ill, 68. 

Bibl. Univers. 1828, 140. 

J. techn. Chem. Ill, 104. 

A. c. p. (2), XL, 329. 

Schweigg. LVI, 163. 

Dingier. J. XXXIII, 126. 

Pogg. XVI, 128. 

Kastn. Archiv. XVI, 219. 

C.C. 1831,689. 

Pogg. XVII, 247 and 263. 

Pogg. XXII, 58. 

Phil. Mag. IV, 265, 

Pogg. XV, 151. 

Schweigg. LVI, 162. 

J. techn. Chem. IV, 274. 

Schweigg. LVI, 186. 

Journ. Pharm. 1829, 389. 

Geiger's Mag. Pharm. XXX, 91. 

Kastner's Archiv. XVIII, 252. 

Pat. Specif. Abr. Acids and Salts. 101. 

A. c. p. (2), XXXIX, 244. 

Pogg. XV, 284. 

Schweigg. LX, 481. 

Geiger. Mag. Pharm. XXXII, 379. 

Am. J. Sci. XXI, 370. 

Schweigg. LX, 133. 

Geiger. Mag. Pharm. XXXII, 293. 
Pogg. XX, 556; XXII, 225. 
Ann. d. Mines. (3), II, 320. 
C. C. 1831, 267. 

Literature of Manganese. 









Preparation pure 




H. Rose 


Liebig and 




Detection by galv- 


Hiinefeld and 

Physiological action 


Liebig ( ?) 

Separation from Fe. 

Estimation of Ores 

1832 Burkhardt 
1832 Lassaigne 








Gay Lussac 
and Pelouze 

Coloring glass 
Separation from Fe. 


Bleaching power of 


Estimation in ores 

Color of solutions 

Analyses ores 

Prep. Mn O2 



A. c. p. (2), XLIV, 392. 

Schweigg. LX, 345. 

C. C. 1831, 107. 

See Schweigg. LVIII, 388. 

Pogg. XX, 148. 

Pogg. XXI, 584. 

Geiger Mag. Pharm. XXXIV, 140. 

Mem. de 1' Inst. X, 286. 

A. c. p. (2), XLIII, 380. 

C. C. 1831, 809. 

C. C. 1831, 90. 

Geiger's Mag. XXXV, 111. 

C. C. 1831,747. 

A. c. p. (2), XL VIII, 290. 

J. of Roy. Inst. I, 293. 

Rep. Pat. In v. XI, 224. 

Phil. Mag. IX, 235. 

J. techn. Chem. X, 485. 

Ann. d. Mines. (3), II, 321. 

Dingier. XL, 212. 

C.C. 1831,304. 

Am. J. Sci. XXI, 364. 

J. techn. Chem. X, 183. 

Schweigg, J. LXII, 192. 

C. C. 1831, 461. 

A. c. p. (2), XLVI, 305. 

Pogg. XXII, 298. 

C.C. 1831,529. 

Quart. J. Sci. XXII, 232. 

Quart. J. Sci. (2), II, 261. 

Pogg. XXV, 623, note. 

J. techn. Chem. XIII, 278. 

J. Chem. Med. V, 330. Ann. d. M. (3), 

1, 114. 
Schweigg. LXVI, 239. 
Schweigg. LXIII. 346, LXIT, 81. 
Abh. Acad. Wiss. Berlin, 1832. 
A. C.P. 11,5. 
A. c. p. (2), XLIX, 113. 
Schweigg. LXV, 62. 
Pogg, XXV, 287. 
J. of Roy. Inst. IV, 49. 
Ann. d. Mines. (3), II, 319. 
Pogg. XXV, 622. 
Dingier pol. J. XLVII, 104. 
A.c. p. (2), LI, 79. 
J. techn. Chem. XVIII, 75. 
Am. J. Sci. XXIX, 374'. 
Schweigg. LXVII, 77. 
Trommsd. J. Pharm. XXVI. 
A. C.P. VI, 201. 
Pogg. XXV, 154. 
A. c. p. (2), LII, 41&. 
A. C. P. VII, 46. 
Pogg. XXIX, 117. 


Literature of Manganese. 






















Quantitative Separa- 


Preparation of 
H 2 Mn« Os 

Prep, of CI. 


Arsenate of Mn and 
NH 4 

Action Hg Na on sul- 

Action alcohol on 

Separation from Fe 

Estimation ores 


Reduction by AS2O3 
Prep, of salts for 

technical uses 





Gay Lussac 

Volumetric estima- 



Permanganic acid 



















Recovery of CI resi- 



Mn Ch for nose bleed 








Gay Lussac 

Use of M11O2 in sep. 
CO» from SO2 



Sep. from ZnO 




Pogg. XXVII, 626. 

Ann. d. Mines. (3), V, 457. 

A. C.P. XI, 241. 

Pogg. XXXII, 595 & 607. 
J. p. C. I, 125. 

J. p. C. 1,446. 

Pogg Ann. XXXI, 677. 

J. p. C. II, 414. 

J. p.C. 111,284. 

J. p.C. 1,452. 

J. p. C. V, 33. 

C. C. 1835. 

Records Gen'l Sci. 1836, 412. 

Pol. Centr. 1836, 788. 

J. p.C. IX, 433. 

Ann. d. Mines. (3), XI, 249. 

Dingl. LXI. 55. 

J. p. C. IV, 178. 

Pogg. XXXVII, 303. 

Phil. Mag. (3), VI, 193. 

J. p.C. V, 33. 

Dingier pol. J. LVI, 129. 

Pol. Centr. 1835, 360. 

Pogg. XXXVI, 18. 

A. c. p. Nov., 1835. 

Pol. Centr. 1836, 286. 

A. c. p. XVIII, 47. 

J. pharm. XXI, 312. 

A. C. P. XV, 237. 

A. C. P. XIII, 280. 

J. p. C. VI, 67. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. VIII. 

Pogg. XXXVIII, 123. 

A. C.P. XX, 147. 

A. C.P. XIX, 34. 

A. c. p. (2), LXII, 349 and 381. 

J. p. C. IX, 340. 

Buchn. Repert. LVII, 30. 

J. p. C. VII, 137. 

A. C. P. XX, 172. 

Allg. med Ztg Juli. 1836. 

A. C. P. XXI, 86. 

Beitr. zur Phys. u. Ch. II, 12. 

Ann d. M. (3), XII, 007. 

J. p. C. XIV, 312. 

A. c. p. (2), LXIII, 333. 

A. C.P. XXIII, 79. 

J. p. C. IX, 159. 

Ann. d. Mines. (3), XIII, 460. 

A. C. P. XXIV, 309. 

J. p.C. XII, 263. 

Literature of Manganese. 



Gay Lussac 

Decomp. of sulphate 

by carbon 









Cyanide of Mn. and K. 


Physiological action 


Solubility of sulphate 

in alcohol 






Sep. from Fe.Ni and Co. 




Sep. from Co. 




Techn. estimation 










Recovery of Mn O2 


Elect, depos. 

Action of CI on sul- 

Mineral waters 

Techn. recovery of 

Sep. from Co. 

Action of CI on oxide 



Ann. d. Mines. (3), XI, 489. 
J. p. C. IX, 67. 

J. p. C. XII, 228. 

J. p. C. XII, 238. 

Phil. Mag. (3), X. 98 and 335. 

Beitr. zur. Phys. u. Ch. 1, 302, and III, 278. 

J. p. C. XII, 350. 

Pogg. XLII, 117. 

J. de chim. Medicale. 1838. 

Pol. Centr. 1838, 29. 

Dingl. J. LXVII, 236. 

Buchner's Repeit. II, 13. 

J. p. C. XIV, 125. 

A. C. P. XXVIII, 101. 

A. C. P. XXVIII, 213. 

Pogg. XLIV, 588. 

C. C. IX, 673. 

Buchn. Repert. LXV, 208. 

Archiv. d. Pharm. (2), XVI, 114. 

A. C. P. XXIX, 217. 

Ann. d. Mines. (3), XV, 492. 

J. p. C. XVII. 492. 

Bullet. Scient. V, 203. 

J. p. C. XVII, 173. 

Dingl. J. LXXIII, 204. 

Pol. Centr. 1839, 665. 

Pat. Specif. Abridge. Acids. 

Alkalies, etc. 149. 

A. C. P. XXIX, 31. 

Pogg. L, 49. 

Pogg. L, 76. 

J. p.C. XXI, 399. 

Ann. d. Mines. (3), XVII, 517. 

Dingl. LXXVI, 364. 
Pol. Centr. 1840, 538. 
Pogg. LII, 193. 
A. C. P. XL., 286. 
Chem. Gaz. 1, 13. 
Berz. Jahresb. XXI, 147. 
Ann. d. Mines. (4), II, 206. 
A. C. P. XL, 266. 
A. C. P. XXXIX, 253. 
Pogg. LV, 97. 
A. C.P. XLIV, 272. 
Phil. Mag. XXI, 380. 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 1842. 
A. C. P. XLIV, 272. 
Dingl. J. LXXXV, 299. 
Ann. d. Mines. (4), II, 205. 
J. p. C. XXVI, 151. 
Pol. Centr. 1842, 874. 


Literature of Manganese. 




A. c. p. Sept., 1842, 73. 
J. p. C. XXIX, 351. 
C. R. XIV, 905. 


Haidlen and 

Action of KCy on 

A. C. P. XLIU, 133. 






Pogg. LVI, 305. 



Estimation ores. 

Am. J. Sci. (1), XLII, 81. 




A. C. P. XLI, 20. 



Anal. Ps. 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1842, 599. 



Test for Mn. 

Chem. Gaz. 1, 180. 
A. C. P. XLII, 347. 
Am. J. Sci. XLVII, 194. 
Ann. d. Mines. (4), III, 569. 




Dingl. J. LXXXV, 296. 
Pol. Centr. 1842, 876, 




Pogg. LVI, 73. 




Pogg. LV, 66. 




J. p. C. XXX, 326. 




A.C. P. XLVII, 180. 




A. C. P. XLVII, 275. 



Estimation as MnO 

A. c. p. (3), VIII, 503. 
Ann. d. Mines. (4), IV, 409, 
A.C. P. XLVIII, 369. 
Chem. Gaz. IS43, 685. 


Fresenius and 


Dingl. J. XC, 219. 


Pol. Centr. 1843, 394. 
Pamphlet, Heidelberg. 1843, 
Chem. Gaz. 1844, 52. 




Pat. Specif. Abr. 197. 




A.C. P. XLIX, 46. 




A. C. P. L, 280. 



Hydrated oxide 

A. C. P. LI, 170. 




Chem. Gaz. 1845, 73. 
Pat. Specif. Abr. 211. 



Double sulphate 

Phil. Mag. (3), XXIV, 502. 
Rep. Pat. Inv. 1845, 323. 
A.C. P. LII, 243. 
Pol. Centr. 1845, II, 430. 
Dingl. XCVI, 301. 




A.C. P. LI, 405. 


Ores from Cork 

Trans. Irish Acad. II, 598. 



Anal. Kali-Ps. 

Leon. Jahrb. 1844, 205. 



Puriflcation of Sul- 

Hoffmann's Mitth. 1843, 20. 


Pol. Centr. 1844, II, 48. 

Barnes and 


Chem. Gaz. 1844, N. 46. 


Pol. Centr. 1S45, I, 3S4. 



Sep. Co, from Mn. 

Journ. Pharm. Feb., 1S45. 
Chem. Gaz. 1845, 102. 



Test for Mn. 

A.C. P. LV,219. 

Chem. Gaz. 1845,502. 
Am. J. Sci. (2), I, 262. 
Ann. d. Mines. (4), XI, 496. 




A. C. P. LV, 280. 




A.C. P. LIII, 211. 



Ores of Orsay 

Bull. Geol. Soc. Paris. Ill, 47, 

Literature of Manganese. 




Test for Mn. 

Chemist, Apr. 1846. 
Am. J. Sci. (2), II, 259. 



Sulphate of Mn and 
K + aq 

A. c. p. (3). XVI, 239. 
J. p. C. XXXVII, 488. 




J. p. C. XXXVII, 257. 


Bottger and 


A. C. P. LVIII, 288. 



On red color of salts 

A.C.P. LIX, 27. 
Chem. Gaz. 1846, 396. 
J. p. C. XXXIX, 233. 




A. C. P. LIX. 35. 
J. p. C. XXXIX, 247. 




J. p. C. XXXVIII, 341. 




A. C. P. LXI, 249. 
Pharm. Centr. 1847, 479. 
J. c. T. I, 19. 




Moniteur Industrie]. 1847, No. 
Dingier, Pol. J. CVII, 448. 





Chem. Soc. Mem. Ill, 273. 
A.C.P. LXI, 58. 




A. C. P. LXI1I, 107. 



Rose, H. 


A. C. P. LXIV, 417. 




Pogg. LXXII, 450 and 466. 
Jahresb. 1847, 952. 



Separation from Co. 

A c. p. (3), XVII, 53. 
Am. J. Sci. (2), II, 260. 
J. p. C, XXXVIII, 171. 
Pol. Centr. 1847, 642. 
Berz. Jahresb. XXVII, 214. 
Chem. Gaz. 1846, 159. 
J. de. Pharm. 1846, 189. 
Ann. d. Mines. (4), XI, 499. 
Dingier, J. C, 157. 
Jahresb. 1S47, 974. 



Criticism on Barreswil 

A. C. P. LXI, 219. 
Chem. Gaz. 1847, 205. 
Am. J. Sci. (2), IV, 271. 
Pol. Centr. 1848, 1296. 




C. R. XXVII, 268. 
J. pharm. (3), XV, 18. 
Jahresb. 1847, 420. 



Sesqui salts 

Pogg. LXXIV, 303. 
J. p. C. XL VI, 413. 
Chem. Gaz. 1848, 325, 
C. C. 1848,508. 
Jahresb. 1848, 421. 



Reactions of Mns O7 

J. p. C. XLI, 228. 
Pol. Centr. 1848, 1291. 
C. C. 1847, 776. 
Jahresb. 1S48, 421. 



Action of NH4 CI on 
MnQ 2 

J. p. C. XLV, 116 % 



Occurrence in blood 

C. R. XXVI, 41. 
Pogg. LXXIV, 284. 
Pol. Centr. 1848, 606. 


Literature of Manganese. 




















1849 Senarmont 









Ed. Davy 
Sobrcro and 



Pevsonne et 

MnCl 2 +NH 4 Cl 




Occurrence in blood 




Separation by means 
of H»S 


Action of Ozone 

Anal. Ps. 
Test for Mn. 
Action of CI on cblor 

Occurrence in sea 

Occurrence in urine 

Artificial minerals 


A. C. P. LXV, 150. 

Dingier, J. CIV, 407. 

A. C. P. LXV1, 285. 

Jahresb. 1848, 393. 

Pogg. LXXIV, 449. 

A. C. P. LXVIII, 257. 

Am. J. Sci. (2), VIII, 111. 

Chem.Gaz. 1848,488. 

A.c. p. (3), XXII, 213. 

A. C. P. LXVIII, 269. 

Pol Centr. 1848, 13:58. 

Jahresb. 1849, 247. 

C. R. XXVIII, 42. 

Instit. 1849, 29. 

C. C. 1849, 203. 

Jahresb. 1849, 254. 

J. chim. med. (3), V, 179. 

Jahresb. 1849, 530. 

Pogg. LXXVIII, 233 and 338. 

A.C. P. LXXII,238. 

A.C. P. LXIX.208. 

Chem. Gaz. 1849, 138. 

A.C. P. LXX, 275. 

A. c. p. (3), XXV, 92. 

J.pharm. (3), XV, 266. 

J. p. C. XLVI, 305. 

A.C. P. LXXII, 329. 

C. C. 1849, 169. 

Chem. Gaz. 1849, 82. 

Jahresb. 1849, 592. 

C. R. XXVIII, 693. 

Instit. 1849, 177. 

C. C. 1849, 535. 

Jahresb. 1849, 225. 

Berl. Gewerbe Handelsbl. 1849, No. 6. 

Dingl. J. CXII. 461. 

Pogg. LXXVIII, 162. 

Jahresb. 1849, 222. 

Leon. Jahrb. 1849, 574. 

Irish Acad. Proc. IV, 345. 

A. C. P. (3), XXXIX, 101. 

J. p. C. L, 305. 

C. C. 1850, 015. 

A. C. P. LXXVI, 234. 

Jahresb. 1850, 314. 

A.C. P. LXXVII, 90. 

C. C. 1851, 362. 

Jahresb. 1850. 621. 

Am.J.Sci. (2), XI, 259. 

Jahresb. 1851, 002. 

A.C. P. LXXIV. 222. 

Br. d.Inv. LXXII, 140. 

A.c. p. (3), XXX, 137. 

A.C. P. LXXV, 289. 

J. pharm. (3), XIX, 115 and 161. 

Literature of Manganese. 



J. Davy 

Incrustation of MnOs 

Edinb. Phil. J. (2), LI, 87. 




Quart. J. Sci. IV, 300. 
J. p. C. LV, 255. 




J. pharm. (3). XX, 243. 
J. p. C. LIV, 307. 




A. o. p. (3), XXXIII, 324. 
C.R. XXXII, 044. 
Instit. 1851, 138. 
J. pharm. (3), XX, 263. 
J. p. C. LIU, 126. 
A. C. P. LXXX, 272. 
C. C. 1851,525. 
Jahresb. 1851, 352. 


H. Rose 


Pogg. LXXXIII, 147, and LXXXIV, 

Berl. Acad. Ber. 1851, 597. 

,T. p.C. LIV, 23. 

C. C. 1851,778. 

A. C. P. LXXX, 235. 

Chem. Gaz. 1851, 457. 

Instit. 1852, 69. 

Jahresb. 1851,304. 



Burin de 

Occurence in blood 

Sur l'exist. de Mn. dans le sang, etc. 

Lyons, 1852. 
J. chim. med. (2), VIII, 392. 
Jahresb. 1852, 702. 



Benzoate as pigment 

Pat. Specif. Abr., 346. 




Am. J. Sci. (2) XIV, 204. 
Chem. Gaz. 1852, 368. 
A. C. P. LXXXVI, 52. 
J. p.C. LVIII, 241. 

Jahresb. 1852. 728. 



Technical estimation 

A. C. P. LXXX, 98. 
Pol. Centr. 1852, 312. 
C. C. 1852,312. 
Chem. Gaz. 1852, 75. 
Dingl. J. CXXIV, 50. 



Hydrated Carbonate 

Pogg. LXXXVII, S7. 




Pol. Centr. 1852,571. 




Phil. Mag. (4) III, 144. 
Chem. Gaz. 1852, 60. 
C. C. 1853,16. 



Color of MnO solu- 

N. Jahrb. Pharm. II, 18, 30. 



A. c. p. (3) XXXVII, 203. 



Separation from Ni 

J. p. C. LIX, 184. 
Am. J. Sci. L2] XV, 275. 
Pol. Centr. 1853, 1512. 
Chem. Gaz. 1853, 413. 



Separation from Co 
and Zn 

Ann. d. Mines. (5)111,641. 
J. p. C. LXI, 508, 105. 
A. c. p. (3) XXXIX, 460. 
C. R. XXXVI, 1090. 
Chem. Gaz. 1853, 380. 



Technical valuation 

Chem. Gaz. 1853,416. 



Ileleld ore 

C. C. 1853, 362. 

Pol. Centr. 1853, 547. 

November, 1875. 


Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 


Literature of Manganese. 













Rivot and 



Volumetric estima- 

Wohler and Phosphide 


Wohler and 


Burin de 


Ed. Davy 
Von Ilauer 



1855 Mohr 




Color of MnO solu- 

Permanganic acid 

Action of P on 

K>Mn 2 CM 
Color of MnO salts 

Volumetric estima- 


Potassic manganate 



Estimation of Mn02 

Double salts 
Color ( ? ) 

Pol. Ceutr. 1853,821. 

A. C. P. LXXXVI.283. 
A. C. P. LXXXV1I, 257. 

Chem. Gaz. 1853. 450. 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XML 126. 

J. p. C. LXI, 472. 

A. C. P. LXXXVI, 371. 

C. C. 1854,32. 

Jahresb. 1854, 358. 

C. R. XXXVI, 861. 

Instifc. 1853, 102. 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XVI, 416. 

J. p. C. LIX, 325. 

C. C. 1853, 383. 

J. de Pharm. (3) XXVII, 253. 

Chem. Gaz. 1853,248. 

Jahresb. 1S51, 358. 

A. c. p. (3)XLII, 70. 

Pogg. XCI, 340. 

A.C. P. LXXXVI, 373. 

J. p. C. LX, 184. 

C. C. 1S53, 943. 

Chem. Gaz. 1854, 89. 

Jahresb. 1854. 359. 

Chem. Gaz. 1853,329. 

J.p.C. LX, 247. 

J. pharm. (3) XXVIII, 345. 

Pogg. Ann. XCII, 57. 

A.C. P. XCII, 411. 

Chem. Gaz. 1854, 271. 

J. c. T. I, 20. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. VI, 385. 

Chem. Gaz. 185t, 117. 

Wieu.Akad. Ber. XIII, 453. 

J.p.C. LXIII, 436. 

Jahresb. 1852, 353. 

A. C. P. XCI, 4(J. 

J.p.C. LXIII,251. 

C. C. 1854, 784. 

Arch. Pharm. (21 LXXX, 2G2. 

N. Jahrb. Pharm. Ill, 219. 

A.C. P. XCV, 110. 

Chem. Gaz. 1855,330. 

Jahresb. 1855 379. 

Lehrb. d. Titrirmethode. 1855, 1, 170. 

Dingl. J. CXXXV, 289. 

A. C. P. XCIII, 51. 

J. c.T. 1.19. 

J. p. C. LXV, 17S. 

Vierteljahresschr. Pharm. IV, 377. 

Recher. des formes cryst. Geneve. 1855. 

Ann. dM. (5) IX, 1. 

C. R. XLII, 288. 

Literature of Manganese. 





Pogg. Ann. XCIV, 507. 
J. p. C. LXV, 181. 
C. C. 1855, 344. 



Pure fused metal 

A. C. p. (3)XLVI, 182. 
Dingl. CXL, 428. 
A. C. P. C1I.326. 



Hyd rated three- 

A. C.P. XCIII, 372. 

fourths oxide 

Chem. Gaz. 1855, 171. 
J. p. C. LXIV, 512. 
Jahresb. 1855, 379. 



Tu up state 

J.p.C. LXI1I, 214. 



Occurrence iu blood 

J. de Pharm. (3) XXVII, 284. 




Dingl. J. CXXXV, 277. 
Pol. Centr. 1855, 693 and 745. 
J. c. T. I, 19. 



Technical; recovery 

Lond. J. Arts. 1856, 36. 

of Mu02 

Hessisch. Gewerbebl. 1856, 176. 
Chem, Gaz. 1856, 79. 
Pat. Specif. Abr. 446. 
J. c. T, II, 72. 
Dingl. J. CXXXIX, 238. 
Teehnologiste. 1S56, Apr. 341. 
Pol. Centr. 1S56, 700. 
Jahresb. 1S56, 792. 



Technical; recovery 

Pat. Specif. Abr. & 453 and 471. 

of MnOa 

Cltem. Gaz. 1S56, 200. 
Rep. Pat. Inv. 1856, 236. 
Dingl. CXL, 104. 
Jahresb. 1858, 792. 
Pol. Centr. 1856, 832. 
J. c. T. 11,71. 




J. p. C. LXIX, 287. 



Patent disinfectant 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 496. 
Hofmann's Rep. Exhib. of 1862. 



Occurrence in 

A. C. P. C, 106. 





Technical recovery 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 477. 



Treatment of ores 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 505. 


Von Haner 


Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien. XVII, 331 
Chem. Gaz. 1856, 6. 



Transformation of 

A. c. p. (3), XL VIII, 348. 

albumen into Urea 

J. pharm. (3) XXXI, 32. 

by means of 

Cimeuto. IV, 155. 

KsMna 0^ 

A. C. P. C, 247. 
C. C. 1857, 127. 
Jahresb. 1S56, 696. 



MnsOa SSOa 

A. C. P. XCVIII, 53. 

J. p. C. LXVIII, 377. 

C. C. 1856, 465. 

Arch. ph. nat. XXXII, 235. 

Chem. Gaz. 1856, 292. 

Jahresb. 1856, 382. 



Permanganic acid 

C.R. 382. 

Instit. 1856, 88. 

Arch. ph. nat. XXXI, 351. 

Jahresb. 1S56, 381. 


Literature of Manganese. 


















Von Hauer 

J. Hoffman 

Permanganic acid 

KaMn^Os as a decolor- 

Recovery of MnCh 




Preparation of metal 
Properties of metal 


Metal containing Si 

Atomic weight 


J. p. C. LXIX, 58. 

C. C. 1856, 289. 

A. C. P. XCIX. 373. 

Pol. Centr. 1856, 1275. 

J. p. C. LXIX, 469. 

J. c. T. II, 162. 

Dingl.J. CXLII, 316. 

Jahresb. 1856, 496. 

Quart. J. Chem. Soc. IX. 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 536. 

Pol. Centr. 1858, 700. 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 515. 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 554. 

C. R. XLIV, 632. 

Inst. 1857, 102. 

J. pharm. (3) XXXI, 321. 

J. p. C. LXXI, 79. 

A. C. P. CII, 331. 

C. C. 1857, 463. 

Jahresb. 1857,201. 

Dingier J. CXLIV, 44. 

Chem. Gaz. 185S, 5. 

Pogg. CI, 204. 

Dingl. J. CXLIV, 184. 

Pol. Centr. 1S57, 1325 and 1636. 

C. C. 1857, 408. 

J. c. T. Ill, 35. 

C.R. XLIV, 630. 

Chem. Gaz. 1857, 163. 

Instit. 1857, 101. 

Am. J. Sci. (2)XXrV,140. 

J. p. C. LXXI, 77. 

A. C.P. CII, 330. 

Bern. Mitth, 1857, 72. 

Jahresb. 1S57,201. 

C.R. XLIV, 673. 

Chem. Gaz. 1857, 201. 
J. p. C. LXXI, 289. 

A. C.P. CII, 332. 

Jahresb. 1857,203. 

Bern. Mitth, 1857, 128. 

Pogg. CHI, 139. 

Chem. Gaz. 1858, 178. 

C.C. 1858,161. 

Jahresb. 1857, 204. 

Wien. Acad. Ber. XXV, 124. 

J. p. C. LXXII, 352. 

C.C. 1857, 8S1. 

Chem. Gaz. 1858, 41. 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XXVIII, 437. 

Mitth. d. Nassauer Gewerbvereins. 

Dingl.J. CXLV, 450. 

Pol. Centr. 1857,1514. 

J. c. T. 111,432. 


Literature of Manganese. 




Technical recovery 
of Mn0 2 

A. C. P. CHI, 27. 
Dingl. pol. J. CXLV, 439. 
Pol. Centr. 1857, 1508. 
J. p. C. LXXII, 383. 
C.C. 1857,833. 
Jahresb. 1857, 206. 



Cryst. form of chlo- 

C.R. XL V, 650. 

Instit. 1857, 364. 

Arch. ph. nat. XXXVI, 207. 

Phil. Mag. (4) XV. 157. 

Jahresb. 1857, 207. 



Delicate test for Mn 

J. des phys. Ver zu Frankf. 
J. p. C. LXX, 433. 
Pol. Centr. 1857, 886. 
N. Repert. Pharm. VI, 247. 
Pol. Notizbl. ia57, No. IX. 
C. C. 1857, 635. 
Jahresb. 1857, 136. 

1856, 27. 



Recovery of Mn from 
CI residues 

Rep. Pat. Inv. 1857. 
Polyt. Centr. 1857, 1033. 
Dingl. Pol. J. CXLV, 238. 
Jahresb. 1857,623. 
Pat. Specif. Abr. 503. 



Separation from FeO 

Chem. Gaz. 1857.374. 
Dingl. CXLVI, 315. 
Jahresb. 1S57, 592. 



Test for MnO 

C.R. LXIV, 677. 
Instit. 1857, 114. 
Chem. Gaz. 1857, 291. 
J. pharm. (3) XXXI, 342. 
C.C. 1857,449. 
J. p.C. LXXI, 317. 
Jahresb. 1857, 592. 



Separation from Zn, 
Co, and Ni 

C.R. XLV, 652. 

Instit. 1857, 366. 

J. pharm. (3) XXXII, 3S3. 

Chem. Gaz. 1S57, 452. 

J. p.C. LXXIII, 481. 

Jahresb. 1857, 593. 


Souchay and 


A. C. P. CII,35; CIII, 308. 
J. p. C. LXXI, 295. 
J. p. C, LXXIII, 42. 

C. C. 1857, 519. 
Jahresb. 1857, 291. 




Canad. J. II, 30. 
Chem. Gaz. 1857, 62. 
J. pr. Chem. LXXIII, 59. 
C. C. 1857, 233. 
Jahresb. 1857, 292. 



Action of KjMnaOg 
on albumen 

J. p.C. LXXII, 251. 

C. C. 1S5S, 90. 
J. pharm. (3) XXXIII, 156. 
Chem. Gaz. 1858, 101. 
Jahresb. 1857, 537. 



Separation from Co 

Phil. Mag. (4), XVI, 197. 
C. C. 1859, 94. 


Literature of Manganese. 










Von Hauer 



H. Rose 

Cloez and 

Souchay and 

1858 Wohler 









Fordos and 

Separation from Co 
and Ni 

Acetate of MnO, 

Sulphate of Mn and 

Technical recovery 
Dunlop's process 

Cry st. form of 
MnS0 4 +K 2 S0 4 +2H 2 
Sesquioxide solu- 

Action of KaMiioOgOn 
organic matter 




Action of KI on 

K 2 Mn 2 3 

Occurrence in blood 
Atomic Weight 

Experiments with 

K 2 Mn 2 8 
Preparation of 

K,Mii,O g 

Analysis of sulphur 

J. p. C. LXXVI, -252. 

Jahresb. 1858, (119. 

Am. J. Sci. 1809 (4) XVI, 197. 

Petersb. Akad. Bull. XVI, 305. 

Vein. Naturf. Ges. Basel, 1858. 

J. p. C. LXXIV, 325. 

C. C. 1858, 778. 

Jahresb. 1858, 188. 

J. p.C. LXXIV, 431. 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 1000. 
Bull. Soc. Ind. Mulh. No. 142, 332. 
Pol. Centr. 1858, 800. 
Wien.Akad.Ber. XXIX, 441. 

Pogg. CV, 289. 

C. C. 1859, 12, 

J. p.C. LXXVI, 115. 

Chem. Gaz. 1859, 101. 

Berl. Acad. Ber. 1858, 519. 

Jahresb. 1858, 171. 

C. R. XLV1I, 710. 

A.C. P. CVIII, 378. 

Dingl. CL, 419. 

Jahresb. 1858, 171. 

A. C. P. CV, 245. 

J. p. C. LXXIV, 167. 

CO. 1858,289. 

Chem. Gaz. 1858, 2G4. 

Jahresb. 1858, 244. 

Nachr. Gottingen, 1858, 59. 

A. C. P. CVI, 54. 

Chem. Gaz. 1858, 233. 

C. R. XL VII, 929. 

Chem. Gaz. 1859,71. 

Instit. 1858, 419. 

Jahresb. 1858, 245. 

A. C. P. CVII, 100. 

J. ]). C. LXXV, 383. 

Dingl. CXLVII, 440. 

C. R. XLIX, 895. 

Pogg. CVII, 005. 

C.C. 1859,768. 

Phil. Mag. (4) XVIII, 268. 

Chem. Gaz. 1859, 474. 

A. C. P. CXII1, 77. 

Jahresb. 1859, 178. 

Bull. soc. chim. May, 1859, 43. 

Jahresb. 1859, 179. 

A.c. p. (3)LVII, 293. 

J. c. T. VI, 258. 

Jahresb. 1859, 180. 

Rep. chim. appl. II. 65. 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XXVII, 16. 

J. de pharm. (3) XXXVI, 113. 

Literature of Manganese. 


















V T oa Kobell 




Wohler and 


Dell ft 


Non] [existence of 


Action of K 2 Mn 3 O g 
on albumen 

Action of As 2 O a on 

Decomposition of 

K 2 Mn 2 8 
Action of CaCl»0 2 

on JMnCJ, 

Ethyl succinate 
Atomic Weight 

Organic compounds 


Volumetric estima- 
tion of protoxide 


Alloy of Mn and Al 

Separation from Co 
and Ni 

Separation from FeO 


Pol. Centr. 1S59, 815. 

C. R. L.69L 

Instit. 18(50, 124. 

J. p. C. LXXX, 122. 

Dingl.J. CLV1. 239. 

Z. C. P. 1800, 392. 

C.C. 18(50,4(50. 

J. c. T. VI, 258. 

Rep. chim. pure. II, 161. 

Jahresb. I860, 1(50. 

Berg. u. Hiittenm. Ztg. 1859, XVII. 

Dingl.J. CLII, 136. 

Chem. Gaz. 1859,288. 

C. C. 1859, lit. 

Pol. Centr. 1859, 1079. 

J. c. T. V, 65. 

A.c. p. (3), L VII, 291. 

Jahresb. 1859, 181. 

J. p. C. LXXVIII, 197. 

J. p. C. LXXVII, 315. 

Jahresb. 1859, 181, 

Jahresb. phy. Verein Frankfurt, 1858, 47 

J.p. C. LXXVI, 235. 

Dingl. CLI, 42S. 

N. Jahrb. Pharm. XI, 205. 

Vierteljahrschr. Pharm. VIII, 450. 

Jahresb. 1859, 202, note. 

Pogg. CVIII, 94. 

J. p. C. LXXVI, 415. 

A. c. p. (3) LV, 129. 

A. C. P. CXIII, 25. 

Chem. Gaz. 1859, 78. 

J. p. C. LXXVII, 227. 

Pogg. CX. 120. 

Z. C. P. 1800, 557. 

C. C. 1860, 583. 

Rep. chim. pure II, 391. 

Jahresb. 1800, (544. 

J. p. C. CLXXX, 408. 

C. C. 1801, 78. 

Jahresb. 18(50, 055. 

J. p. C. LXXIX, 346. 

A. C. P. CXV, 102. 

Pogg. CX.411. 

Z. C. P. 1800, 025. 

Rep. chim. pure III, 91. 

Jahresb. 1860, 05 5. 

Z. C.P. 1800,81. 

Pol. Xotizbl. 1S00, 109. 

J. c. T. VI, 259. 

Jahresb. 1800,106. 

Archiv. Pharm. (2) CI, 145 


Literature of Manganese. 













1860 Von Hauer 

















Elliot and 

UNO, in ores of Mil 

Analysis of K 2 Mn 2 8 


Double salt of man- 
ganate and per- 


Estimation as sul- 
Acetate Mn and Ce 
Spectrum of chloride 

Solubility of Mn S0 4 

in alcohol 


Manganese Amal- 
Artificial minerals 


C. R. .L, 868. 

J. p. C. LXXXVI, 412. 

C. C. 

Pol. Centr. 1860, 1340. 

Pol. Centr. 1861, 1386. 

C. R. LI, 140 and 214. 

Rep. chim. pure. II, 316. 

Z.C. P. 1860,656. 

J. p. C. LXXXI, 40.1 

C.C. 1860,864. 

Dingl. J. CL, VII, 239. 

J. c. T. VI, 259. 

Jahresb. 1860, 167. 

Berl. Acad. Ber. 1860, 474. 

J. p.c. LXXXI, 29. 

Arch, pharm. (2) CIV, 141. 

Pogg. CXI, 217. 

C. R. L, 610. 

A. c. p. (3), LXI, 355. 

J. p. C. LXXX, 123. 

Chem. News. IV, 103. 

C. C. 1860, 838 and 460. 

Rep. chim. pure. 178. 

Inst. 1860, 140. 

Rep. chem. pure. II, 161. 

J. c. T. VI, 259. 

Jahresb. 1860, 169. 

Wien. Acad. Ber. XXXIX, 447. 

J. p. C. LXXX, 230. 

C. C. 1800, 423. 

Jahresb. 1860, 170. 

Pogg. CX, 122 and 301. 

J. p. C. LXXXIi, 138. 
J. p. C. LXXXIV, 125. 
J. p. C. LXXXV, 393. 
Am. J. Sci. (2) XXXI, 113. 
Am. J. Sci. (2), XXXII, 338. 
A. C. P. CXVIII, 370. 

A. C. P. CXVII, 382. 

Rep. chim. appl. Ill, 254. 

Jahresb. 1861, 850. 

Schweitzer, pol. Zeitschr. VI, 103. 

Pol. Centr. 1861, 683. 

Z. C. P. 1861, 605. 

Poggr. CXII, 445. 

Jahresb. 1861, 95. 

Pogg. Ann. CXIV, 619. 

J. p.C. LXXXV, 431. 

Jahresb. 1861, 260. 

Proc. Am. Acad. Sci. V, 192. 

Chem. News. VI, 121. 

J. p.C. XC, 2S8. 

Jahresb. 1861, 261. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Crystallized Na 2 Mn0 4 

J. p. C. LXXX1I, 58. 
Rep. Chim. pure. Ill, 370. 
J. pharm. (3) XXXIX, 473. 
Jahresb. 1861,261. 




Separation from FeO 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XXXI, 85. 
Pat. Specif. Abr. 749. 
A. C. P. CXX, 243. 



Action of K.,Mn 2 8 
on iodine 

Z. anal. Chem. 1,217. 
A.C. P. CXX, 349. 
Jahresb. 1861, 262. 



Action of HC1 on 
oxides at high tem- 

C. R. LII, 1264, Lin, 199. 
Instit. 1861. 203 and 257. 


Rep. chim. pure. II, 324 and 373. 
Jahrb.Min. 1861,703; 1862,80. 
A. C. P. CXX, 180. 



Action of NaN0 3 on 
Mn0 2 

Jahresb. 1861, 7. 
A. C. P. CXIX, 375. 
J. p. C. LXXXV, 311. 



Preparation of metal 
from its amalgam 

Phil. Mag. (4), XXIV, 328. 
Pogg. CXVII, 528. 


Pean tie 
St. Gilles 


Jahresb. 1S62, 154. 

C. R. LV, 329. 

Instit. 1862, 286. 

Z.C. P. 1862.569. 

C. C. 1863, 208. 

J. p. C. LXXXVIII, 123, 

J. c. T. IX, 360. 

Rep. chim. pure. IV, 379. 

Pol. Centr. 1863. 622. 



Catalytic phenomena 

Jahresb. 1862, 155. 
Proc. Roy. Soc. XII. 209. 



Manganous acid 

J. p. C. LXXXVIII, 342. 
A. c. p. (3), LXVI, 153. 
Rep. chim. pure. IV, 415. 
C. C. 1863. 145. 




Jahresb. 1862. 155. 
Bull. soc. chim. 1862, 40, 
Z. C. P. 1862, 437. 
J. c. T. VIII, 322. 
C.C. 1863,78. 
Chem. News. VI. 57. 


Binks ami 

Recovery of Mn0 2 
from chlorine resi- 

Jahresb. 1862, 156. 
Technologiste. 1862. 627. 
Polyt. Centr. 1862, 1659, 
Pat. Specif. Abr. 672. 
C. C. 1863, 254. 




Jahresb. 1862, 659. 
Pogg. CXV, 242 and 425. 




Z. anal. Ch. 1, 356. 
Dingl. J. CLXIX, 316. 
Pol. Centr. 1863, 1310. 
J. c. T. IX, 361. 




Deutsche Gewerbe Ztg. 1863, 196. 
C. R. LVII, 7S6. 
Z.anal. Ch. 11,346. 
Pol. Centr. 1864. 826. 

November, 1875. 


Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 


Literature of Manganese. 























Volumetric estima- 

Optical properties of 
solutions of higher 

Preparation of 
K 2 Mn,0 8 

Amount Mn in iron 

Action of K 2 Mn 2 8 
on proto salts 

Non-existence of 

Specific heat of sul- 

Volumetric estima- 

Volumetric estima- 
Barium manganate 

J. p. C. LXXXIX, 213. 

C. C. 1863, 737. 

Bull. soc. chim. V, 568. 

Jahresb. 1863, 333. 

Bull. soc. chim. VI, 89. 

Ohem. News. VIII, 292, IX, 13. 

J. pharm. (3) XLV, 409. 

C.C. 1864,339. 

Jahresb. 1863,679. 

J. p.C. XC, 303. 

Z. C. P. 1864, 91. 

C.C. 1864, 479. 

J. pharm. (3) XLV, 355. 

Bull. soc. chim. VI, 269. 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XXXVII, 408. 

Jahresb. 1863,228. 

Begliickw. J. Frankf. V, 1863, 6. 

J. p.C. XC. 156. 

Pol. Centr. 1864, 53. 

Dingl. J. CLXX, 286. 

Pol. Notizbl. 1863, 321. 

Vierteljahreschrilt Pharm. XIII, 221. 

J.c.T. IX V 356. 

C.C. 1864,430. 

J . pharm. (3) XLV, 356. 

Jahresb. 1863,228. 

Polyt. Centr. 1863, 1311. 

B. u. H. Jahrbuch. XI, 295. 
Am. J. Sci. (2) XXXV, 120. 
Pogg. CXVIII, 17. 

Z. anal. Chem. II, 383. 
Pogg. CXVIII. 280. 
J. p.C. LXXXVI. 
Pogg. CXX, 368. 

J. p. C. XCI, 81. 
Dingl. CLXXIII.294. 

C. C. 1864, 550. 
Z.anal. Ch. 111,371. 
Chem. News. IX, 253. 
Bull. soc. chim. (2) III, 131. 
Jahresb. 1864, 680. 

Z. anal Chem. Ill, 209. 

Rapport sur le concours pour le prix 
Bonfils par J. Nickles 1865, 6 and 18. 
J. pharm. (3) XL VI, 344. 
Dingl. J. CLXXVI, 409. 
J. p. C. XLV, 233 ; XLVI, 344. 
Arch. Pharm. CXXIII, 146. 
Pol. Notizbl. 1865,264. 
Deutsche Ind. Ztg. 1865, 368. 
Kurhess. Gewerbebl. 1865, 769. 
J. c. T. XI, 365. 
Jahresb. 1864, 822. 
Pol. Centr. 1865,1374. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Barium manganate 

Deutsche Gewrbe Ztg. 1865, 372. 



Co and Ni in Pyro- 

Berg. u. hiittenm. Ztg. 1864, 176. 


Pol. Centr. 1864, 1387. 
J. c. T. X, 124. 



Calcination of oxides 

Chem. Soc. J. (2) II, 294. 

in oxygen gas 

Z. C. P. 1864, 449. 
J. p. C. XCIV, 345. 
C. C. 1865, 364. 
Jahresb. 1864.234. 



Estimation by elec- 

Dingl. CLXXVTI, 231 and 2*6. 

trolyt. precipitation 

Dingl. CLXXVIII, 42. 

as Mn<3 2 

Jahresb. 1845,686. 




J. p.C. XCIV, 246. 

Z. C. 1865,347. 

Z.anal. Ch. IV, 421. 

C. C. 1865,830. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) IV, 119. 

Jahresb. 1865,711. 



Volumetric estima- 

Z.anal. Ch. 111,474. 


Z. Chem. 1865, 473. 
Jahresb. 1865,713. 



Bresl. Gewerbebl. 1865, No. 27. 
Pol. Centr. 1865, 1023. 
J. c. T. XI, 364. 



Separation from Co, 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XXXIX, 58. 

Ni and Zn. 

Z. anal. Ch. 111,331. 

J. p.C. XCV.356. 

Z. C. 1865, 307. 

C.C. 1865,405. 

Dingl. CLXXVIII, 133. 

Chem. News. XI, 101 and 174. 

Jahresb. 1865,712. 



Superchloride and 

A. c. p. (4)V, 161. 


C. R. LX, 479. 

Instit. 1865, 73. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) IV, 108. 

J. pharm. (4)1,328. 

Z. C. 1865, 425. 

C.C. 1S65, 316. 

Chem. News. XI, 129, 254. 

Jahresb. 1865, 224. 




Jena. Zeit. Med. u. Nat. II, 127. 
Z. C. 1865,347. 



Preparation of 

J. p.C. XCVI, 169. 

K,Mn 2 8 

Z. C. 1866, 60. 
C.C. 1866,47. 
Z.anal. Ch. IV, 410. 
Jahresb. 1865,226. 
Pol. Centr. 1866,137. 
J. c. T. XI, 363. 




Transactions N. S. Inst. Nat. Sci. 
Chem. News. XII, 232. 



Action of sodium 

J. pharm. (4)111,413. 

amalgam on solu- 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) VI, 93. 


Z.C. 1866,576. 

Z. anal. Ch. VI, 100. 


Literature of Manganese. 



Action of sodium 

Chem. News. XIV, 27 and 42. 

amalgam on solu- 

Jahresb. 1866,170. 




Dingl. CLXVI, 197. 



Disinfecting solutions 

J. c. T. XII, 263. 



Techn. recovery 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 1000. 



Separation from 

Z. anal. Ch. V, 60. 

Arch. Pharm. (2) CXXIX, 234. 

Z.C. 1866,592. 


Vierteljahrs. Pharm. XVI, 394. 
Bull. soc. chim. (2) VII, 495. 
Jahresb. 1866, 800. 



C.R. LXII, 829. 

Instit. 1866,134. 

J. pharm. (4) III, 347. 

Chem. News. XIII, 193. 

J. p.C. XCVIII, 283. 

Z. C. 1866, 247. 

C. C. 1866, 848. 



" Casseler green " 

Jahresb. 1866,160. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) V, 477. 


P. W. Hof- 


Technical recovery 
of Mn0 2 

Pat. Specif. Abr. 873. 
J. c. T. XI, 365. 
Dingl. CLXXXI, 364. 
Z.C. 1866,608. 
Chem. News. XVI, 163. 



Action of CS 2 on 
K 2 Mn0 4 

Jahresb. 1866, 857. 
Pogg. CXXVII, 404. 
C.C. 1866,561. 
Z. C. 1866, 267. 



Optical properties 
of K,Mn,O s 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) VI, 447. 
Pogg. CXXVIII,335. 
Z.C. 1866,573. 



Estimation as pyro- 

Am. J. Sci. (2)XL1V, 216. 
Chem. News. XVII, 195. 
Z. C. 1867, 721. 
J. p. C. CIII, 395. 
Jahresb. 1867,845. 
Z. anal. Ch. VII, 101. 



K 2 Mn 2 O a 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) IX, 201. 
Vierteljahres. Pharm. XV, 259. 
Pol. Centr. 1867,614. 
Deutsch. Indust. Ztft. 1867, 198. 
J. c. T. XIII, 275. 


Tessie" du 

H 2 Mn 2 8 for bleach- 

Les Mondes. XIV, 95. 
Chem. News. No. 38, 222. 
Schweitz. pol. Ztschft. 1867, 98. 
Muster Ztg. 1867, XVI, 146. 
Ruclmer's Repert. XVI, 583. 
Dingier. J. CLXXXIV, 524. 
Pol. Centr. 1867, 540 and 1130. 
Deutsche. Ind. Ztg. 1867, 158 and 317. 
Kurhess. Gewerbebl. 1866, 962. 
Hannover Mittheil. 1866, 100. 
J. c. T. XIII, 652. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Technical recovery 

Laboratory. I, 445. 

of Mn0 2 

Chem. News. XVI, 125. 

Dingl. CLXXXVI, 129. 

J. p. C. C1I, 478. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) VIII, 449. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) IX, 166. 


Tesste du 

Technical prepara- 

Bull. Soc. d'Encourage. 1867, 472. 


tion of K 2 Mu 2 8 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) VIII, 455. 
Dingl. CLXXXVI, 231. 

Jahresb. 1S67, 911. 


Esquiron et 

Recovery of Mn0 2 

Ann. Genie Civil. 1867, 270. 


Bull. soc. chim. (2) VIII, 137. 



Action of K 2 Mn 2 8 

A. C. P. CXLI, 205. 

on H 2 2 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) VIII, 404. 




Chem. News. 201. 
Z. C. (2) IV, 123. 




C. R. LXV, 107. 
Chem. News. XVII, 10. 



Blowpipe test 

Chem. News. XVI, 105. 



K 2 Mn 2 8 as disinfec- 

Dingl. CLXXXIII, 227. 



Delicate reactions 

Z. anal. Ch. VI, 73. 
Z.C. 1867,541. 
C.C. 1867,396. 
Jahresb. 1867,845. 


Eaton and 


A. C. P. CXLV, 157. 


Z. C. 1867, 107. 

N. arch. ph. nat. XXVIII, 361. 

Inst. 1868, 224. 

Jahresb. 1867, 373. 



Action on uric acid 

Am. J. Sci. (2) XLIV, 110 and 218. 



Estimation in iron 

Berg. Huttenm. Ztg. 


Schweitz. pol. Zts. 1867, 154. 
Z.C. (2) IV, 507. 
Z. anal. Ch. VII, 495. 
Jahresb. 1868, 872. 




C. R. LXVI, 628. 
Bull. soc. chim. (2) IX, 443. 
Z. C. (2) IV, 415 and 592. 
Jahresb. 1868, 306. 



Crystallized sulphide 

C. R. LXVI, 1257. 
Z.C. (2) IV, 544. 
Jahresb. 1868, 229. 




C.R. LXVII,448. 

Z. C. (2) IV, 701. 

Iustit. 1868, 265. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XI, 411. 

J. p.C. CVI. 

Jahresb. 1868, 229. 



Ba in Pyrolusite 

J. p.C. CHI, 478. 
J. c. T. XIV, 328. 




C.R. LXVI, 668. 
Z.C. (2) IV, 337. 




Pogg. CXXXIII, 203. 




Z. anal. C. VII, 340. 
Z. C. 1869, 306. 


Literature of Manganese. 




Jahresb. 1868. 227. 



" Niirnberger Violet " 

Deutsch. Indust. 1868, 376 and 428. 

Pol. Notizbl. 1868, 272 and 335. 

Dingl. J. CXC, 70. 

Hessische Gewerbebl. 1868, 304. 

Pol. Centr. 1868,1339. 

Monit. scientif. 1868, 713. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2), X, 76. 

J. c. T. XIV, 326. 



K 2 Mn 2 8 

J. p. C. CIII, 107. 
N. R. Pharm. XVHI, 178. 
Z. anal. Ch. VII, 467. 
Dingl. J. CLXXXIX, 84. 
J. c. T. XrV, 327. 
Pol. Centr. 1869, 696. 
Pol. Notizbl. 1868, 179. 
Jahresb. 1868,228. 




Z. anal. Ch. VIII, 428. 

Z. C. 1870,274. 

Jahresb. 1869,886. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIV, 194. 



Separation from 

C.R. LXIX, 168. 


Instit. 1869,243. 
Jahresb. 1869,891. 



Removal from zinc 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XI, 473. 


Z. anal. Ch. VIII, 460. 
Chem. News. XX, 35. 
Z. C. 1869, 662. 
C.C. 1870,224. 
Jahresb. 1869,896. 




C. R. LXIX, 201. 
Z.C. 1869,606. 
Jahresb. 1869, 251. 



Manganate of baryta 

Z.C. 1869,442. 
Jahresb. 1869,217. 




Jahresb. 1869, 887. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIII, 48. 

Z.C. 1869,414. 

Z. anal.Ch. IX, 382. 

Chem. News. XIX, 137. 




Chem. News. XIX, 41. 
Z.C. 1869, 246. 
Jahresb. 1869, 537. 



K 2 Mn 2 8 

Chem. News. XX, 240. 

Les Mondes, 4. November, 1869. 

Jahresb. 1869, 1052. 



Spectroscopic; super- 

Z. anal. C. VIII, 405. 


Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIII, 499. 
Z. C. 1870, 288. 
Jahresb. 1869,184. 



Regeneration of 

Bull. soc. chim. (2), XII, 335. 


Dingl. J. CXCH, 60, 133 and 234. 
Pol. Centr. 1869, 670 and 1230. 
J. c. T. XV, 209. 



Regeneration of 

Bull. soc. chim. (2), XII, 497. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Regeneration of 

Chem. News. 1869, XX, 109. 


Jahresb. 1869, 1031. 

Rep. Br. Assoc. 1869, trans. 79. 

Pol. Centr. 1869, 1325. 

Dingl. J. CXCIV, 51. 

C. C. 1870, 76. 

Monit. scientif. XII, 113. 

J. pharm. (4) XII, 45. 

J. C. T. XV, 196. 




Z. anal. Ch. VIII, 370. 

Z. C. 1870, 285. 

C. C. 1870,350. 

Bull, soc chim. 1870, (2) XIV, 44. 

Jahresb. 1869, 887. 



Formation of green 

Z.C. 1869, 580 and 640. 


Chem. News. XX, 226. 
Jahresb. 1S59, 261. 



MnO for coloring 

Annal. du Genie civil. 1869, Oct., 732. 


Pol. Centr. 1870, 608. 
J. c. T. XVI, 273. 



Sep. of Co. from Mn. 

Z. C. V, 626. 

Bull. soc. chim. XIII. 334. 



In ash of plants 

N. R. Pharm. XIX, 423. 
Jahresb. 1870, 994. 



Effect of iron and 

Dingl. J. CXCV, 336. 


Pol. Centr. 1870, 556. 

Berg- u. huttenm. Z. 1870, 46. 

Jahresb. 1870, 1091. 


F. F. Allen 


Chem. News. XXII, 194. 
C. C. 1S70, 772. 
Jahresb. 1870, 1103 and 351. 
Dingl. J. CXCVIII, 017. 



Alloys 'with iron 

Engineering. Sept., 1870. 
Dingl . T J. CXCVIII, 205. 
Berg. u. huttenm. Ztg. 1870, 419. 
Pol. Centr. 1871, 110 and 1080. 
J. c. T. XVII, 27. 



Alloy with Cuand 

Jahresb. 1870,1103. 
Jahresb. 1870, 334. 
C. R. LXX, 607. 


Pol. Centr. 1870, 936. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIV, 193. 

D. C. Ges. Ill, 326. 

Instit. 1870, 90. 

Berg. u. hiittenm. Ztg. 1870, 304. 

Dingl. J. CXCVI, 516. 

Deutsche Indust. Ztg. 1870, 155. 

Z.C. 1870,318. 

C. C. 1870, 243. 




Jahresb. 1870, 350. 
Dingl. J. CXCVII, 251. 
Turrschmiedt'sgNotizbl. 1870, 220. 
Deutsche. Ind. Ztg. 1870, 358. 
Pol. Notizbl. 1870, 290. 
C. C. 1870,557. 
J. c.T. XVI, 307. , 


Literature of Manganese. 



Analysis pyrolusite 

Monit. Scient. 1870, 279. 
J. c. T. XVI, 183. 



" Mangan braun" 

Deutsche ill. Gewerbe Ztg. 1869, 313. 
Diugl. J. CXCV, 283. 
Jahresb. 1870, 1264. 




Z.C. 1870,6. 

C. C. 1870, 22. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIII, 423. 

Jahresb. 1870,331. 




Dingl. J. CXCV, 532. 

C. C. 1870, 229. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIV, 96. 

J. c. T. XVI, 745. 

Pol. Centr. 1870, 829. 

Chem.News. 1870, No. 543, 192. 

Jahresb. 1870, 331. 



Estimation in Spie- 

Engineering. June, 1870, 455. 


Dingl. J. CXCVII,328. 
C. C. 1870, 592. 
J. c. T. XVI, 13. 
Jahresb. 1870, 993. 


Sch ul z- 


Z. C. 1870, 646. 


Jahresb. 1870,334. 




Z.anal. Ch. IX, 43. 


Z.C. 1870,446. 
Jahresb. 1870,333. 



Perman. potash 

J. p. C. (2) I, 423. 
Jahresb. 1870, 333. 



Perman. potash 

J. p. C. (2) I, 421. 

C. C. 1870, 391. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIV, 194. 

Jahresb. 1870, 332. 



Refraction of 

Pogg. Ann. CXXXIX. 132. 

hydrated peroxide 

Phil. Mag. (4) XL, 105. 
Jahresb. 1870, 164. 



Hydr. peroxide 

Pogg. Ann. CXLI, 109. 

formation and Sp. 

J. p. C. (2) II, 419. 


C. C. 1870, 689. 
Jahresb. 1870, 299. 



Estimation of per- 

Chem. News. XXI, 267 (1870). 

oxide in ores 

Bull. soc. ohim. (2) XIV, 347. 

Pol. Centr. 1871, 1, 117 and 1568. 

Am. Chem. 1870, 141. 

C. C. 1870, 636. 

Dingl. J. CXCVII, 422. 

Berg. u. huttenm. Ztg. 1870, 347. 

Z.C. 1870,442. 

Z. anal. Ch. IX, 509. 

J. c. T. XVI, 183. 

Jahresb. 1870,991. 



Estimation of per- 

Chem. News. XXI, 284. 

oxide in ores 

Z. anal. Ch. IX, 513. 
Jahresb. 1870, 992. 



Estimation of per- 

Chem.News. XXI. 16. 

oxide in ores 

Z. anal. Ch. IX, 410. 
Jahresb. 1870,993. 

Literature of Manganese. 











Wei don 

Desclabissac ' 

1870 Pollaci 



Mason and 


A. H. Allen 

Tartrate of potassium 
and manganese 

Estimation of Mn in 

Oxidation of MnCl> 

Directions for manu- 
facturing manga- 
nates and perman- 

Presence in milk 

and blood 


Action of MiioO, on 

November, 1875. 


Treatment of ores 

Precipitation by 


Estimation of 


Detection by ferro- 
cyauide of potash. 


C. K. LXX, 813. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIV, 250. 

Z.C. 1870,317. 

C. C. 1870, 292. 
Jahresb. 1870, 602. 

D. C. Ges. Ill, 428. 

Chem. News. 1870, No. 568, 186. 

Dingl.J. CXCIX, 48. 

Berg. u. hiittenm. Ztg. 1871, 55. 

C. C. 1870.725. 

J. c. T. XVII, 13. 

Brit. Assoc. Rep. Liverpool meeting. 

D.C. Ges, III, S73. 

Chem. News. 1870, No. 570, 145. 

Chem. News. 1871, No. 606, 12. 

Pol. Centr. 1871, 50, 576, 965. 

Dingl. J. CCI, 354. 

C. C. 1871,550. 

J. c.T. XVII, 250. 

Verb. d. Vereins z. beford. des Gerverbell. 

in Preussen. 1870, 142. 
Pol. Centr. 1871, 639. 
Dingl.J. CCI, 58. 
J. c. T. XVII, 353. 
Jahresb. 1871,1023. 
Am. Chem. 1871,233. 
C.C. 1871,508. 
J. p. C. May, 1870. 
Am. Chem. I, 6!) and 121. 
Z. anal C. IX, 277. 
Jahresb. 1870, 333. 
J. p. C. (2) II, 135. 
C. C. 1870, 164. 
Jahresb. 1870, 333. 
Z.C. 1870,243. 
Dingl.J. CXCVII, 293. 

C. C. 1870, 305. 
Jahresb. 1870, 208. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XIV, 190. 
Am. Chem. 1870, 76. 

D. C. Ges. IV, 134. 
D. C. Ges. IV, 534. 

D.C. Ges.. IV, 218. 

Z. C. 1871, 444. 

Z. anal. C. 1871, 444. 

Jahresb. 1871.866. 

D. C. Ges. IV, 279. 

Jahresb. 1871,928. 

Z. anal. C. 1871, 310 to 322. 

Jahresb. 1871,929. 

Chem. News. XXIV, 196. 

Jahresb. 1871,928. 

Chem. News. XXIII, 290, 

Z.C. 1871, 413. 

Bull, soc. chim. (2) XVI, 93. 

Ann, Lye. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 


Literature of Manganese. 










A. II. Allen 
Hugo Tamm 











Detection by ferro- 
cyanide of potash 
Estimation as 
MnMI 4 P0 4 +H»0 

Alloys with iron 

Position of MnS in 
the series of elec- 
trical tension 

Effect of oxide of 
carbon upon oxides 



Use of K 2 Mn ; 8 

in battery 

Employment of 
KaMnaOj in photo- 

Generation of 

Preparation of metal 



Color of chloride 

Estimation in soil 
and plants 

Jahresb. 1871, 930. 

Chem. News. XXIV, 148. 

Z. C. 1871, 467. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2) XVI, 2G1. 

Jahresb. 1871. 932. 

Mechanic's Magazine. Feb. 1871, 78 

Dingl. J. CXCIX, 394. 

J. c. T. XVII, 32. 

Berg. u. hiittenm. Ztg. 1871, 232. 

Pol. Centr. 1871. 531. 

C. C. 1871, 345. 
Jahresb. 1871, 996.. 
Chem. News. XXIII, 255. 
Jahresb. 1871, 122. 

Chem. News. XXIII, 258 & 267. 

Jahresb. 1871,265. 

Pogg. Ann. CXLIII, 351 to 396; 497 to 534. 

D. C. Ges. IV, 586 to 590, 308 to 314. 
Bull. soc. chim. (2; XVI, 63. 
Jahresb. 1871, 101, 104. 

Wien Acad. Ber. (2 Abth.) LXIII, 453. 
Jahresb. 1871, 1004. 
Pogg. CXLIV, 627. 

Jenaische Zeitschr. f. med. u. Naturw. 

VII, 110. 
J. p.C. (2) IV, 449. 
Jahresb. 1871, 250. 
Photographic News. 
Dingl. J. CCII, 388. 
Bull soc. chim. (2) XVI, 3G0. 
C.R. LXXIII, 254. 
Z.C. 1871,415. 
Monit. Scientif. (3) I, 783. 
Bull soc. chim. XVI, 238. 
Jahresb. 1871,206. 
Am. Chem. 1871,454. 
Chem. News. XXV, 139. 
Bull soc. chim. XVII, 556. 
D. C. Ges. IV, 856. 
Pol. Centr. 1871, 1569. 
J. c. T. XVIII, 350. 
D. C. Ges. V, 22S. 
Bull. soc. chim. XVII, 192. 
J. c.T. XVIII, 270. 
D.C. Ges. V, 582. 
J. c. T. XVIII, 348. 
J. p. C. (2) V, 105. 
Pol. Centr. 1872, 1159. 
Dingl. J. CCIV, 337. 

C. C. 1872, 289. 
C.R. LXXV, 1209. 

D. C. Ges. V, 983. 

Bull. soc. chim. XIX, 177. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Estimation in soil 
and plants 

Dingl.J. CCVI, 306. 



Estimation in steel 
and iron 

D. C.Ges. V, 605. 

Bull. soc. chim. XVIII, 224. 

Chem. News. XXVII, 14. 

Dingl.J. CCV, 439 and 332. 

Le Technologiste. Dec, 1S72. 

Am. Chem. 1873,76. 

Pol. Centr. 1872. 1608. 



Manufacture of 

Dingl.J. CCV, 422. 

Pol. Centr. 1872, 1624. 





J. p. C. 1S72, V, 443. 

C. C. 1872, 499. 

J. c. T. XVIII, 347. 



Spectra in blowpipe 

Chem. News. XXV, 139. 



Formation of oxide 

D. C. Ges. V, 175. 


Tarn in 

Improvements in 

Chem. News. XVI, 37. 
Bull soc. chim. XIX, 121. 




D. C. Ges. VI, 1465. 



Quantity in steel 

Dingl.J. Sept.. 1872. 
Chem. News. XXVI, 194. 




Chem. News. XXVI. ill. 
Bull soc. chim. XVIII, 552. 
Pol. Centr. 1872, 1348. 
Ding]. J. CCVI, 136. 



Estimation by color- 
imetric process 

C. R. LXXV, 1821. 
Chem. News. XXVII, 85. 
Bull soc. chim. XIX, 253. 




Z.anal. C. XII, 308. Dingl. J. CCVII, 
Z. anal. C. 1872, No. 3. 



v. Gerichten 


Am. Chem. 111,472. 
A. C. P. CLXVIII. 214. 
D. C.Ges. VI, 162. 




Jahresb. reinen Chemie. I, 20. 
Jenaische Ztsehrft. VII, 493. 






Exchange of MuOSCK 
with NaOCOs 

Dissociation of 

J. p. C. VIII, 372. 

D. C.Ges. VI, 266. 

Jahres. reinen Chemie. I, 67. 

Pol. Centr. 1873, 1369. 

D. C. Ges. VI, 909. 



Volumetric estima- 

Utilization of Mn 
residues in glass 

Oesterr. Z. Berg. u. Hutten. 1873, No 
Pol. Centr. 1873, 1367. 
Dingl.J. CCVIII, 396. 
Bull. soc. chim. XX, 424. 




Barium mangauate 

ArchPharm. 111,300. 



Mn as a substitute 
for Ni in German 

Estimation in Spie- 

Jahres. reinen Chemie. I, 68. 
Chem. News. XXVII, 249. 
Am. Chem. IV, III. 



Pol. Centr. 1873,786. 
Chem. News. No. 743. 



Use of residues 

Am. Chem. IV. 434. 

Bay. Iud. Gewerbebl. May, 837. 

Pol. Centr. 1S73, 980. 


Literature of Manganese. 

Minerals. 1596-1873.* 


H =Hausmarmite. 
Bn = Braunstein. 
Br = Braunite. 
Py = Pyrolusite. 
M = Manganite. 
Kh = Rhodochrosite. 

Ps = Psilomelane. 

W = Wad 

A = Alabandite. 

R = Rhodonite. 

T =Tephroite. 






















de Lisle 




de la Peyrouse 



Midler von 

Reichen stein 
de la Peyrouse 





"Lapis nianganensia" 


"Magnesia indurata" 

"Magnesia flbris" 
Mn cryst 



"Mn acitlo aereomin 
erahsatum ' (Rh) 

"Rother braun- 
stein" (R; 

"black wadd" 

"Sehwer blende" 

Native metal 

Carbonate ( ? ) 



Schwarz braun- 

"Oxyde rouge" 

"Luftsaures Braun- 
stein" (Rh) 

Cresalp. de metallicis. 1596. 

Brom. Mineralogia. 

Cram. Doeimasie. 239. 

Wall. Min. 208 and 345. 

Elements de chym. metallurgique. 

Cronst. Min. 106. 

Mineralog. Abhandlungen. 

Mineralog. Abhandl. 

de Lisle Crist. 

Crell's N. Entd. I, 156. 

Tillagnin om Brunsten. 

Vet. Acad. Handl. XXXV, 194. 

Vet. Acad. Handl. 1774, 201. 

Schw. Akad. Abh. 1774, 206. 

J. de Phys. XV, 67, XVI, 156. 

Mem de Toulouse. I, 256. 

Sciagr Berg. 17S2. 

Phys. Arb. Wein. 1,55. 
Crell's Ann. 1790, I, 297. 
Phil. Trans. 1783, 284. 
Phys. Arb. Fr. Wein. 11,86. 

Kirw. Mineralogy. 390. 
Schrft Ges Nat. Fr. Berlin. V, 452. 
Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris. 1785, 235. 
Mem. de Toulouse. Ill, 256. 
Journ. d. M. VI, 599. 
Journ. d. Phys. XXVIII, 68. 
Crell s Ann. 1786, II. 302. 
Scheele's Cliein. Essays. London, 
Journ. d. Phys. XXXI, 100. 
Journ. d. Phys. XXX, 351. 
Bergm. J. 1789, 380. 

A. c. p. (1)X, 148. 
Mem de Turin. 4. 303. 
Emmerl. Min. IV, 532. 
Lenz. Min. II, 1794. 

J. d. Mines. III. 

*For many of the references the author is indebted to Dana's Mineralogy, 1868. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Black Wad 

Kirwan. Min. 



"Granat formiges 
Braunsteinerz " 

Klapr. Beitr. 11, 239. 



Romaneche Ore 

J. d. Mines. IV, 27. 




J. d. Mines. XVII 313. 
Samml. pr. Chem. Abh. Ill, 238. 




Sainml. pr. Chem. Abh. Ill, 239. 



"Rother Braunsteiu" 


Karst. Tab, 54 and 78. 



Useful Ores 

J. d. M. X. 763. 




J. (1. M. IX, 4S1. 



Mag. oxide 

Haiiy Traite. IV, 1801. 



" Grau-raanganerz " 

Klapr. Beitr. III. 301. 



Analysis \V 

Klapr. Beitr. Ill, 311. 




"violet oxide" 

J. d. M. XIII, 135. 




J. d. M. XI, 295. A. c. p. XLI, 





Ann. Mus. d. Hist. Nat. VI, 401. 
Gehlen's J. II, 41. 
Leonh. Taschenb. II, 266. 


Leonhard , 


Leonh. Tab, 7. 



Mn, phosphate 

Lucus Tabell. I, 169. 



Rother Braunsteinerz 

Gehlen's, J. VT, 307. 

Leonh. Taschenb. I, 261 and 295. 



Blumenb. Handb. I, 707. 



"Schwarz Braun- 


Klapr. Beitr. IV, 137. 

Leonh. Taschenb. 11, 220 and 266. 


G. Karsten 

Grau Braunstein 

Karst. Tab. 1808, 72, 100. 
Leonh. Taschenb. IV, 172. 



Manganese Carbonate 

H. Tabl. III. 



Grau braunstein 

Hausm. Handb. 288. 



Schwarz braunstein 

Hausm. Handb 293. 




Hausm. Handb. 1079. 


Oilman n 

"Faseriges grau 

Leonh. Tabell Uebers. 402. 
Leonh. Taschenb. IX, 432 and 434. 




Al'h. Fysik. IV, 382. 
Ann. Phil. VIII. 232. 
Schweigg, J. XXI, 254. 
Leonh. Taschenb. V, 174. 




Leonh. Taschenb, X, 180. 



Dialogite (Rh) 

Kl. Min. Schrift. 1817, 4. 
Gilb. Ann. LX, 84. 




Schweigg, J. XXI, 49. 


Du Menil 


Gilb. Ann. LX. S7. 


Du Menil 


Gilb. Ann. LXI. 190. 




Schweigg, J. XXVI. 110, Note. 




Schweigg, J. XXVI, 103 and 121. 




Schweigg, J. XXVI, 262. 



Analysis Tr. 

Schweigg, J. XX VI I, 70. 



"Hydropit" (R) . 

Schweigg, J. XXVI, 108. 




A. c. p. (2) XII, 34. 




Am. J. Sci. (1) H. 374. 



Analysis W 

Gilb. Ann. LXVII, 333. 




Ann. d. Mines. VI, 291 and 593. 
A. c. p. (2) XX, 344. 
Ann. Phil. Ill, 573. 


Literature of Manganese. 






"Braunstein von 


del Rio 






"Oxyde Hydrate" 



Analysis A 









"Prismatisches Man- 
ganerz" , 





"Pyramidal Mangan- 


















"Bustamite" (R) 















M. H.Py. &c. 












Da m our 


Anal. W. 
Py. H. Br. 
Analysis H. 

Warwick mineral 

Huraulite and Hete- 

Analysis T 
Analysis Rh 


Sohweigg, J. XXXV, 81. 
Am.J.Soi. VII, 306. 
Schweigg, J. XXX, 201. 

Gilb. Ann. LXXI, 7. 

Am. J. Sci. IV, 38, 54, and 189. 

Hauy Traite. 1822. 

Vetens. Acad. Ilandl. 1822. 

Anl. J. Sci. V. 219. 

Breith. Char. 1823, 278. 

Mohs. Grundriss. 488. 

Am. J. Sci. VII, 54. 
Mohs. Mm. II, 41G. 

Pogg. 1,58. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. VIII, 349. 

A. c.p. XXX, 302. 

Am. J. Sci. IX, 22. 

Afli. Fyslk. VI, 222. 

Schweigg, J. XLH, 202. 

Am..!. Sci. IX, 345. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. VIII. 411. 

Leonh. Handb. 240. 

Ed. , J. Sci. IV, 48. 

Pogg. VII, 225. 

Pogg XI. 374. 

Pogg. XIV, 197. 

Ann. J. M. 1,409. 

Phil. Mag. IV, 22. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed. 1827. 

Leonh. Ztschi. Min. 1829, 028. 

Ann. d. M. (3) XI, 489. 

Ann. X. Y. Lye. Xat. Hist. HI. 28. 

Kastn. Archiv. XIII, 302 and XIV, 257. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. XI. 

Leonh. Ztschr. 1829, 628. 

Pogg. Ann. XIV, 222. 

K. Vet. Acad. Haudl. 1828, 171. 

J. p. Oh. IV, 18. 

Geiger Mag. Pharm. XXX, 114. 

Phil. Mag. (2) V, 209. 

Dingier. J. XXXII, 431. 

Quart. J. Sci. 1829. Oct. to Dec, 381. 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1S30, 495. 

A. c. p. (2). XLI. 337. 

Ann. d. M. (2) VII, 137. 

Schweigg, J. LVII, 454. 

Dingl. J. XXXIV, 444. 

Leonh, Jahrb. 11,189. 

Ann. d. M. 12) VI, 339. 

Ann. d. M. (2), VI, 595, 

Mem. Acad. Torino. XXXIII, 167. 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1835, 84. 

Quart. J. Sci. (2). VI, 386. 

Pogg. Ann. XIX, 145. 

Literature of Manganese. 




Wad. &c 

Edinb. J. Sci. (2)11.213. 



Analysis Ps 

Schweigg. LXII, 253. 




A. c. p. (2), LI, 79. 
J. t.C. XVI, 379. ' 
Dingier. J. XL. VII, 104. 




Sbep. Win. 1832, 180. 




Bead Traite. II. 399 and 678. 



Am.. I. Sri. XXII. 01. 



Analysis W 

Schweigg J. LXVI. 1. 



Analysis Rh 

Gcitt. Gel. Anz. stiick. 109, 1081. 
Leonh. Jahrb. . 1834, 224; also, 1835, So. 



Mangan alaun 

A. C. P. X. 235. 
Pogg. Ann. XXI, 337. 



Siangan epidote 

J. pr. C. IV, 18. 




Thorns. Min. I, 509. 



Peroxide containing 


Phil. Mag. 279. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1S37, 571. 


Ed. Davy 

Peroxide containing 

Dubl. Geol. Soc. J. I, 241. 



Manganese alum 

Phil. Mag. XII, 103. 
A. C. P. XXII, 272. 
J. pr. C. XL 502. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1840. 231. 




Ann. d. Mines. (3), XIV, 283. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1839, 712. 



"Eisenapatit" (Tr) 

J. pr. U. XVIII. 499. 




Pogg. Ann. XL1X, 204. 
Licit. Ilandb. 1S47, S01. 



Analysis Ps 

Ann. d. M. (3), XIX, 155. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1842, 337. 



Kapnikite Ouatite 

Huot. Manuel. 241. 



Analysis "W 

Pogg. Ann. LIV. .145. 



"Zwiselite" (Tr) 
"Rosenspath" (Rh) 

Breit. Haudb. II, 299. 
Breit. Ilandb. II, 22S. 


Dam our 

Analysis Br 

Ann. d. M. (4), I, 400. 



Analysis Ps 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1843. 559. 

IS 42 


Analysis H 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1842, 602. 



Genesis of ores 

Ber. u. d. II Versamlung Naturv. 

Thiiringen. Juni. 1843, 8 and 9. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1844. 362. 
Arch. Pharm. (2) XXXV. 260. 




Analysis Ps 

Rammelsberg. 1st Supplement. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1844. 205. 




Pogg. LXII, 145. and 157. 
Pogg. LXIV, 551. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1S43, 206. 



Chemical origin ot 

Karst. Arch. Min. XVIII, 537. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1845, 105. 




A.C. P. XLIII, 185. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1844, 70. 



Analysis Py 

Pogg. XLI, 192. 




Ann. d. M. XX, 570. 
Leonh, Jahrb. 1S44, 69. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1843, 345. 



"Poliauite" &c 

Pogg. LXI, 187. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1S44, 595 


Literature of Manganese. 



Analysis R 

Ann. d. M. (4) VII, 8. 



Genesis of ores 

Karst. Archiv. Min. XIX, 754. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1846, 229. 




Haid. Handb. 1845, 493. 




Leonh. Jahrb. 1846, 614. 



Analysis silicate 

J. pr. Ch. XXXVII, 127. 




Pogg. LXIX, 429. 

Instit. No. 726. 

Am. J. Sci. (2), V.268. 



Analysis Rh 

J. pr. C. XXXVII, 163. 


Igel strom 

Analysis W 

Berz. Jahresb. XXV, 342. 



Analysis Ps. 

Pogg. LXVIII. 72. 



Analysis Mangano- 

Pogg. Ann. LXVIII, 511. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1847, 344. 




Ann. d. M. (4), XI, 641. 



"Glanz Braunstein" 

Hausm. Handb. 222 and 405. 




Analysis Py 

A. C. P. LXI, 262. 




Nat. Abh. Wien. I, 107. 




Glock. Syn. 244. 




Phil. Mag. (3), XXXII, 37. 
C. O. 1848, 272. 
Jahresb. 1848, 1024. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1849,470. 




Verhandl. Rheinland. Vereins. V, 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1852, 69. 




Manganese copper 

Pogg. Ann. LXXIV, 559. 
Leonh Jahrb. 1849, 559. 




Pogg. Ann. LXXIV, 546. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1849, 310. 


Del Rio 

Mn Zn & Cu alloy 

Bull. geol. Soc. Ill, 24 and 25. 
Leonh, Jahrb. 1849, 96. 



Hydrated oxide from 
North America 

J. p. C. XLVII. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1850, 447. 




J. pr. Ch. XLVII, 7. 

Am. J. Sci. (2), IX. 410. 




Pogg. Ann. LXXIX, 166. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1851, 89. 



Analysis W 

J. pr. Ch. LIII. 308. 




Ann. d. M. (4) XVIII, 455. 




Ann. d. M. (4), XVIII, 61. 
Jahresb. 1850, 761 and 771. 




Afh. Ak. Stockh. 1851, 143. 
J. pr. Ch. LIV. 192. 




Pogg. Ann. LXXXV, 297. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1853, 176. 




Am. J. Sci. (2), XIII. 9. 



Analysis Br 

Am. J. Sci. (2), XIV, 62. 



Hermannite (R) 

Kenng. Min. 71. 




Pogg. Ann. LXXXVIII, 491. 


M idler 

Minerals of Jura 

Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel. 1854, 95. 
Leonh Jahrb. 1857, 168. 


J. L. Smith 


Am. J. Sci. (2), XVIII, 379. 
J. pr. Ch. LXIII, 460. 
C. C. 1855, 7. 
Jahresb. 1854, 863, 

Literature of Manganese. 




Analysis Ps 

Rammelsb. IMineralchemie, 1006. 



Ps in trachyte 

Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. IV, 
Leonh. Jahrb, 1854, 593. 





Berg- HUtten-mann. Zeit. 1854, 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1855, 69. 




A. C. P. XCVIII, 144. 
J. p. C. LXVIII, 64. 
C. C. 1856,495. 
Jahresb. 1856, 883. 




Jahrb. geol. Reichs. VII, 209. 




Verh. Niederrhein. Ges. 1856, Jan 




Leonh. Jabrb. 1857, 394. 

Jahresb. 1857, 659. 

Verh. Nat. Ver. Bonn. III. 




Jahrb. geol. Reichs. VI, 97. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1859, 433. 



Analysis W 

Jahrb. geol. Reichs. VII, 312. 



Cupreous oxide 

Chem. Gaz. 1858,104. 



Ores of the Caucasus 

Bull. Sci. St. Petersb. XVI, 305. 




Uebers. d. Min. Forsch. 1859, 12. 


T. S. Hunt 


Am. J. Sci. (2), XXVII, 134. 
Jahresb. 1859. 813. 




A.C. P. CXV,348. 
Rep. chim. pure. Ill, 90. 
Verh. Nat. Nassau, XIV, 434. 



"Cummingtonite" (R) 

Rammelsb. Mineralchemie. 1860, 




Analysis Tr 

J. p. C. LXXIX.414. 


Breuilhs and 

Ores of Huelva 

Bull. Soc. Ind. Min. VI, 29. 


Allg. Berg. Ztg. Ill, 213, 245. 



Analysis R 

B. H. Ztg. XX, 267. 


K. List 

Analysis Ps 

J. p. C. LXXXIV, 60. 
Pogg. Ann. CX, 321. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1861, 186. 




Die Braunstein Bergbaue in Deutsch- 

land, Freiberg. 1861. 

J. c. T. VII, 143. 




Phil. Mag. (4), XXI, 165. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1866, 724. 




Oefv. Ak. Stockh. 1864, 205. 
Pogg. CXXII, 181. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1865, 83. 


von Kobell 

Analysis Tr 

J. p. C. XCII,390. 



Analysis T 

Am. J. Sci. (2), XXXVH, 66. 




Pogg. CXXI, 318. 




B. H. Ztg. XXIV, 301. 




Oefv. Ak. Stockh. XXII, 3, 606. 



Analyses and Sp. Gr. 

Berl. Acad. Ber. 1865, 112.. 
Pogg. CXXIV,513. 
J.p.C. XCIV, 401. 
Z. C. 1865,346. 
C. C. 1865,347. 
Arch. Pharm. (2), CXXVI, 39. 
Bull. soc. chim. (2), VI, 30. 
Jahresb. 1865,877. 


November, 1875. 


Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xr. 


Literature of Manganese. 










ochmid * 







Cleve & Nor- 








Twin crystals of al- 

Analysis M 
Analysis R 

Analysis of silicates 

4 Piemontit 

Analysis M 





Analysis of car- 

Anal, of carb. 

Analyses and geo- 
logical occurrence 

Anal. Mangano-sili- 
co-aluminate con- 
taining vanadium. 

Pogg. CXXVI, 151. 
Jahresb. 1865, 878. 
Pogg. CXXVII, 348. 

Phil. Mag. (4), XXXI, 166. 

B. H. Ztg. XXIII, 193. 

Z.S. G. XVIII, 34. 

C.R. LXII, 109. 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1866, 440. 

J. p. C. C, 119. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2), VIII, 43. 

Oefv. Akad. Stockh. 1867, 1. 

J.p.C. CI, 432. 

Leonh. Jahrb. 1868, 203. 

C.C. 1868,624. 

Bull. soc. chim. (2), IX, 57. 

Z. anal.Ch. VI, 67. 

Am. J. Sci. (2), XLIII, 125. 

Sitzungsb. d. niederrhein. Ges. in Bonn, 

1869, 95. 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1870, 625. 
Arch. Pharm. (2), CXLIII, 194. 
C.C. 1870,627. 
Jahresb. 1870,1124. 
Zeitschr. geol. Ges. XXII, 182. 
Jahresb. 1870,1281. 
Am. J. Sci. (2),L, 37. 
Leon. Jahrb. 1870, 892. 
C.C. 1870,708. 
Jahresb. 1870, 1325. 
Arch. Pharm. (2), CXLIII, 198. 

C. C. 1870, 627. 

N. R. Pharm. XX, 1 (prize essay). 
Leonh. Jahrb. 1871,517. 
Jahresb. 1871,1129. 
Am. Chem. (2), IV, 49. 
Jahresb. 1871,1143. 

D. C. Ges. V, 1057. 
Am. Chem. in, 465. 

Literature of Manganese. 



Abh. Acad. Wise. Berlin. 
Abh. Schw. Acad. Wiss. 

A. c. p. 

A. C. P. 

Afhandl. Fysik K. och Min. 

Allg. Berg. Ztg. 

Am. Chem. 

Am. J. Sci. 

Ann. Phil. 

Ann. Ch- Pharm. 

Ann. d. Mines or Ann. d. M. 

Ann. Gen'l des Sci. Phys. 

Ann. Genie civil. 
Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 
Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
Arch. Pharm. 
Arch. ph. nat. 

Bay. Ind. Gewerbebl. 
Beitr. znr Phys. u. Ch. 
Beob. Berl. Ges. Naturf. Fr. 

Berl. Acad. Ber. 

Berl. Gewerb. Handelsbl. 
Berg. Hiittenm. Ztg. 
Beud. Traite 

B. H. Ztg. 
Bern Mitth. 

Berz. Jahresb. 

Bibl. Univeis. 
Br. d. Inv. 

Brugnatelli G. 

Buchner's Repert. 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Paris. 
Bull. Sci. St. Petersb. 

Brom. Min. 
Breith. Char. 

Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Academie der 
Wissenschaften zn Berlin. 

Abhandlungen der koniglichen Sehwedischen Acad- 
emie der Wissenschaften. Stockholm. 

Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris. 

Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, Heidelberg. 

Afhandlingar Fysik, Kemi, och Mineralogi, Berze- 
lius, Stockholm. 

Allgemeine Berg- und Hiittenmiinnische Zeitung, 
Hartmann, Quedlinburg. 

American Chemist, C. F. and W. H. Chandler, New- 

American Journal of Science and Arts, Silliman and 
Dana, New Haven, Ct. 

Annals of Philosophy, Thomson, London. 

Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, Heidelberg. 

Annales des Mines, Paris. 

Annales generates des sciences physiques, Von 
Mons, Bruxelles. 

Annales du Genie civil, Paris. 

Annales du Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York. 

Archiv der Pharmacie, Halle, etc. 

Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles, Gen- 

Bayerisches Industrie und Gewerbeblatt, MUnchen. 

See Schweigg. 

Beobachtungen der Gesellschaft der Naturfor- 
schende Freunde zu Berlin. 

Bericht iiber die . . . . Verhandlungen derK. Preus- 
siche Academie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 

Gewerbe, Industrie und Handelsblatt, Berlin. 

Berg- und Hiittenmannische Zeitung, Leipzig. 

Traite elementaire de mineralogie, Beudant. 

See Berg. Hiittenm. Ztg. 

Mittheilungen der Naturfoi - schenden Gesellschaft in 

Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der Chemie, etc., 
Berzelius, TUbingen. 

Bibliotheque Universelle des Sciences, etc., Genfeve. 

Descriptions des Machines et Procedes specifics 
dans les Brevets d' Inventions, Paris. 

Annali di Chimica, Brugnatelli, Pavia. 

Gioi-nale di flsica, chimica e storia naturale, L. Brug- 
natelli, Pavia. 

Repertorium fiir die Pharmacie. Buchner, Niirnberg. 

Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, Paris. 

Bulletin Scientifique publie par l'Academie Imp. des 
Sciences de St. Petersbourg. 

Von Bromell's Mineralogia, Stockholm. 

Vollstandige Charakteristik des Mineralsystems, 


Literature of Manganese. 

Bull soc. chim. 

Bull. soc. d'Encourage. 

Bull. soc. Ind. Mulh. 
Bresl. Gewerbebl. 
Caesalp. de Metallicis. 
Canad. J. 

Chem. Gaz. 
Chem. News. 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
Chem. Soc. Mem. 

C. R. 

Crell's N. Entd. 

Crell's Ann. 
Cronst. Min. 
Dingl. J. or Dingl. pol. J. 

D. C. Ges. 

Deutsche Indust. Ztjr. 
Deutsche Gewerbe Ztg. 
Doeb. Lehrb. d. Chem. 
Dubl. Geol. Soc. J. 
Edinb. J. Sci. 
Edinb. Med. Surg. J. 
Edinb. Phil. J. 
Emmevl. Min. 
Gehlen's J. 
Geiger's Mag. 
Gilb. Ann. 
Gott. Gel. Anz. 
Gren's J. d. Physik. 
Hannover Mitth. 

Hausm. Handb. 
Haiiy Traite. 
Hessische Gewerbebl. 

Hofman's Report. 1862. 

Huot Manuel. 

H. Tabl. 

Irish Acad. Proc. 


Jahrb. geol. Reichs. 

Jahrb. Min. 

Jahresb. reinen. Chemie. 

Jahres. des phys. Ver. zu Frank 

Bulletin de la Societe chimique de Paris. 

Bulletin de la Societe d' Encouragement pour 1' In- 
dustrie National. Paris. 

Bulletin de la Societe Inrlustrielle de Mulhouse. 

Breslauer Gewerbeblatt, Schwartz, Breslau. 

De Metallicis, Caesalpinus, Romae, 1596. 

Canadian Journal of Industry, &c, Toronto. 

Chemisches Centralblatt, Leipzig. 

Chemical Gazette, Francis & Croft, London. 

Chemical News, Crookes, London. 

Transactions of the Chemical Society of London. 

Memoirs of the Chemical Society of London. 

II Cimento, Giornale di flsica ecc. Pisa. 

Compte rendu des Seances de l'Acad^mie des Sci- 
ences, Paris. 

Die neueste Entdeckungen in der Chemie, Crell, 

Chemische Annalen, Crell, Leipzig. 

Mineralogie, Cronstedt, Stockholm. 

Polytechnisches Journal, Dingier, Stuttgart. 

Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft zu 

Deutsche Industrie Zeitung. Binder, Chemnitz. 

Deutsche Gewerbe Zeitung, Wieck, Berlin. 

Lehrbuch der Chemie, Doebereiner. 

Journal of the Dublin Geological Society. 

Edinburgh Journal of Science, Brewster. 

Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal. 

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. 

Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, Emmerling. 

Engineering, London. 

Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Gehlen, Berlin. 

Magazin fur Pharmacie, Geiger, Carlsruhe. 

Annalen der Physik. Gilbert, Halle. 

Gottingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen. 

Journal der Physik, Gren, Halle. 

Mittheilungen des Gewerbe-Vereins fiir das Konig- 
reich Hannover. 

Handbuch der Mineralogie, Hausmann. 

Traite de Mineralogie par C. Haiiy, Paris. 

Gewerbeblatt fiir das Grossherzogthum Hessen, 

Hofmann's Report of the Exhibition of 1862. 

Manuel de Mineralogie par Huot. 

Tableau comparatif Mineraux. Haiiy. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

L'lnstitut, Paris. 

Jahrbuch der k. k. geologischcn Reichsanstalt, 

See: Leonh. Jahrb. 

Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der Chemie, 

Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der rei- 
nen Chemie, Tubingen. 

Jahresbericht des physikalischen Vereine zu Frank- 
furt am Rheiu. 

Literature of Manganese. 


Jena. Zeit. Med. u. Nat. 

J. c. T. 

J. d. M. 

J. p. C. or J. pr. Ch. 
J. techn. Ch. 
J. Chim. Med. 
J. Roy. Inst. 
Journ. de Phys. 
J. Pharm. 
Karsten's Archiv. 

Karst. Tab. 
Eastn. Archiv. 

Kenng. Min. 
Klapr. Beitr. 

Kurhess. Gewerbebl. 

Les Mondes. 

Le Teehnologiste. 

Leonh. Taschenb. 

Leonh. Jahrb. 

Leonh. Tab. 

Leonh. Zeitschr. 

London J. of Arts. 

Lucas Tab. 

Mem. Acad. Sci., Paris 
Mem. de Toulouse. 
Mem. de '1 Inst. 

Mitth. Naturf. Ges. Bern. 

Mohs' Min. 
Monit. Scientif. 
Muster Ztg. 
N. Arch. ph. nat. 

Kachr. Gottingen. 

Neue Abh. Schw. Acad. Wise. 
N. Jahrb. Pharm. 
N. R. Pharm. 

Oefv. Ak. Stockh. 

Oesterr. Z. Berg. u. IliUten. 

Jenaische Zeitschrift fiir Medicin und Naturwissen- 

Jahresbericht iibcr die Fortschritte der chemise hen 
Technologie, Wagner, Leipzig. 

Journal des Mines, Paris. 

Journal fiir praktische Chemie, Erdmann. 

Journal fiir technische Chemie, Erdmann. 

Journal de chimie medicale. 

Journal of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 

Journal de Physique, Rozier, Paris. 

Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, Paris. 

Archiv fiir Mineralogie, Geognosie, etc., Karsten, 

Tabellarische Uebersicht der Mineralien, Karsten. 

Archiv fiir die gesammte Naturlehre, Kastner, Niirn- 

Das Mohsiche Mineralsystem, Kenngott. 

Beitiage ziir chemischen Kenntnisse der Mineral- 
korpers, M. H. Klaproth. 

Gewerbeblatt fiir das Grossherzogthum Hessen, 

Les Mondes, Moigno, Paris. 

Le Teehnologiste, Paris. 

Taschenbuch fiir die gesammte Mineralogie, Leon- 
hard, Frankfurt am Main. 

Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, Geognosie, etc. Leon- 
hard, Heidelberg. 

Systemmatisch-tabellarische Uebersicht der Mineral- 
ien. Leonhard, Frankfurt am Main. 

Zeitschrift fiir Mineralogie, Leonhard, Frankfurt am 

London Journal of Arts and Sciences, Newton, Lon- 

Tableau methodique des ^speces Mineraux, Lucas, 

Memoires d l'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences de Toulouse. 

Memoires de l'Institut National des Sciences et des 

Arts, Paris. 
Mittheillungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Grundriss der Mineralogie, Mohs. 

Moniteur Scientifique. de Quesneville, Paris, 

Deutsche Muster Zeitung fiir Fiirberei, Berlin. 

Nouvelles archives des sciences physiques et natur- 
elles, Geneve. 

Nachricliten von der G.-A.-Universitat und der k. 
Gesellschaft der VVissenschalten zu Gottingen. 

See.- Abh. Schw. Acad. Wiss. 

Neues Jahrbuch fiir Pharmacie, Speyer. 

Neues Repertorium fiir Pharmacie, Buchner, Niirn- 

Oefversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens For- 
handlingar; Stockholm. 

Oesterreichische Zeitschrift fiir Berg und Hiitteu- 


Literature of Manganese. 

Pat. Specif. Abr. Acids and salts. 

Petersb. Acad. Bull. 

Pharm. Centr. 
Phil. Mag. 

Phil. Trans. 

Phys. Arb. Fi\ Wien. 

Pogg. or Pogg. Ann. 

Pol. Notizbl. 

Pol. Centr. 

Proc. Am. Acad. Sci. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Quart. J. Sci. 
Rammelsb. Min. 
Records Gen'l Sci. 
Rep. Arts and Manuf. 

Rep. Pat. Inv. 
Rep Br. Assoc. 

Rep. chim. appl. 
Rep. chim. pure. 
Reuss Repertor. 

Samml. pr. chem. Abh. 

Schw. Berl. Ges. Naturf. or, 

Schrift. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin 

Schweizer pol. Zts. 

Sciagr. Berg. 

Shop. Min. 

Sitzuugsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 

Sitzungsb. d. niederrhein. Ges. in 

Thorns. Min. 
Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. 
Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Nat. Sci. 

Trommsd. J. d. Pharm.' 
Uebersicht d. min. Forsch. 

Verh. Nat. Nassau. 

Verh. Nat. Ver. Bonn. 

Abridgements of Specifications relating to Acids 
and Salts, A. D., 1622 — 18G6. London, 1869. 

Bulletin de 1' Academie des Sciences de St. Peters- 

Pharmaceutisches Centralblatt. Leipzig. 

London, Edinburg and Dublin Philosophical Maga- 
zine, London. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 

Physikalische Arbeiten der eintrachtigen Freunde in 

Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Poggendorff, Ber- 

Polytechnisches Notizblatt. 

Polytechnisches Centralblatt. 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Sciences, 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 

Quarterly Journal of Science (Brandes), London. 

Handbuch der Mineralchemie, Rammelsberg, 1860. 

Records of General Science, Thomson, London. 

Repertory of Arts and Manufactures. First Series 
of Rep. Pat. Inv. 

Repertory of Patent Inventions. London. 

Reports of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

Repertoire de chimie appliquee, Paris. 

Repertoire de chimie pure et appliquee, Paris. 

Repertorium commentationum, J. D. Reuss, Gottin- 

Sammlung praktisch-chemischer Abhandlungen, 
Lampadius, Dresden. 

Schriften der Gesellschaft der Naturforschende 
Freunde zu Berlin. 

Journal fur Chemie und Physik, Sclweigger, Niirn- 

Schweizerische polytechnische Zeitschrift, Winter- 

Bergmann's Sciagraphia, 1782. 

Treatise on Mineralogy, by C. U. Shepard. 

Sitzungsberichte der k. k. Akademie der Wissen- 
sehai'ten zu Wien. 

Sitzungsberichte der nieden-heinlandische Gesell- 
schaft in Bonn. 

Outlines of Mineralogy by T. Thomson. 

See Irish Acad. Proc. 

Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute of Natural 
Science, Halifax. 

Journal der Pharmacie, Trommsdorff, Leipzig. 

Uebersicht der inineralogische Forschungen in der 
Schweiz, Kenngott. 

Verhandlungen der Naturhistorische Gesellschaft in 

Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereines der 
preussischeu Rheinlande und Westphalens, Bonn. 

Literature of Manganese. 


Verh. Niederrhein. Ges. ■ 

Verhandlungen der niedenheinlandische Gesells- 

chaft zu Bonn. 

Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel. 

Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaffc 

in Basel. 

Vet.Acad. Nya. Handl. orVetensk. 

Kongl.Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar, 

Acad. Handl. 

Stockholm. (Old and New Series). 

Vierteljahres. Pharm. 

Vierteljahresschrift fiir praktische Pharmacie, Witt- 

stein, MUnchen. 

Wall. Min. 

Mineralogia, Wallerius, Stockholm. 

Wien Akad. Ber. 

Sitzungsberichte der naturwissenschaftliche classe 

der kaiserliche Academie der Wissenschaften zu 



Zeitschrift fiir Chemie, Gottingen. 

Z. C. P. 

Zeitschrift fiir Chemie und Pharmacie, Erlangen. 

Z. anal. C. 

Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie, Fresenius, Wies- 


Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. 

Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, 


Zeitschr. Phys. Math. 

Zeitschrift fiir Physik, MathemaUk und verwandte 

Facher, Baumgarten. 


Page 208, line 30 from top 

« 209, « 

' 23 

" 210, ' 

' 5 

" 213, ' 

' 21 

" 213, * 

' 34 

" 217, ' 

' 32 

" 221, « 

' 36 

" 225, ' 

1 2 

" 226, ' 

« 12 

" 230, ' 

' 9 

" 231, ' 

' 33 

remove the period after "Nova." 
for "J. de m." read : J. de M. 
bottom, remove the period after " och." 
top, after " Dingier " insert J. 
" for "Chem" read : Chim. 

" remove period after " de." 

" strike out ] [ 

" strike out ] [ 

bottom, for " Schweitz " read : Schweiz. 
«• for " Schweitz " read : Schweiz. 
top, for " Schweitz " read : Schweiz. 


Position of Queenstown : — 
Lat. 45° 2' S. 
Long. 114° 16' W. 

from Washington. 

Scale, 10 miles to the inch. 
Heights in feet. 
Only a few out of numerous lofty peaks, are here represented. 

Present lake area in bine. 
Ancient extensions in yellow. 
T. Outcrop of Tertiary limestone. 
M. Old terminal moraine. 






I. 0. Russell, del. 

B. B. Chamberlin, sc. 

Ancient Glaciers of Neiv Zealand. 251 * 

XXIV. — Notes on the Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

[With map, Plate 19.] 


Read May loth, 1S76. 

About twelve hundred miles east of Australia, are 
situated the islands of New Zealand, the most promising of 
the English colonies in the southern hemisphere. The name 
of New Zealand was given to these islands by the Dutch 
navigator Tasman, who discovered them in 1642, but consid- 
ered that they were a portion of the Terra Australia Incog- 
nita. This land was shown by Captain Cook, however, to 
be composed of two main portions, known as the North and 
the South Islands, around which are grouped a few smaller 
and f\ir less important islands. 

The North Island is largely composed of igneous rocks,* 
and is chiefly remarkable to the geologist for the regularity 
and beauty of its numerous volcanic mountains, and also for 
the extent of its hot-lakes and geysers. The mountains are 
mostly isolated trachytic cones, that have been formed by 
the overflow of lava during ancient volcanic eruptions. The 
grandest of these old volcanoes are Mt. Egmont and Rua- 
pehu ; the latter, situated near the center of the island, at- 
tains an elevation of 9,195 feet. Nearly all the volcanoes 
are extinct; two, however, Tongario and White Island, still 
give evidence that their ancient fires are smouldering in their 
depths. The indications of the expiring volcanic energy, as 
shown by boiling-springs and geysers, are best seen in the 
neighborhood of Lake Topo and Lake Roto-rura, situated 
on a line joining the smoking volcanoes just mentioned. 
Ilochstetter describes this wonderful region of hot-lakes, 
fumaroles, mud-volcanoes, and boiling geysers, as "far ex- 
ceeding all others in the world in variety and extent." 

The South Island is traversed from N. E. to S. W. by the 
November, 1876. 20 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xr. 

252 Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

Southern Alps, — a great chain of snow-clad mountains, that 
well deserve their name, as they are not inferior in the wild- 
ness and grandeur of their scenery to the Alps of Switzer- 
land. This range of mountains seems formerly to have been 
a sloping table-land, the highest remaining point being the 
sharp and serrated summit of Mt. Cook, which reaches an 
elevation of 13,200 feet above the sea, and is by far the 
grandest object in New Zealand. This lofty peak is sur- 
rounded by a host of sister mountains, many of which attain 
an elevation of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet. Among the 
best known of these are Mt. Tasmau, Mt. Arrowsmith, Mt. 
Aspiring, etc. As the snow-line is situated at a height of 
from 7,500 to 8,000 feet above the sea, all the central por- 
tion of this mountain-range is wrapped in perpetual snow. 

The prevailing winds of New Zealand are from the west- 
ward. These winds, laden with the moisture gathered dur- 
ing their long journey over the South Indian Ocean, on 
coming in contact with these high mountains, are forced up- 
wards to an elevation of 10,000 feet or more ; and becoming 
raritied and chilled by their contact with the cold summits, 
part with the greater portion of their moisture in the form 
of snow and ice. In this manner, on all the higher portions 
of the mountains, immense ice-fields accumulate, that receive 
new additions from nearly every breath of air that passes 
over them. The result of this process of condensation, if 
carried on unchecked, it would be difficult to conceive. A 
compensation is found, however, in the fact that the ice flows 
down from the mountains in the great ice-rivers that are 
known as glaciers ; the character and laws of which have 
been well studied in Switzerland. 

The effect produced on the climate of the South Island, 
by the lofty mountains along the "West Coast, is shown by 
the great contrast in the amounts of rain that fall on their 
eastern and western slopes. From May to the end of De- 
cember, in 1856, the rain-fall at Hokitika, on the West 
Coast, amounted to 96-082 inches; while at Christchurch, 

Ancient Glaciers of JVeiv Zealand. 253 

east of the mountains, during the same period, it reached 
only 17-395 inches. 

The glaciers that for long ages have descended from these 
constantly accumulating snow-fields, have cut the high table- 
land from which the Southern Alps were formed, into many 
deep valleys and canons ; through these the traveller obtains 
an easy access to the very heart of the mountains. It is 
only in the extreme upper portion of these valleys that the 
glaciers are now found ; but the great valleys that extend 
beyond them, and that now are dotted with villages and 
farms, have been excavated by the ancient glaciers, which 
form the subject of our sketch. Many of these old valleys 
have been worn into rock-basins by the action of the ice ; 
and these, having become filled with water, now form some 
of the most charming features in the wonderful scenery of 
the South Island. 

The existing glaciers of New Zealand are all confined to 
the Southern Alps, and occupy the higher portions of nearly 
all the principal valleys. Many of these ice-fields are of 
great size, and by their slow melting afford a never-failing 
supply to numerous rapid rivers. While glaciers of consid- 
erable extent are found in many places throughout the moun- 
tains, they have their greatest extension, as we should natur- 
ally expect, around the highest peaks. At Mt. Cook, five 
glaciers have been discovered, flowing in a southerly direc- 
tion, and supplying the lakes that form the source of the 
Waitaki river. The largest of these is the Great Tasman 
Glacier, which has a length of eighteen miles, and a breadth 
at its terminal face, of nearly two miles ; it is the largest 
glacier yet discovered in New Zealand. Dr. Haast describes 
it as being so completely covered with an immense bed of 
debris, as to conceal the ice beneath, which could only be 
seen in the deep transverse crevasses. About nine miles up 
the valley this great glacier receives a tributary stream of ice 
one mile in breadth, descending in two arms from Mt. Cook, 
Mt. Tasman, and the neighboring peaks. 

254 Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

Another glacier well worthy of notice, is the Great Clyde 
glacier, which flows from the snow-fields of Mt. Tyndall. 
The extremity of this glacier is about 4,000 feet above the 
sea, and forms a wall of ice across the valley 1,300 feet long 
and 120 feet high. The river Clyde, which has here its 
source, springs from the glacial cave at the foot of the ice- 

Perhaps the most remarkable of the glaciers that flow in 
various directions from the Southern Alps, is the Francis 
Joseph glacier, which affords an escape for the snow and ice 
that accumulate around Mt. Tasman. Situated in latitude 
43° S, it corresponds in position, as Hochstetter remarks, 
in the northern hemisphere, with Marseilles in the south of 
France, and Leghorn in Italy, where the vine, the orange, 
and the fig tree flourish. This glacier, descending westward, 
reaches to within 705 feet of the sea-level, where it ends 
abruptly amid a dense growth of arborescent ferns, fuschias, 
and beeches. 

At some points in the course of the ice-streams that de- 
scend towards the West Coast, ice-cascades are formed — 
like the falls of the Glacier du Geant — where, owing to the 
steepness of the mountains, the ice is carried over the per- 
pendicular cliffs, and "falling with a tremendous crash, is 
again cemented together and forms a new glacier below." 

These are but a few examples of the many glaciers that 
have been discovered by the intrepid explorers of New Zea- 
land. Others probably exist, which have never been seen; 
as there are large areas amid the mountains that have not yet 
been penetrated by the white man, and were totally unin- 
habited by the aborigines. 

But interesting as the existing glaciers are, and vast and 
wonderful as they may seem to us, they yet sink into insig- 
nificance when compared with the mighty rivers of ice that in 
past lime flowed from the same mountains, and carved out 
those grand valleys of the Southern Alps to a depth of many 
thousand feet in the solid rock. 

Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 255 

The evidences of a great extension of the glaciers of New 
Zealand in past time, are furnished by the following consid- 
erations : — 

(1.) Immense moraines surround the mountains on every 
side, and are found far below the terminus of the existing 
glaciers, — in many cases reaching the level of the sea. Some- 
times the narrow valleys are crossed by a huge bank of con- 
fused glacier-worn material, brought down and deposited as 
a terminal moraine by a glacier that has long since passed 
away. These old moraines, by forming dams across the 
valleys, sometimes give rise to extensive lakes. On the 
East Coast of the South Island, the Plains of Canterbury, 
which extend along the foot of the mountains for a distance 
of a hundred miles, and are fifty miles wide at the center, 
are regarded by Dr. Haast as composed of the material that 
has been brought out of the mountain valleys by the ancient 
glaciers. On the West Coast, the country is described by 
the same writer, and by other intelligent travellers, as being 
entirely covered with huge moraines, that extend from the 
sea coast — where they have frequently been cut away by the 
waves, so as to form steep walls and precipices — far up the 
valleys, to the foot of the existing glaciers. Through this 
immense layer of glacier-worn debris, the present streams 
have excavated their channels. 

(2.) Scattered throughout the valleys are found huge 
boulders, which usually differ in the nature of their material 
from the rocks of the surrounding cliffs, and are frequently 
eighty or a hundred miles lower down the valleys than the 
present glaciers extend. These transported boulders are 
sometimes of great size, often measuring thirty to forty feet 
in diameter. 

(3.) Another indication of the magnitude of these ancient 
streams of ice, is to be found in the extent of the great val- 
leys that they have worn out in the sides of the mountains. 
These are far too large for the streams that now flow through 
them, and they frequently bear on their rocky walls the well 

256 Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

known markings cine to glacial action. The sides of these 
narrow valleys are frequently towering monntain-peaks, two 
or three thousand feet high, descending in some places per- 
pendicularly into the debris at their base, which fills the bot- 
tom of the valley to a great depth. 

(4.) The numerous lakes of the South Island, filling rock- 
basins that have been excavated by ice-action, sometimes 
lower than the level of the sea, bear similar testimony, as 
well as the fiords along the West Coast, like Milford Sound 
and Martin's Bay. These are deep, narrow sounds, that 
penetrate far into the mountains, "but universally become 
shallower at their entrance into the sea;" and are in fact 
glacier-worn basins, of the same character as the lake-basins, 
excepting that they are at a lower level, and open to the 
ocean. They afford, perhaps, one of the strongest indica- 
tions of the great extent and duration of the ancient glaciers. 

During our connection with the U. S. Transit of Venus 
Expedition, we were stationed at Queenstown, N. Z., on the 
shore of Lake Wakatipu. As the great glaciers to which 
the valley of this lake owes its origin, may be taken as an 
example of the hundreds of ice-streams that in past time 
flowed from the Southern Alps, we may obtain from the rec- 
ords that they here left behind them some idea of the phe- 
nomena of what may prove to be the "glacial epoch" in New 

Lake Wakatipu is situated about 100 miles from the south- 
ern end of the South Island, and extends into the very heart 
of the mountains. We will not attempt a description of its 
scenery which, as has been said, equals, or even exceeds in 
grandeur, the lake scenery of Switzerland, but will endeavor 
merely to tell as briefly as possible, the story of its form- 

The lake is of a sigmoidal shape, about seventy miles long, 
and from one to three miles broad. Its waters are very clear 
and cold, and have been sounded to the extraordinary depth 
of 1,400 feet. The surface of the lake is about 1,000 feet 

Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 257 

above the level of the sea; and its bottom, therefore, is 400 
feet lower than the surface of the ocean. On either side of 
the lake, throughout its whole extent, the mountains rise 
in a continuous series of very rugged peaks, to a height of 
from 5,000 to 7,500 feet; while Mt. Earnslaw, which forms 
the head of the valley, attains an elevation of 9,165 feet, its 
top white with perpetual snow, and its sides scored by de- 
scending glaciers. 

The valley of Lake Wakatipu extends southward beyond 
the foot of the lake for a distance of fifty or sixty miles, and 
opens out into the level country that forms the province of 
Southland. As the physical features of the lower portion of 
the valley are not essentially different from those of the im- 
mediate shores of the lake, we are forced to consider them 
as having a common origin, and being but portions of the 
same valley; the upper part of which is filled with 1,400 
feet of water, and the lower portion by an unknown depth 
of worn and rounded shingle. The rocks that inclose the 
valley are for the most part, clay-slates and gold-bearing 
mica-schist, which are very much curved and twisted, and in 
many places green with chlorite. 

We will not attempt to trace the geological history of the 
mountains themselves, but will confine our attention to the 
last chapter in their history — the formation of the valleys. 

Valleys may be considered as owing their origin, pri- 
marily, to one of three causes. (1.) They are formed by a 
folding of the rocks. These produce depressions, the sides 
of which slope inwards towards the axis — synclinal valleys. 
Examples of valleys formed in this way are to be met with 
wherever stratified rocks have been upheaved, as in the 
Sierra Nevada, Rocky, and Alleghany Mountains. (2.) 
Valleys are sometimes formed by the fracturing of the earth's 
crust by volcanic forces. Valleys of this kind are seldom 
seen, being confined to regions of great igneous disturbance. 
(3.) The kinds of valleys above noticed are usually greatly 
modified by denudation, which is another great agent in their 

258 Ancient Glaciers of Neiv Zealand. 

formation. By denudation we understand not only the wear- 
ing away of rocks by wind, frost, and rain, but also by the 
more powerful action of ice and running water; the opera- 
tion of which we can see everywhere about us. 

As the evidence of a synclinal axis is nowhere apparent in 
the valley of Lake Wakatipu, we are unable to account for 
its existence by the upheaval of the mountains on either side 
of it. We are likewise at a loss to find any indication of the 
rocks having been rent asunder by volcanic forces. The 
formation of the valley can o\\\y be referred to the third 
cause, that of denudation, or the slow removal, by ice and 
water, of the rock that once filled it to a height greater than 
that of the mountains which now tower above it. 

It may seem strange at first sight that such an immense 
amount of rock — measured by hundreds of cubic miles in 
the valley of Lake Wakatipu alone — could have been worn 
down and transported to distant places, by the slow action of 
ice and water. This difficulty would be removed could our 
readers examine the region about Mt. Earnslaw, whose sum- 
mit can be seen from the lake, rising clear and brilliant above 
the surrounding mountains. On its sides are blue regions of 
ice ; these are the descending glaciers, — the keys that unlock 
the secrets of the valley's history. In those streams of ice, 
although they are of great extent and of irresistible power, 
we see but the puny remains of the mighty river of ice that 
at one time flowed through the whole valley of Lake Waka- 
tipu. The extent of this glacier was probably only limited 
by the ocean, whose waters undermined its terminal face, 
and floated away the fragments in the form of ice-bergs, in 
the same maimer that ice-bergs are formed at the present 
day on the coast of Greenland. It takes but a glance to 
convince the pilgrim to the shores of Lake Wakatipu, that 
this great ice-river was the engraving tool which, aided by 
storm and frost, excavated in the living, rock the scene of 
wonderful grandeur and beauty that is now spread out before 

Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 259 

The glaciers around Mt. Earnslaw are still at work, as 
they have been for ages, in extending the valle} r . The 
streams that are formed by the melting of the ice — the riv- 
ers Dart and Rees — are all the year turbid with silt, which 
is the rock that has been ground fine by the glacier — the 
flour from the mill — which they deposit in the upper end of 
the lake. In this manner some six or eight miles of the val- 
ley have been filled up to a height of a few feet above the 
present level of the lake. We have but to extend the forces 
now in operation on Mt. Earnslaw to the whole valley of 
Lake Wakatipu, to have an accurate and satisfactory explan- 
ation of its formation. 

There is another feature of great interest in the history of 
this valley. On the shore of the lake, about twelve miles 
above Queenstown,* is a limited deposit of Tertiary lime- 
stone ; containing as fossils, Ostrea Wullerstorfii, Cucullcm 
alia, 0. Worihingtoni, Panopcm plicata, and many others. 
The junction of the limestone with the crystalline rocks be- 
neath, can be seen but a few feet below the surface of the 
lake. The limestone being at the present \eve\ of the water, 
the valley must have been eroded to that depth before the 
limestone was formed. As its deposition took place beneath 
the waters of the ocean, the valley was at one time an arm 
of the sea, and was afterwards upheaved to its present eleva- 
tion or higher, and the wearing-down of the valley contin- 
ued. We have, therefore, in the sequence of events that 
resulted in the formation of Lake Wakatipu, the follow- 
ing series of stages. 

(1.) The Southern Alps existed as a sloping table-land, the 
highest remaining point of which is Mt. Cook. On this high 
table-land were deposited immense amounts of ice and snow, 
brought by the warm, moist winds from the ocean, and form- 
ing the glaciers that flowed oft' in various directions towards 
the sea. One of these ancient rivers of ice had its source 

* At T on the accompanying map. 

260 Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

in the region of Mt. Earnslaw — then, however, greatly dif- 
ferent from its present form — and flowed over what is now 
the valley of Lake Wakatipu. This old-time glacier contin- 
ued its slow motion towards the sea for unknown ages, until 
it had ground out the solid rock to a depth of 5,000 or 6,000 
feet in vertical thickness and for over 100 miles* in length. 

(2.) The work of this mighty glacier was finally termin- 
ated by a sinking of the land, which caused the valley to 
become an arm of the sea, similar in every respect to the 
deep narrow fiords that form such a characteristic feature of 
the wild West Coast of New Zealand at the present day. 
What was before an Alpine valley, filled with hundreds of 
feet of ice, then became the home of huge oysters and many 
other forms of marine life, whose remains we now find in the 
limestone. We know that the sea filled the valley for a long 
time, since the compact gray limestone that it left behind 
was not formed rapidly, as sandstone and conglomerate may 
be, but the material had to be first gathered from the waters 
to form the shells of mollusks and foraminifera, or the hard 
parts of corals, crinoids, etc., and these worn down to a fine 
detritus by the waves, and spread out as a calcareous sedi- 
ment, before the hardening process of rock-making could 
commence. Together with the limestone are beds of fine 
shale, and masses of conglomerate composed of both angular 
and rounded pebbles, and containing fossil shells ( Crassatella 
ampla) ; these deposits speak of other, although minor 
changes, during the time that the sea occupied the valley. 

(3.) In the third stage the laud was again upheaved to 
the dignity of a mountain chain, whose lofty summits became 
covered with fields of snow and ice, which, seeking an equi- 
librium, again flowed as a glacier down the valley of Lake 
Wakatipu. This second extension of the ice-stream down 
the old valley resulted in the removal not only of most of 
the limestone that had been deposited, but also of 1,400 
feet of the crystalline rocks beneath. The limestone on the 
shore of the lake is thus shown to be an inter-glacial deposit, 

Ancient Glaciers of JSFeio Zealand. 261 

not by being interstratified with beds of till, but by the ex- 
istence, both above and below it, -of distinct glacier- worn 
valleys. It is similar in position to the inter-glacial lignite 
beds of Switzerland, and to the inter-glacial forest beds of 
Scotland and America. Like these northern formations, it 
indicates a period of warm and genial climate, in the very 
midst of the time of great cold. Geologists will notice, 
however, the far greater age of the limestone of Lake Waka- 
tipn, which, as indicated by its fossils, is Upper Eocene. 

The second glacier that flowed down the valley of Lake 
Wakatipti, like the first, had its time of great extension and 
then slowly passed away. As its terminus retreated up the 
valley, it left behind it the material it had gathered from the 
overhanging cliffs along; its course, or had torn from the sides 
of the valley, together with the finer products ground by the 
bottom of the glacier from the rocks over which it passed. 
This material now forms the filling of the valley below the 
lake, and has been worked over, perhaps many times, by the 
action of water, which has left it in many regular lines of 
terraces along the sides of the valley ; these giant stair-ways 
often form a striking contrast w T ith the angular crags and 
rocks that tower above them. 

At Kingston, situated at the southern extremity of the 
lake, a huge terminal moraine,* composed of cyclopean masses 
of angular rock, has been thrown by the glacier directly 
across the valley, and now forms the shore of the lake. In 
this confused mass of rocks we have indisputable evidence 
that here, for a long time, stood the terminal face of the glac- 
ier, which ended abruptly — as is common with glaciers at 
the present day, and as is notably the case with the Great 
Clyde glacier, that ends, as we have seen, in a wall of ice 120 
feet high. The rocks now forming the terminal moraine at 
Kingston, were once lateral moraines on the surface of the 
glacier ; and as the stream moved on and melted away, they 

* At M on the accompanying map. 

262 Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

were carried over its terminal face — just as trees and blocks 
of ice are carried over Niagara — and were left as the con- 
fused mass that we now find. 

Some idea of the time required for this truly herculean 
task of valley-making, may be gathered, perhaps, from the 
fact that the average motion of the Swiss glaciers can be 
taken at about twelve inches a day, or one mile in fourteen 
and one-half years. At this rate, a block of stone falling 
upon the glacier of Lake Wakatipu near its source at Mt. 
Earnslaw, would require more than a thousand years to reach 
its final resting place in the terminal moraine at Kingston, 
which is only midway down the valley. 

As the warmth increased, the glaciers retreated to their 
present position around the summit of Mt. Earnslaw, leav- 
ing the valley dammed-up by the moraine at Kingston, and 
filled by the water formed by the melting of the ice. On 
the sides of the valley, in many places, huge blocks of stone 
were scattered, similar to those in the Kingston moraine. 
The rounded form of roclies moulomues was also given to the 
low hills and knolls along the shores of the lake. 

Lake Wakatipu thus furnishes a striking example of a 
lake filling a glacier-worn rock-basin, the lower lip of which 
has been raised by the formation of the moraine at Kingston. 
Taking Lake "Wakatipu and the ancient lake-basin that con- 
tinues below it, as one valley, we have an instance of a rock- 
basin that has been worn out by glacial action to a known 
depth of 1,400 feet. That this is a true rock-basin is shown 
by the fact that in the Dome Pass, at the southern end of the 
old lake, the country rock again comes to the surface in the 
bottom of the valley. Although the glaciers probably at one 
time passed beyond this point, yet they left a barrier of rock 
across the valley, which formed the southern end of the an- 
cient lake, and compelled the waters to cut a new channel to 
the S. E., that resulted in the complete drainage of the val- 
ley. Such we conceive to be a simple, although very im- 
perfect, reading of the grand history of Lake Wakatipu. 

Ancient Glaciers of JSFew Zealand. 263 

Other great changes probably took place, the records of 
which have been erased. 

Not only, however, may we trace the past history of this 
interesting lake, but we can also look beyond the veil that 
obscures its future. As the combined actions of ice and 
water have been the instruments for its formation, so are 
they also working its destruction. After the formation of 
the moraine at Kingston, the waters sought a new outlet 
from the valley over the falls of the Kawarau, which are 
constantly wearing away by the action of the water, and thus 
tending to drain the lake to a lower level : we see, indeed, 
by the terraces along its shores, that it has been already low- 
ered. "While the outlet is every moment becoming deeper, 
the water that flows from the foot of the glaciers, together 
with every rill and rivulet born among the mountains, is 
continually bringing down its burden of sediment, however 
small, which it deposits in the lake, and does its part towards 
tilling the valley. "While at the upper end of the lake the 
water is of a light-blue tint, caused by the foreign material 
held in suspension, thus indicating its glacial origin, a few 
miles down it becomes beautifully clear, and of almost as 
deep a blue as the open ocean itself. 

The present conditions continuing, Lake "Wakatipu will at 
no very distant day, geologically speaking, have reached the 
end that awaits all lakes, and be drained dry — the fate that 
has already overtaken the lake which once existed to the 

Some of the able geologists of New Zealand are inclined 
to attribute the former extension of the glaciers of the South 
Island, solely to a greater elevation of the land. Such an 
elevation may account very well for all the known facts re- 
lating to the glaciation of that island. "When we take into 
consideration, however, the records left by ancient glaciers 
on other lands in the southern hemisphere, — as in South 
Africa,* where well-characterized moraines and transported 

* G. W. Stow, Quart. Jour, of the Geol. Society, xxvii, 550. 

2G4 Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 

boulders, indicate the former existence in that country, of 
glaciers that have long since passed away, — and also the evi- 
dences of former ice-action at the southern extremity of 
South America and on the Falkland Islands, so well known 
through the writings of Darwin and Agassiz, — we cannot 
well escape the conclusion that they are all due to a common 

If we look for the reasons of the great variations of cli- 
mate in the northern hemisphere, in astronomical changes, 
as seems to be the increasing tendency among scientists, — 
either in a change in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, as 
advocated by Prof. Croll, or in a variation of the angle of 
the earth's axis with the plane of the ecliptic — we are obliged 
to admit that the southern hemisphere has been subjected 
to the same influences, and that the climates of the two hem- 
ispheres must have undergone similar changes. 

It seems to us that the great extension of the glaciers in 
these southern lands could not have been clue altogether to 
changes of elevation in the several countries, but, rather, 
that the advance and retreat of these glaciers have been con- 
trolled by the same — to us mysterious — laws, that in the 
Tertiary period clothed Greenland with a varied and beautiful 
vegetation, and replaced it in our times with immense gla- 
ciers and fields of snow and ice. 

If the evidences of a glacial epoch in the southern hemi- 
sphere seem too meagre for comparison with the corres- 
ponding formations in our own country — where they cover 
many thousand square miles — it is to be remembered that the 
land itself is wanting in the former, on which to find the 
inscriptions left by the old glaciers. In North America the 
records of an ice-age reach as far southward as the fortieth 
parallel. In the southern hemisphere nearly all the area in 
corresponding latitudes, is occupied by the waters of the 
ocean ; the only lands on which similar formations could 
reasonably be expected, are the southern extremities of South 
America and Africa, together with New Zealand and Aus- 

Ancient Glaciers of New Zealand. 265 

tralia; and on all of these, excepting the last, positive, and 
in many places, astonishing, evidences of ancient glaciation 
can be seen. 

As far as can be at present judged from the limited explo- 
rations in those distant lands, the combined facts seem to 
point to a time of extreme cold in the southern hemisphere, 
answering to the similar period at the North, that has re- 
ceived the long contested title of the Glacial epoch. 

Another parallel between the changes of climate in the 
two hemispheres is indicated by the Tertiary deposits. 
These at the South, like the Tertiary formations in Europe 
and America, show by their fossils that a mild climate pre- 
ceded the ancient glaciers, during which, as these formations 
on the eastern coast of Africa prove, the forms of life now 
indicative of tropical or sub-tropical conditions extended 
farther towards the pole. 

266 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

XXV. — Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 


Read October 9th, 1876. 

The recent progress in Sanitary Science is the history of 
our knowledge of what constitutes clean air, clean water, 
clean food, and clean environments ; of our knowledge of 
what is tilth in air, tilth in water, filth in food, and filth in 
our environments, whether it be filth mineral, vegetable, or 
animal; and finally, of the means of preserving cleanliness 
on the one hand, and of repressing filthiness on the other. 
The great factors in this progress therefore are, in the first 
place, knowledge, a knowledge both comprehensive and ex- 
haustive, and in the second place, a moral zeal, which shall 
make that knowledge effective in increasing cleanliness and 
preventing filth among men. The necessity of this kind of 
knowledge is mostly due to the crowding of multitudes into 
overgrown commercial communities ; and its development, 
which is largely that of chemical science, is also dependent 
upon the skill of the microscopist, the experience of the 
medical practitioner, and the learning of the biologist, re- 
quiring the colaboration of such various classes of savans as 
are also found in great cities, — for its growth to perfection. 

The demands of sanitary science extend to the most re- 
fined methods of chemical research, and lay under contribu- 
tion some of the most obscure branches -of Natural History, 
like that of Helminthology, sciences which, in their inception, 
appeared to have little bearing on the daily wants of man- 
kind ; and they even extend to the most abstruse researches 
of biology, in matters pertaining to the generation of spores, 
the development of ova, the growth of parasites, etc. In- 
deed, the demand reaches far beyond the present powers of 
scientific inquiry to supply ; and a more subtle analysis is 
required of the chemist, a more searching scrutiny of the 
microscopist, before questions can be answered, on the cor- 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 267 

rect solution of which the action of communities depends, in 
reference to infection, irrigation, water-supply, etc. 

While sanitary science makes such great and varied de- 
mands upon our present and prospective stores of knowl- 
edge, its aim is nevertheless a very modest one. It finds 
man, whether from ignorance, from cupidity, or from the 
many maladjustments of our existent social systems, de- 
prived of essentials to the enjoyment of long life, or even a 
prey to the inroads and devastations of disease ; and it seeks 
to restore to him, under these circumstances, the same pure 
air, pure water, and fitting food and clothing, as are enjoyed 
by the beast which stalks through the primeval forest, or the 
cattle grazing healthfully in the fields. No one has ever 
shown that a better ratio could be substituted for the oxygen 
and ozone, the nitrogen and ammonia, the carbonic acid and 
moisture present in the atmosphere, than what actually holds 
between them. No one has shown that drinking-water would 
be the better, if it took up a little more iron and lime, pot- 
ash and phosphoric acid, than it actually contains, or if in 
nature's alembic, it were restored to us in the condition of the 
distilled water of our laboratories. Neither is it clear that 
sugar would be better food by the addition of nitrogen, or 
albumen if it were without it. In short, so far as the sci- 
ences at present at least extend, they are unanimous in de- 
claring the natural order existent in the atmosphere, water, 
and food, the best adapted to the wants of man. This being 
true, every element of disturbance is to be looked upon with 
suspicion, a suspicion daily increasing with the increase of 
our knowledge concerning the true nature of disease, its 
causes, and its remedies. 

Upon the basis of such ideas, we have attempted a classi- 
fication of the departments into which sanitary science nat- 
urally divides itself, and the arrangement of the subject- 
matter properly falling into each. 
November, 1S7G. 21 Ann. Lyc Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 


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270 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

On referring to these tables, it will be seen that the first 
element to be determined is the amount of oxygen in the 
atmosphere, and within what limits this amount may vary, 
the atmosphere still remaining in a state of purity. So im- 
portant is this determination, that many of the greatest physi- 
cists have expended all the resources of their skill upon its 
solution. About a century ago, Lord Cavendish made no 
less than five hundred analyses of the atmosphere, and by the 
method of absorption of oxygen by nitric oxide, a method 
which now to us appears too crude to give reliable results, ar- 
rived at the number 20-833 as representing the percentage of 
oxygen. This result is little more than T Vthof one per cent, 
less than 20-95, which is the number now accepted as the 
most accurate mean of recent determinations. And yet Lord 
Cavendish could not satisfy himself that there was any differ- 
ence in the percentage of oxygen in London air, as compared 
with that of air from the surrounding country. To deter- 
mine Avhether the composition of the atmosphere was indeed 
invariable, the subject was reopened by Dumas and Boussin- 
gault, who employed in their classic research the chemical 
attraction of copper for oxygen at an elevated temperature. 
The air from the Jardin des Plantes, after purification from 
every trace of moisture and carbonic anhydride, was passed 
through a weighed tube containing turnings of pure copper, 
and the residual nitrogen collected in a glass balloon, previ- 
ously exhausted of air. Every precaution that ingenuity 
could suggest, was used to insure the accuracy of the experi- 
ments, which were repeated a great number of times and on 
large quantities of air ; and } r et these two illustrious chemists 
did not venture to assume that the composition of the atmos- 
phere was otherwise than invariable, and that the slight dif- 
ferences in the percentages of oxygen obtained were due to 
real differences, and not to variations within allowable limits 
of instrumental error. 

B}' improved eudiometrical methods, Regnault afterwards 
settled conclusively the fact of variations in the percentage of 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 271 

oxygen in the earth's atmosphere, and ascertained with accu- 
racy the amount of the variation in the atmosphere of the same 
locality and at different points on the earth's surface. The 
minimum amount for 100 analyses of the air at Paris, was 
20-913 per cent., and the maximum 20-999, giving as a mean 
the number 20-956. The lowest percentage in live analyses 
of the atmosphere of the ocean, was 20-918, the highest 20- 
965. Of mountain air ; — in that of the summit of Mt. Pichin- 
cha, which is higher than Mt. Blanc, the oxygen was 20-949 
and 20-981 per cent. Of all places, Berlin had the distinc- 
tion of an atmosphere jvith the lowest percentage of oxygen, 
20-908. This does not appear surprising, when we call to 
mind the stinking waters of the river Spree flowing through 
the most crowded portion of the city, under the windows of 
the Academy of Music, and within a stone's throw of the Em- 
peror's palace, the Opera-house, the Royal Library, the Mus- 
eum, and, worst of all, the famous University. To quote the 
language of Dr. Folsom, the Secretary of the Massachusetts 
Board of Health — "Berlin and Munich, the filthiest and most 
scientific of the German cities, deserve Traube's sarcasm of 
not being able to stop the cholera, even in winter, — a more 
or less continuous epidemic, so to speak, having lasted since 
1866 ; while in London and Paris, the cleanest of large cities, 
the last epidemic (in 1866) fell very lightly, and the death 
rates are one-third lower than in Munich and Berlin." The 
mean of all Regnault's analyses was 20-95 per cejit., a num- 
ber which should be remembered and quoted, instead of 
twenty-one, the percentage settled upon as a mean, after 
many experiments, by Gay Lussac and Humboldt, and the 
one usually given in manuals of chemical science. For it is 
worthy of note, that the maximum in no one of Regnault's 
analyses reached twenty-one per cent., while the minimum 
was never so low as 20-9. 

After Prof. Bunsen had submitted the existing modes of 
gas-analjsis to critical revision, he applied the improved 
methods to the determination of the oxygen in the atmosphere, 

272 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

finding as a minimum for the air at Heidelberg 20-84 per cent., 
and for the maximum 20-97, or a mean for all analyses, of 20-- 
924. Since that time a great number of inquiries have been 
set on foot concerning the air in various parts of Europe, 
especially in Great Britain, where Dr. Angus Smith has in- 
stituted a very extended series of comparisons between the 
atmosphere of towns, and of country and mountain districts. 
The significance of the results is to be found in the fact, that 
while a falling off in the percentage of oxygen to the amount 
of one-tenth per cent., may appear so slight as to be un- 
worthy of serious consideration, yettfhe place of this minus 
quantity is occupied by other gases whose presence is dele- 
terious, even when in amounts represented by the hundredths 
of one per cent. 

Until a very recent period, no similar investigation had 
been made, so far as we are aware, into the constitution of 
the atmosphere in the United States. 

It would be fortunate for the interests of sanitary science, 
if Ozonometry was settled upon as well ascertained princi- 
ples as those of the determination of oxygen. But this is 
far from being the case. The difficulty does not consist in a 
lack of knowledge concerning the properties, or even the 
chemical nature of ozone, — to both of which topics a great 
deal of attention has been paid since the time of Schonbein 
by Becquerel, Fremy, Andrews and Tait, Meissner, Angus 
Smith, and others, and in this country by M. Carey Lea, 
"Wether-ill, and Rogers, — but to a lack of concerted and sys- 
tematic observation by practised observers, using equal pre- 
cautions and pursuing the same methods. To illustrate the 
discrepancies, and even fallacies which arise, we may instance 
the ordinary ozone test, as it is called — a strip of paper pre- 
viously moistened with a mixture of starch-water and iodide 
of potassium solution, and dried. Recently it was found, on 
preparing some of the ozone test, that every variety of paper 
purchasable, except the purest Swedish filter-paper, mani- 
fested an alkaline reaction to alizarine ; that every sample of 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 273 

potassium iodide contained several impurities, rendering it 
unfit for use in the ozone test ; and that even the starch had 
to be manufactured in the laboratory, to obtain material suita- 
ble for preparing reliable reagent papers. And yet, with 
suitable precautions, these ozone tests give results of a very 
striking character. As an instance, I may cite some unpub- 
lished observations during the past summer upon the atmos- 
phere of the Adirondacks, where the indications of ozone were 
of the most decided character, and at times of atmospheric 
disturbance, intense. In this pure mountain air, the invalid, 
prostrated with malarial poison, or catarrhal affection, rap- 
idly regained mental vigor and bodily strength. Similar 
ozone tests, exposed during the same season in Hoboken, 
where catarrhs are rife, and where the badly drained marshes, 
if they do not actually produce ague, are at least very un- 
favorable to recovery from it, showed a great deficiency in the 
amount of ozone. 

I do not wish to be understood as saying that the absence 
of ozone is attended by the prevalence of catarrhal or mala- 
rial troubles. Heaven forbid ! The result of collecting and 
reading most of the literature upon ozone, has been to make 
me extremely unwilling to express any opinion, concerning 
the connection between the abundance or exiguity of ozone 
and any disease whatsoever. The conflict of testimony could 
not be better exemplified than in the case just uuder con- 
sideration. To quote from a recent work on the subject — 
" Schonbein and other physicians made daily atmospheric 
observations during several catarrhal epidemics at Basle, 
which are stated to have been conclusive as to the simul- 
taneity of the maximum of the coloration with the extreme 
intensity of the epidemic." " Dr. Seitz carried on observa- 
tions for two years in Munich, and found that months in 
which the ozone was abundant, were not characterized by a 
predominance of catarrhal affections, when compared with 
months during which less ozone was noticed in the air. 
After days distinguished by a great excess of ozone, we did 

274 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

not observe the occurrence of a greater number of cases of 
catarrh." The result of a year's observations by the Medi- 
cal and Scientific Club of Kouigsberg, in Prussia, was to the 
effect, " That the month of November, during which the 
spread of catarrhal affections was most extensive, and the 
month of September, which was notorious for the prevalence 
of intermittent fever, typhus, cholera, and diarrhoea, exhibi- 
ted nearly an equal amount of ozone, and, that a sudden 
and considerable increase in the amount of ozone did not 
appear to be a cause of the commencement of catarrh of the 
respiratory organs." This is certainly a very decided nega- 
tive, but the next observer quoted, Dr. Pfaff, of Plauen, in 
Saxony, has an equally explicit affirmative result. He con- 
cludes that, " A large proportion of ozone acts in a mis- 
chievous manner on diseases of the respiratory organs ; that it 
favors the development of inflammatory affections, especially 
tonsilitis, and that the ozone exerts little or no effect on 
epidemic or other diseases, provided they are not compli- 
cated with catarrhal affections." Dr. Spengler calls upon the 
medical practitioners of Europe to test the accuracy of his 
observations, which were made at Roggendorf, a village of 
Mecklenburg. "Just before the commencement of an epi- 
demic of influenza, no ozone was to be detected. Directly, 
however, catarrhal troubles set in and every one was cough- 
ing, an abundance of ozone was manifested. As the disease 
gradually diminished, so did the indications of this body de- 
crease." Dr. Heidinreich also found that a strong ozonic 
reaction, coincided with an exacerbation of catarrhal symptoms 
and the appearance of pulmonary affections, while a dimi- 
nution of those took place when it was feeble. Faber, 
Wunderlich, Schiefferdecker,T. Boeckel, and other observers, 
believe that there is no connection between the development 
of ozone and the prevalence of catarrhal affections. The au- 
thorities at the hospital of Metz, have found that there is a 
certain relation between the variations in the quantity of 
atmospheric ozone, and the number of cases of bronchial 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 275 

affections which present themselves. MM. Houzeau and 
Lendet, jr., have shown that there is no agreement between 
the prevalence of respiratory affections at Rouen, and the 
depth of ozonic reaction as presented by true ozone tests. 
These diseases are most numerous during the winter, when 
the amount of ozone, as distinguished from the other air 
purifiers, would seem from the researches of the former gen- 
tleman to be comparatively small. Mr. Harris,, of Worthing, 
has always remarked during the prevalence of N. E. and E. 
winds, when no ozone is present in the air, the great fre- 
quency of irritative affections of the mucous membrane of 
the throat and air passages. The results arrived at by M. 
Behard, of Havre, are : 

"1. That the number of cases of pulmonary disease is 
probably in direct relation with the amount of ozone in the 
air, and in inverse relation with the temperature : and, 2. 
That atmospheric ozone appears to exert a certain influence 
on rheumatismal affections." Dr. Clemens, of Frankfort, 
states "that eleven saddle-horses contracted inflammation of 
the lungs in consequence of being run against a south wind, 
very powerful and very rich in ozone, and that the greater 
number died." 

A similar wide difference of opinion exists concerning the 
connection between the prevalence of ozone and malaria, 
various descriptions of fever, and other diseases ; and it is 
difficult to see how these discrepancies will be reconciled, 
except by systematic observations carried on by a number of 
competent observers. In this respect a great deal is being 
done in Great Britain and on the Continent. In the United 
States, isolated inquirers have pursued researches, some 
account of which, from time to time, has appeared in our 
scientific literature. The contradictory results hitherto ob- 
tained, however, have discouraged many who need the stimu- 
lus of united effort, and the certainty that their observations 
will be carefully preserved and collated, to continue this 
very valuable work. 

276 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

Concerning the carbonic anhydride in the atmosphere, but 
little has been lately added to our scientific knowledge, it 
being already a well understood subject. But the deter- 
mination of the amounts of carbonic anhydride present in 
the air of public buildings — as made in the examination into 
the defective ventilation of the House of Representatives by 
the late Dr. Wetherill ; into the air of over-crowded school 
rooms, as has been done by the Board of Health of New 
York; and that of cars, as in the late investigation of Dr. 
Nichols of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; — has 
been of excellent service in the interests of sanitary science. 
This is not so much on account of the deleterious nature of 
carbonic anhydride itself, but for the reason that the ex- 
halations of the breath are always accompanied by volatile 
matters and products of organic decomposition, emanations 
from the body, etc., none of which admit of easy estimation, 
but whose quantity can be readily inferred from that of the 
carbonic anhydride. This gas, as we all know, is of a pun- 
gent agreeable flavor ; and when reference is made to the 
"closeness" or bad air of rooms, and to the carbonic anhy- 
dride present, as if the " closeness " and carbonic anhydride 
were one and the same thing, it is but showing how com- 
pletely the popular mind has identified the organic pollution 
of foul air with one, and that not the most unpleasant or 
most pernicious, concomitant. 

In connection with this subject, it is worthy of note that 
the eminent sanitary chemist named above, has recently 
made an examination into the amounts of carbonic anhydride 
contained in the ground of certain localities below the surface 
— the ground atmosphere. 

The importance of its study, as well as that of the ground- 
water, was first pointed out by Pettenkofer in 1854, followed 
in 1870 by systematic determinations of the percentage of 
oxygen below the surface. The analyses were made upon 
the alluvial gravel of the country surrounding Munich, in 
places not under cultivation, with the result of showing, that 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 211 

the amount of carbonic anhydride in the ground below the 
surface, was much greater than that above, and that it in- 
creased with the depth and varied with the season, being 
least in winter and greatest in summer. His object was 
similar to that in view in the determination of the carbonic 
anhydride in ill-ventilated buildings, that of obtaining a 
measure of the " impregnation " of the ground with organic 
impurities, by the oxidation of which the carbonic anhydride 
is produced. It is analogous to the determination of the 
nitric and nitrous acids in drinking water, bodies not of 
themselves detrimental in minute quantities, but important 
as affording a measure of the previous pollution of the water 
by nitrogenous excreta, etc., from the oxidation of which 
they are derived. The examinations of Dr. Nichols, which 
were conducted upon the made lands of the " Back Bay " of 
Boston, showed that there was very little difference in the 
amount of carbonic anhydride at different depths during 
most of the period occupied by the experiments ; but in 
October, November, and December, it had increased sensibly 
at a depth of ten feet, above its amount at a depth of six 
feet. This curious result, which agrees with Pettenkofer's, 
he attributes to the diffusion of the carbonic anhydride from 
the surface, and to the increased rapidity of this diffusion when 
the temperature of the air falls below that of the ground. 

With regard to ventilation itself, as an art, repeated fail- 
ures, often with grave results, by architects of great promi- 
nence, are at last convincing the public that the ventilation 
of buildings constructed on different plans, of different ma- 
terials, with different uses, and located differently in respect 
to air, wind, and sun, is an art of great difficulty ; one not 
to be practised on occasion by the hospital-physician, the 
school-trustee, the alms-house inspector, the engineer, or 
even the architect, as a subject popularly supposed to be 
fully understood by every well-informed person, but should 
be placed in charge of persons making the heating and ven- 
tilating of buildings their especial study. 

278 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

There is one more popular delusion, the overthrow of 
which is to be ranked as an onward step in sanitary science. 
This delusion is, that the senses are trustworthy sentinels 
over our lungs and stomachs, and that dangerous air, water, 
or even food, is alwa3 r s detected by them. They only serve 
as detectives when one of the concomitants of aerial, aqueous, 
or other filth is of the nature of a gas, like hydrosulphuric 
acid, affecting, even when present in very minute quantities, 
the sense of smell, or is one of the innumerable products of 
organic decay. But the cases must be rare indeed, in which 
fatal effects have been produced by exposure to an atmo- 
sphere containing hydrosulphuric acid sufficiently concen- 
trated to act as a chemical poison ; and although headache, 
nausea, or a general lowering of the health, is frequently 
produced in the case of persons occasionally exposed to a 
considerable amount of this and similar gaseous products of 
decomposition, or constantly inhaling them in minute quanti- 
ties, yet they are comparatively harmless when compared with 
some emanations which are not evident to the sense of smell. 
The matter which propagates disease, is, so far as we 
know, not gaseous, but organized bodies of excessively mi- 
nute dimensions, so small indeed that as yet the microscopist 
has not succeeded in distinguishing the "spores" which sim- 
ply produce decomposition, from those which carry the spe- 
cific poison of certain diseases, or the infectious germs of 
one disease from those of another. But one peculiarity they 
possess in common, a peculiarity distinguishing them from 
chemical poisons, in that their effect is not directly propor- 
tional to their amount, but vastly greater, insomuch that ex- 
cessively minute amounts of these germs have the power of 
infinite self-multiplication, so long as they find themselves 
surrounded with circumstances favorable to their develop- 
ment. It frequently is the case that localities are obnox- 
ious in odor, yet no alarming diseases are developed, while 
others are apparently inoffensive, and at the same time are 
richly productive in "zymotic diseases." A striking illustra- 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 279 

tion is to be found in the case of laborers, whose duty it is 
to jump into the lime-purifiers employed in the defecation of 
illuminating o-as, and to shovel out the lime charged with 
sulphur compounds. The smell is intolerable, frequently 
nauseating the workmen, yet not producing active disease. 
Sewer-gas, on the contrary, is not violently offensive, and 
may diffuse itself through apartments without detection, and, 
as in Glasgow 'and Edinburgh, in the houses of the better 
classes, may produce outbreaks of typhoid fever. For this 
reason, either the public sewers should be properly flushed 
and ventilated, which, practically speaking, is very difficult ■ 
of accomplishment — or those who multiply bath-rooms and 
water-closets in connection with the sleeping apartments of 
a house (as is now done in city dwellings, where the desire 
of luxury on the part of the occupant, and the ingenuity of 
the mechanic in increasing the expense on the other, have 
permeated the house with an elaborate net-.vork of hot and 
cold-water pipes, waste-pipes, traps, sewer-connections and 
drains) should employ the services of a sanitary engineer, 
to see that a suitable system of flues is likewise provided to 
carry off the gases from the water-closets — the "practical 
plumber" being generally ignorant of both the necessity and 
the means of doing so. Either these remedies should be 
applied, or the water-closets should be made as few as possi- 
ble, and the traps put in connection with flues, in which an 
upward draft is preserved both in winter and summer, by 
stoves or lamps. 

No chemist, so far as we are aware, has attempted a com- 
plete analysis of sewer-gases, or those other exhalations from 
decomposing matters, which are laden with the ferments that 
become active in zymotic diseases. Even if he did deter- 
mine the percentage of every gas present, he would not be 
able to estimate and isolate the septic ferments — the chief 
culprits in the origination of disease. It would be well if 
water-analysts would distinctly inform the public that they 
are daily asked to do in respect to water, something quite as 

280 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

difficult, and which they are altogether incapable of doing. 
Is not an experience somewhat like the following, familiar to 
every chemist present? A village has grown into a town, 
and that town into a city. Its growth has produced manu- 
facturing communities in the vicinity, which pour their refuse 
and their sewage into the water-course originally tilled with 
unpolluted water. The water grows worse to the taste, and 
stronger to the smell ; and finally popular complaint compels 
the Board of Water Commissioners to take action. Their 
first step is to employ a chemist to find out how polluted the 
water is ; and he finally sends in a report, with a long array of 
figures in decimals, telling how much silica, lime, magnesia, 
oxide of iron, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, potash, soda, 
ammonia, nitrous and nitric acids, chlorine and albuminoid 
ammonia, the water contains. All these data are of interest, 
requiring much skill in their accurate determination. They 
tell that a stream may be no worse drinking water than the 
Thames, the Schuylkill, the Ohio, the Passaic, or some other 
river, whose water is used at ordinary times by large com- 
munities without outbreaks of disease directly traceable to 
it. As in the case of the Schuylkill, a well-known expert to 
whom I appealed, said, "Yes, it always analyzed very well, 
but smelt and tasted very bad." Yet this gentleman drank 
daily of the Schuylkill water, and so do hundreds of thous- 
ands, without falling ill of violent maladies. Such analyses 
do not show how dangerous such drinking-water may be. 
That danger is known from other facts, independent of the 
water-analyses. The researches of Klein, Burdon Sander- 
son, Chevreau, and others, have shown that the germs of 
infectious diseases may be transported twenty or thirty miles 
in running water, may pass through thick beds of gravel, 
sand, etc., without being filtered out, and in fact, can be 
effectually destroyed only by the operation of an elevated 

With regard to the chemical methods employed in the de- 
terminations of the organic constituents of drinking waters, 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 281 

— and it is to these that we must chiefly look in deciding 
upon their fitness for domestic uses — it may be briefly said 
that they are four in number — the "ignition," "permangan- 
ate," "albuminoid ammonia," and "combustion" methods. 
The first is no longer regarded as adequate to give the infor- 
mation needed ; the second is deemed fallacious ; and the 
third, although still employed by many chemists, will, for 
similar reasons, have to be abandoned. The fourth gives the 
information required, with an accuracy adequate to the form- 
ation of correct judgment on the water analyzed, but at 
present has the disadvantage of requiring much time and 
care in its satisfactory performance. 

It should be said here, in justice to the chemists who still 
employ the "albuminoid ammonia" process, that they do not 
claim that the albuminoid matters give up all their nitrogen 
in the form of ammonia, but only that they yield by this pro- 
cess a certain measure, and that this measure can be used as 
an index of the amount of the organic impurity present. 
But, as was shown by the authors themselves, and as has been 
since still more satisfactorily demonstrated, water containing 
known quantities of organic matter, when treated by this 
process, yields an amount of nitrogen which differs accord- 
ing to the character of the substances operated upon. It is 
evident that if the process were good, it should indicate 
either the whole amount of nitrogen present, or in every 
case, a definite proportion of it ; and in failing, as it does, 
to meet these requirements, the albuminoid ammonia method 
of determining the organic impurity must be condemned. 
This failure is strikingly exemplified in the case of urea, per- 
haps the most characteristic ingredient of sewage, which may 
be present in a drinking water without detection by the al- 
buminoid ammonia process. On the other hand, peaty mat- 
ters, Avhich color the water without rendering it noxious, 
yield a large amount of albuminoid ammonia, and such 
waters have in this wise been in some cases unfairly con- 

282 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

It follows from what has been said, first, — that the album- 
inoid-ammonia method neither indicates the absolute or rela- 
tive amounts of organic impurities present, nor discriminates 
between the putrescible and non-putrcscible matters, with a 
sufficient degree of accuracy to allow the results, obtained 
by its use, to be employed in the formation of correct judg- 
ments upon the potability of drinking waters. Moreover, 
that analyses executed by this method must be thrown aside, 
and replaced by others executed by the "combustion" pro- 
cess. Finally, that until the results obtained in this more 
accurate way are obtained, we are still destitute of data ade- 
quate to the approval or condemnation of many sources of 
water-supply at present suspected of dangerous contamina- 

With regard to the extent to which judgments founded 
upon the chemical and microscopical analyses of drinking 
waters are final, it may be said, that there can be no manner 
of doubt that the resources of chemical analysis, at the pres- 
ent time, are fully adequate to determine with accuracy the 
amount of organic impurity which is actually present in a 
potable water. Still more ; it is possible to decide from the 
amounts of nitrates, nitrites, and ammonia present in the 
wn ter — which bodies have been derived from organic bodies 
pre'existent, but are now converted into innocuous mineral 
compounds — whether at a former period the water has been 
polluted by sewage. But at this point the legitimate prov- 
ince of the chemist ends, and that of the pathologist begins. 
He must decide by a careful analysis of the diseases attrib- 
uted to the drinking of infected waters: — 1st. How large 
an amount of organic impurity may actually exist, without 
rendering the water noxious. 2nd. Whether water, which 
at any time has been polluted by infected sewage, can be 
afterwards employed with safety. 

In conclusion, I wish to present a report, which I was de- 
puted to draw up in the capacity of Chairman of a Commit- 
tee, being an attempt to formulate conclusions arrived at 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 283 

from a consideration of the foregoing data. It is of the 
highest importance to be in previous possession of generally 
acknowledged first principles, so that when action must be 
taken in regard to any particular water-supply, there will 
exist just rules for its proper guidance. 





It is evident that the water-supply of the state of New Jersey cannot 
be considered as a whole ; it resolves itself at once into the consideration 
of the various Water-Basins, into which the state is divided by the nat- 
ural lines of demarkation between its water sheds. 

Our first duty, therefore, is the determination of the character of these 
Water Basins. This involves : — 

I. The construction upon the basis of a topographical survey, of an 
accurate Hydrogi'aphical map, prominently districting off the state into 
its water-basins. 

II The determination of the rain-fall for each water-basin, and of the 
number of gallons of water flowing in its several water-courses for every 
month in the year. 

III. An examination of the quality of the water in each basin, more 
especially in regard to its fitness for manufacturing and domestic pur- 

IV. An inquiry into, and a tabulated statement of, the amount and 
character of the pollution existing at the present time in the water- 
courses of the state. This fourth topic subdivides itself into : — 

a. The Drainage and Sewage along their banks. 

b. Statistics of Manufacturing establishments so far as relates to the 
question in hand, and the proper disposition of contaminating Refuse. 

The topics above enumerated, refer only to the facts which must be 
settled, and the data which must be accumulated, before a final solution of 
all the problems involved in the question of water-supply can be arrived 
at. This is a work of years, to be actually performed ouly as the studies 
of those interested in sanitary science, and the vital interests of the 
people of the state, may require. In this report we wish only to map 
out, as it were, the question of the water-supply in a broad and compre- 
hensive manner, and to settle, if possible, certain fundamental principles; 
leaving the working-out of the various subjects, and their application to 
particular cases and to particular communities, to those most concerned 
in so doing. 

November, 1876. 22 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

284 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

This being understood, we can proceed to consider : — 

V. Whether any particular community has a natural right to the use 
of the water-supply of the water-basin in which such community is lo- 
cated, in an uncontaminated condition, — and whether this natural right 
should be paramount to any right which an individual, or a number of 
individuals in that community, has acquired in virtue of purchase, grant, 
use, allowance, or custom. 

Va. If such a natural right be conceded, it must be settled what legis- 
lation is necessary to secure for a community that natural right ; or, if 
the existence of such a natural right be denied, or only allowed in part, 
what legislation is required to regulate the extent to which drinking 
waters may be polluted. 

VI. It is necessary to arrive at a decision upon the much-mooted point, 
'whether a stream after pollution can by flowing for a limited number 
of miles, in contact with air and growing plants, be again made a safe 

VII. Whether any means, microscopic, chemical, or otherwise, exist 
at the present time, of discriminating between Infected and Non-infected 
Sewage ; and if, as some high authorities contend, they cannot be dis- 
tinguished, whether sewage by one community iuto the water-supply of 
another community, should not be interdicted. 

VIII. If sewage and other impurities be allowed to go into a water- 
supply, how much of them, and of what kind, are permissible without 
detriment to health. 

IX. It is of the highest importance to determine, how many cases of 
disease and death in the state of New Jersey are fairly attributable to the 
use of contaminated water. 

X. Finally, to apply these principles and this knowledge, to communi- 
ties which, like Newark, Jersey City, and Hoboken, at the present time, 
demand an increase and perhaps a change of their water supply; and with 
a proper view to the actual difficulties involved, and a reasonable economy, 
to decide which are the best and most available sources of supply for 
communities throughout the state, or of particular sections thereof. 

Returning to a fuller consideration of some of these points, 
we may inquire : — 

V. Whether any particular community has a natural right to the use 
of the water-supply of the water-basin in which such community is lo- 
cated, in an uncontaminated condition, and whether this natural right 
should be paramount to any right, which one individual or a number of 
individuals in that community, has acquired in virtue of purchase, grant, 
use, allowance or custom. 

We hold that such a natural right exists, for the reason that pure 
water, like pure air, is a natural gift to every man, which he cannot be 
deprived of without fatal injury, to his well-being and happiness. It is 
just, therefore, that a community may use this water, or may allow, by 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 285 

law, individuals or bodies corporate to use it, but this privilege confers 
on no one the right to contaminate the water, whenever the general good 
is interfered with. 

This great truth appears self-evident, but it has nevertheless in many 
cases been lost sight of, for which reason it is the more important that 
this representative body should authoritatively declare it. The whole 
course of legislation among civilized nations, as they grow into a higher 
appreciation of the obligations of the governing body to the governed, 
sustains the justice of this declaration. Five centuries ago, England, 
among modern nations, took the first step, by imposing a fine upon 
persons casting filth into ditches and streams. From this time onward, 
and more especially during the past thirty years, since most people of 
intelligence have become acquainted with the magnitude of the evils in- 
volved in the pollution of rivers, Parliament has passed a long series of 
Acts, to repress or put an end to these evils. Connected with these Acts, 
were many costly investigations conducted by Royal Commissions, the 
literature of which constitutes the material forming most recent books on 
sanitary science, and the most valuable part of numerous town and state 
Health reports. To present here the admirable code of sanitary legisla- 
tion, built up by the wisdom of five centuries, is foreign to our object; — 
it will be sufficient, when the proper time has come, to embody its best 
features in our own state health-laws. 

In France, strenuous endeavors have been made during the past two 
centuries to protect the purity of streams by repressive legislation. 
These have been in part successful, a result due in some cases to the 
discovery by manufacturers — when they had been enjoined from casting 
in i-efuse, and had thus been compelled to experiment in order to find 
out how to dispose of it — that their refuse might be actually a source of 

VI. It is necessary to arrive at a decision upon the much-mooted point 
whether a stream after pollution, can by flowing for a limited number 
of miles, in contact with air and growing plants, be again made a safe 
drinking water. 

We are all aware of the great extent to which this vexed question has 
been agitated in England, and how large an amount of contradictory 
testimony was collected by the Royal Commissioners on River-Pollution. 
On the one hand, the assertion was made that running streams purified 
themselves completely in the course of a few miles; on the other, that 
no such power of complete self-purification existed. It is probable that 
the truth lies somewhere between these extremes. Our reasons for this 
belief are drawn partly from the results of chemical analyses, and partly 
from experience. 

Many of those present have seen the sewage of Paterson emptying into 
the Passaic, and a short time afterwards have partaken of these polluted 
waters, as delivered from the hydrants of Newark, Jersey City, and Ho- 
boken, with impunity. Still more, they have done so for years, and no 
physician has shown that a case of active disease was attributable to 

286 Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 

these waters. Three years ago alarmists declared that, in a year or two, 
the most serious results would follow, if the inhabitants persisted in their 
use. So far is this from being the case, that housekeepers, dealers in fish 
and meat, and medical practitioners, have found less fault with the Pas- 
saic water this summer than in previous seasons. In fact, there has been 
much less popular complaint during this summer, of the water of the 
Passaic, than there has been of that of the Croton Aqueduct. This is a 
fair statement drawn from the experience, not of one, but of many of us. 
And to make it complete, it should be added that there have been times, 
as in mid-summer of 1872, when to quote from the Report to the Board 
of Public Works of Jersey City, the water " was highly offensive to both 
the smell and taste, was turbid from the pi-esence of great numbers of 
microscopic vegetable and animal organisms, and when proper chemical 
tests revealed a shocking degree of contamination by organic matter." 

Another case of river-pollution familiar to most of us, is that of the 
Schuylkill River by the sewage and refuse of Manayunk, and other 
manufacturing towns located a short distance above Philadelphia. So 
imminent did the danger appear, that in view of the vast multitudes 
whose presence at the Centennial Exposition was anticipated, the au- 
thorities of Philadelphia appointed a Commission to decide whether the 
Schuylkill waters should be condemned. Most unfortunately, the Com- 
mission failed to give an authoritative decision, and while it devoted 
a preponderate share of- its Final Report to statements and arguments 
illustrative of the fatal dangers resulting from drinking polluted streams, 
the Schuylkill included, it recommended an extension of the present 
means of water-supply. In truth, the annual rate of mortality for New 
York is 29 per thousand, while in Philadelphia it is 23 per thousand ; and 
during the excessive heats of last summer, while Philadelphia has been 
crowded to the extent of two hundred thousand people above its own 
population, no active disease has been fairly attributable to the Schuylkill 

It will be hardly necessary to speak of the general use of the waters of 
the Thames by the people of London, after alluding to that of the Schuyl- 
kill, which is represented to be the more polluted of the two streams. 

Now as to the information afforded by chemical analyses on this point. 
The waters of the Passaic have been repeatedly analyzed, and samples 
taken from the Reservoir at Belleville have shown but a very slight 
increase of putrescible organic matter over that of samples taken above 
the High Falls at Paterson. Moreover it is not at all improbable that 
this slight amount of contamination was due to the partial influence of 
the reflux tide from Newark. In other words, the waters of the Passaic 
as collected 14 miles below Paterson, have returned to about the same 
composition as they had before receiving the sewage of this large manu- 
facturing town. 

This unexpected result has a striking parallel in the case of another 
American river, that of the Blackstone in the state of Massachusetts. 
This stream flows past the city of Worcester, receiving all its sewage, 

Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. 287 

together with " the refuse waters of 36 woollen mills, 23 cotton mills, 6 
iron works, a tannery, and a slaughter-house— these works employing 
7,200 hands," a total of GOG, 508 cubic feet per diem of badly polluted 
water. This would amount to about l-10th of the entire dry-weather flow 
of the river at Blackstoue, a town located near the southern bound- 
ary line of the state. A sample taken from the Gate-House of the City 
Reservoir on Lynde Brook, one of the head waters of the Blackstone, 
contained in 100,000 parts, 0.0235 parts of proteine matter, and 1.96 parts 
of organic, requiring 0-504 parts of oxygen to effect oxidation ; while the 
waters of the Blackstone near the state line, after a flow of about 20 miles 
beyond Worcester, contained 0.0128 parts of proteine matter, 1.72 parts 
of organic, and required but 0.326 parts of oxygen to decompose the 
organic impurities. 

We must conclude, therefore, that those who have denied any power of 
self-purification to a flowing stream, are mistaken in this matter; and that 
the receipt of tributary waters holding their normal percentage of dis- 
solved oxygen in solution, intestinal movement in contact with growing 
plants and earthy oxides, and abundant exposure to light and air, should 
be elevated to the rank of true causes in the regeneration of rivers. 
Moreover, while it seems incredible that Philadelphia, Newark, Albany, 
Cincinnati, and other great cities, should drink waters after pollution by 
the sewage of towns located a few miles above them, and should do so 
without active disease traceable to this source, yet this is a fact, and one 
of so great magnitude that we must allow it due weight and must explain 
it by a sufficient cause. 

Finally, while we believe the above statements to be true, yet in view 
of what has been previously said concerning the clanger from infected 
6ewage, and the deterioration of health from all sewage, we do not the 
less look upon the pollution of waters as a monstrous evil, to be done 
away with so soon as public opinion upon these important sanitary ques- 
tions shall have become imperative. 

VII. Whether any means, microscopic, chemical or otherwise, exist at 
the present time, of discriminating between Infected and Non-infected 
Sewage ; and if, as some high authorities contend, they cannot be dis- 
tinguished, whether sewage by one community into the w T ater-supply of 
another commuuity, should not be interdicted. 

Upon this point all the best authorities have decided in the negative. 
Moreover the matter which carries the infection may, as appears from a 
recent case in Switzerland, be filtered through several miles of soil, and 
escape destruction. And this too, when, as the English Rivers-Pollution 
Commission has declared in their report of 1875, "Slow soakage through 
a few feet of gravel destroys more organic matter than does a flow of 
many miles in the Thames." It is unnecessary to bring to your recollec- 
tion the great mass of testimony concerning the carrying of cholera and 
typhoid fever by infected streams. No process of filtration, precipitation, 
or irrigation appears adequate to destroy these germs of infectious dis- 
eases; according to recent investigations this can be effected only by 

288 JVew /Species of Bird of the Genus Pitangus. 

an elevated temperature. To be altogether safe from contagion — and we 
should not be contented with anything short of this — no sewage should 
be allowed to enter into a water supply. 

VIII. If sewage and other impurities be allowed to go into a water- 
supply, how much of them and of what kind, are permissible without 
detriment to health. 

If the ground is taken that these cases of contagion are too rare to be 
a valid argument against the use of streams which, like the Thames, have 
been credited with carrying the cholera, etc., and yet under ordinary 
circumstances may be used without apparent ill effects, it is necessary, 
notwithstanding, to fix some limit to the degree of contamination. The 
standard determined upon by the Rivers-Pollution Commission, will an- 
swer as well perhaps as any other for this purpose. Yet we must still 
keep in mind that the danger of contaminated water is not limited to 
contagion and manifest disease. According to eminent medical authori- 
ties, no particular form of active disease may be traceable to such waters, 
and at the same time they may bring about an enfeebled or disordered 
condition of the bodily organs, decreasing the ability to labor, and in- 
creasing the susceptibility to disease from other causes. From this point 
of view, a wise regard to the eventual well-being and wealth of the 
community, would counsel the expediency of accepting no water after 
pollution, even if conformed to certain artificial standards, and when 
possible, of not stopping short of securing the purest water obtainable 
under the circumstances. 

XXVI. — Description of a New Species of Bird of the 
Genus Pitangus. 

Read November 20th, 1876. 

Pitangus Gabbii. 

Crown and sides of the head dull black, with a concealed crest of light 
gamboge-yellow; the back is of a warm hair-brown color, the feathers 
barred with narrow rather indistinct lines of darker brown; the upper 
tail coverts dark-brown, margined with brownish-ferruginous ; the feath- 
ers of the tail are hair-brown, darker than the back, and are edged with 
bright ferruginous for half their length from the base, except the two 
central and the outer ones ; the inner margins of the tail-feathers, near 

New Species of Bird of the Genus Pitangus. 289 

their ends, have a tinge of ferruginous ; the smaller wing-coverts are the 
color of the back ; the other coverts are brown, the middle ones edged 
with ferruginous, and the larger with grayish-white tinged with ferrugin- 
ous ; the quill feathers are dark-brown, margined with bright ferruginous, 
except the inner quills, which have their edges narrowly grayish- white; 
under wing-coverts pale yellow, inner margins of quills light salmon 
color; throat gray; breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts, white with a 
tinge of fulvous ; bill and legs black. 
Length (skin) 7i inch ; wing 4 ; tail 3% ; tarsus 13-16 ; bill from front 1. 

Habitat. St. Domingo. Type in my collection. Prof. 
Gabb writes me : " This specimen was obtained at Hato 
Viejo, on the Mao River, Province of Santiago, in an open 
bushy tract, in a valley at the foot-hills of the Central 
Mountain chain." 

Remarks. This is a smaller species than either Pitangus 
caudifasciatus or P. Taylori; it can be at once distinguished 
by the warm brown coloring of the upper plumage, instead 
of dusky grayish brown, and by the bright ferruginous edg- 
ings of the wing and tail feathers ; the color of the crest, 
and the size and form of the bill, are much the same in the 
three species. Mr. A. Salle, in the list of birds obtained by 
him in St. Domingo, published in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society, London, 1857, p. 230 (communicated by 
Mr. Sclater) gives two species of Tyrannns, viz., T. matu- 
tinus and T. intrepidus. 

Dr. Bryant, in " A list of the Birds of St. Domingo " 
(Proc. of the Boston Society of Natural History, I860, p. 
289), says, under T. intrepidus: "lam inclined to believe 
that there was a mistake in the identification of this bird, 
and that probably the two tyrants found by Mr. Salle were 
griseus and either caudifasciatus or some closely allied 
species ; as such a bird is found in Cuba, Jamaica, and the 

Dr. Bryant's conjecture that the Tyrannus intrepidus of 
Mr. Salle would prove to be a Pitangus, would seem to be 
confirmed by the species now described being of that genus ; 
it may possibly be the bird obtained by Mr. Salle, and re- 

290 Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 

ferrecl to T. intrepidus; but they are very unlike, and I can 
hardly suppose that Mr. Salle would err so much, as to mis- 
take a species with ferruginous margins on the quill and tail 
feathers for T. carolinensis. 

As our Kingbird is found in Cuba, I can see no reason 
why it should not also occur in St. Domingo. 

When Prof. Gabb's collections to be made during the 
coming winter, are received, they may furnish the means to 
clear up the uncertainty. 

I have named the above described bird, in compliment 
to Prof. Win. M. Gabb, who brought it with eight other 
species from St. Domingo, being all he was able to procure 
(for want of time) during his residence on that island during 
the past winter. 

XXVII. — Notes on the Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port 
Jervis, JSf. Y., with description of a New Pteropod. 



Read Nov. 13th, 1876. 

Port Jervis is situated in the long monoclinal valley lying 
between the Shawangunk Mountain to the eastward, and 
low and precipitous ridges of the Hamilton formation to the 
westward of it. This valley is known here by the name of 
the Neversink Valley, because that stream, for the last six 
or seven miles of its course, runs in it. The Delaware River, 
after flowing through a deeply corraded anaclinal in the 
Hamilton ridges, crosses the valley at a right angle, impinges 
against the deeply pitted rocks of the Corniferous Limestone 
Group, and, bending sharply southwest, passes Tri-States 

Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 291 

Rock, at the southern extremity of which it receives the 
waters of the Neversink River. Tri-States Rock has a local 
reputation, because in the year 1874, I think, members of 
the U. S. Coast Survey were for a time stationed upon it, 
to determine its exact latitude and longitude. The bound- 
ary lines of three states, New York, Pennsylvania, and New 
Jersey, unite in a point upon this rock. It is about one-half 
mile outside the corporate limits of Port Jervis. 

The geological boundaries are very sharply defined. The 
Shawangunk Mountain, called Blue Mountain in New Jersey, 
and Kittatinny Mountain in Pennsylvania, extends from the 
vicinity of the Hudson River, in Ulster County, nearly to 
the Maryland line, a distance of 240 miles ; and its south- 
eastern front, when not buried under the piles of drift 
material which seem to have been poured through the low 
notches in its crest line, or softened by the uplifted shales of 
the Cincinnati Group, marks very plainly the beginning of 
the rocks of the Upper Silurian age. The westward-bound 
traveller upon the Erie Railway, ma}' easily see the un- 
conformable junction of the Shawangunk Grit, or Oneida 
Conglomerate, with the older shales of the Cincinnati Group, 
if he will look out of the right-hand window as he enters 
the rock-cutting a little west of Otisville. After running 
for some distance along the western slope of the Shawan- 
gunk, the reddish, banded, ripple-marked and sun-cracked 
surfaces of the Medina Sandstone formation, come into view. 
These continue until the road turns shortly to the right, and 
crosses a narrow, eroded valley, made at the expense of some 
of the strata of the Lower Helderberg Group, which, in a 
smoothed and striated condition, were uncovered to procure 
the earth (drift) to make the embankment. The train then 
plunges into another rock-cutting, made through a declining 
"tail" of Cauda Galli Grit. Along the north-west slope of 
this latter ridge for a mile or two, may be seen many exam- 
ples of "crag and tail" structure, of glacially smoothed and 
striated surfaces, and, just as the road curves sharply again 

292 Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 

to the right, of roches moutonnees. Here the traveller passes 
through a small cutting, in rock so plainly distinct physically 
from the Cauda-galli as to raise the question whether it is 
not the equivalent of the Schoharie grit — a problem which I 
have never been able to solve, as the rock is unfossiliferous. 
A small exposure of Corniferous and Onondaga limestone 
comes into view along the eastern shore of the Delaware ; 
and the remaining formations, to the base of the Hamilton 
escarpments along the western side of the valley, are buried 
under alluvial and diluvial deposits. Port Jervis is divided 
into "Uptown" and "Downtown" by a terrace which marks 
the bank of a former and much larger river. 

In all this succession of strata, from the base of the Upper 
Silurian to the middle of the Devonian, it is only, so far as I 
know, the rocks of the Lower Helderberg, Oriskany, and 
Hamilton groups, that yield many specimens to the paleon- 
tologist. As my time for such work is very limited, I have 
confined my small efforts principally to the first two of these, 
which, with the Cauda-galli, were well enough described by 
Mather in the "Geology of the First District," pages 332 and 
333, as follows. "The limestones of the Helderberg Divis- 
ion, in the Mamakating valley, from Carpenter's Point on the 
Delaware to Kingston, are all upturned, and frequently at a 
pretty high angle. In the township of Deerpark, Orange 
Co., they form a narrow range of hills or low mountains, 
sometimes sinking almost to the level of the Neversink val- 
ley, and at others, rising to one-third or one-half the eleva- 
tion of the Shawangunk. They are always narrow, and 
generally close to the base of the last named mountain." 
Carpenter's Point is a suburb just outside of the corporate 
limits of Port Jervis, and Deerpark is the name of the town 
in which the latter is situated. "Fossils were rarely seen in 
the limestones of the Helderberg division south of Rochester" 
(near Kingston in this valley), "except in those of the moun- 
tain east of Carpenter's Point, and at this place they were 
extremely abundant. The specimens of trilobites were so 

Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 293 

numerous, and particularly the Asaphus, that Dr. Horton and 
myself gave the hill the name of Trilobite Mountain. The 
strata are traversed by two great S} r stems of fracture, one 
longitudinal and approaching more or less to the direction of 
the strike ; the other transverse. Their usual directions are 
S. 20° W. and N. 20° E. for the first, and S. 60° E. and N. 
60° YV. for the second.", I cannot improve this description. 
The ridges are very narrow, often not much wider than the 
actual thickness of the strata of which they are composed ; 
but whether buried beneath the drift or rising above it, they 
reach from the Hudson River many miles to the south-west. 
At Bennet's Quarry the strata have a dip of from 40 to 60° 
N. N. W., a dip so steep as to prevent an exposure of more 
than their upturned edges. The hill in which these strata 
rise in succession above each other, has a downward slope of 
from 30° to 40° S. S. E., a direction so nearly at right angles 
to both dip and strike, as to give, when measured, very nearly 
the exact thickness of the sub-divisions. At Mr. Sandford 
Nearpass' Quarry, two miles south-west of Bennet's Quarry, 
in the State of New Jersey, and very near Mr. William 
Nearpass' Quarry, — of which a transverse section is given by 
Prof. Cook in the "Geology of New Jersey," pages 153 and 
155, and a columnar section on page 158, — the dip is 15° N. 
N. W. At Guymard, six miles north-east of Bennet's Quarry, 
the dip is 25° N. W. The width of the entire group varies 
with the dip ; being greater where it is least, aud vice versa. 
At Bennet's Quarry there has been more disturbance than at 
the other places mentioned. 

At this quarry we have the following section, going from 
below upward. 

1. Tentaculite Limestone, thirty feet exposed. It may 
be divided into, — la; Thin-bedded, black or dark-blue con- 
cretionary limestone, with horizontal layers of Strophodonta 
varzstriata, twenty-five feet; and lb; Quarry Limestone, a 
fine-grained, blue stone, excellent for lime, with horizontal 
layers of gasteropoda, five feet thick. 

294 LoiL'er-Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 

2. Coral or "Favosite" Limestone, from four to six 
feet thick. This particular stratum is full of large corals, 
principally favosites, among which F. JSfiagarensis ( ?) pre- 
dominates. It is also filled with the fragments of uncle- 
termined crinoids, and contains besides, Chcetetes, Slromat- 
qporce, and Pentamerus galeatus. 

3. Lower Pentamerus Limestone, fifty feet thick, and 
divisible from below into, — 3a, a coarse-grained limestone, 
twenty-five feet, with bands of Pentamerus galeatus; and, 
36, shaly with layers of chert, twenty-five feet, less fossil- 
iferous than the preceding. 

4. Delthyris Shale, a hundred and seventy-five feet. 

5. Upper Pentamerus Limestone, two hundred and fifty 
feet. It exhibits three divisions, viz. — ha; a coarse-grained, 
cherty, grayish limestone, ten feet thick, probably the equiv- 
alent of the Encrinal Limestone, though I have not seen the 
crinoids; 5b, shale, rather sparingly fossiliferous, 235 feet; 
5c, trilobite layers, five feet. All the fossils enumerated 
further on as Upper Pentamerus, and associated with Dalma- 
nites dentata, belong to 5c. 

6. Oriskany Sandstone, one hundred feet : it is probably 
more, the higher arenaceous layers of this division having 
been removed by glacial action. 

7. Cauda Galli Grit, from five to eight hundred feet in 

These sub-divisions are all encountered in a succession of 
terraces rising one above the other. Between the Oriskany 
and Cauda Galli there is generally a hollow with turbary de- 


Those marked with a * were identified by Professor Hall. 

From (1) : — Leper ditia alia, * Beyrichia notata, Tentacu- 
lites gyracanthus, Loxonema Fitchiana, L. obtusa, Holopea 
untiqua, IT. elongata, * Megambonia ovoidea, *8p>irifer Va~ 
nuxemi, and * Strop hodonta varistriata. The gasteropods 
and other fossils seem to aggregate in layers or thin bands. 

Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 295 

From (2) : — Favosites in great quantities, the species not 
authoritatively determined, but said by excellent judges to be 
very like F. JSTiagarensis ; Chceletes Helderbergia (?),* Fa- 
vosites Helderbergia, crinoidal fragments, and Stromatoporne, 
species not known to me. There occur also Strophodonta 
varistriata rare, Atrypa reticularis ( ?) one specimen, and 
Pentamerus galeatus thick. 

From (3) : — * Dalmanites pleuroptyx, * Pentamerus gale- 
atus very thick, Strophodonta varistriata, Favosites. 

From (4) : — *Dahnanites pleuroptyx, *Phacops Logani, 
Lichas pustulosis, * Tentaculites elongatus, *Pterinea sp., 
Spirifer perlameUosus, * S. macropleurus, S. modestus, S. cy- 
clop>terus, Rensselazria mutabilis, * Merista levis, Eatonia me- 
dialis, E. singularis, Trematospira multistriata, Stropho- 
donta BecJxii, * S. punclulifera , Slrophomena rho?nboidalis, 
Eeptcena concava, Orthis multistriata, 0.- oblata, Lingula 
sp., * StrepteJasma stricta, Chcetetes Helderbergia, some other 
species not determined, and many weathered out corals. 

From (5) : — This subdivision, Upper Pentamerus, begins 
at bottom with a very hard calcareous layer, which has been 
extensively quarried for farmers' lime at Buckley's Quarry, 
one mile north-east of Bennet's Quarry. From this layer 
Prof. Hall has identified for me a Phacops, a Platyceras 
retrorsum, and a RJiynchonella ventricosa. From this hard 
layer, strata of soft shale rise above each other in a nearly 
perpendicular craggy ridge, between two and three hundred 
feet in height, capped on the top with the highly fossiliferous 
layers already mentioned. This ridge shows best in the 
neighboring state of New Jersey, and was undoubtedly 
seen near Bennet's Quarry by Mather and Horton, when 
making the Geological Survey of this portion of the First 
District. As it is long and low, I prefer to call it Tri- 
lobite Ridge. That portion of it lying between the hard, 
gray, calcareous layer at the bottom, and the hard, fossilifer- 
ous layers at the top, is little known to me ; but wherever 
tested, I have generally found it unfossiliferous. The top 

296 Lower Helderberg Bocks of Port Jervis, etc. 

layers are crammed with the heads, thoracic segments, and 
pygidia of trilobites ; the most abundant of which is the 
new species described by me under the name of Dalmanites 
dentata (Amer. Journal of Science, Vol. XI, page 200). 
Homalonotus Vanuxemi and * Dalmanites pleuroptyx are less 
common, but occur quite frequently. *Chonetes complanata 
and *Rensselceria mvtabilis could not well be thicker than 
they are in some of these layers. The Chonetes averages 
about the size of the figure of G. tenuistriata in Prof. Daw- 
son's Acadian Geology, p. 596 ; and the R. mutabilis is very 
much larger than any known before, averaging one-half inch 
from beak to front. The same species from the Delthyris 
shale below, is no larger than Prof. Hall's figures of it on 
plate 45, vol. 3, N. Y. Palaeontology. Besides these, there 
have been identified *Te?itaculites, n. sp., *Loxonema Fitch- 
iana, Platyceras retrorsum, P. Gebhardii, Holopea sp., 
*Hyolithes, n. sp. (described further on), *Pterinea textilis, 
Spirifer concinnus, S. cyclopterus, * Strop homena rhomboid- 
ulis, *S. Conradi, * Strophodonta cavumbona, *Cyrtia ros- 
trata, Orthis oblala, 0. perelec/ans, O. planoconvexa, *0. 
subcarinata, Discina discus, *D. Conradi, and some other 
species not yet described. 

Lying immediately below these trilobite layers, is a very 
hard, cherty layer, full of gasteropods of the genus Platyce- 
ras (/). Favosites conica is found at about the same hori- 
zon. Loxonema Fiichiana preserves perfectly the fine sig- 
moidal lines of growth of that species; Platyceras Gebhardii 
is sometimes as plainly striated as are the living gasteropods 
found clinijino: to the rocks. The Chonetes and the three 
known species of trilobites likewise preserve their surface 

In my description of Dalmanites dentata, the Delthyris 
shale was wrongly given for the geological horizon of that 
species. It should have been the compact layers at the top 
of the Upper Pentamerus Limestone. I gave it at that time 
the horizon assigned by Prof. Hall to the most of its associ- 

Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 297 

ates : but subsequent investigation by myself, and the au- 
thoritative identification by Prof. Hall of the hard, calcareous 
bottom layer (5a) as Upper Pentamerus, has convinced me 
of my error. 

From the top of Trilobite Ridge to the foot of the Cauda 
Galli Ridge north-west of it, Oriskany fossils predominate. 
There is, however, such a gradual shading off from one into 
the other, that no one whose knowledge of the Lower 
Helderberg and Oriskany strata had been acquired by the 
study of their exposures in this locality, would ever think of 
running the line separating the Silurian and Devonian ages, 
between the two. They seem so intimately blended that the 
exact line between them is an arbitrary one altogether. 
Thanks to Professors Hall and Dana, we now have here in 
the mural south-east front of the Cauda Galli, as plain a 
dividing wall between the Silurian and Devonian ages, as 
there is between the Upper and Lower Silurian east of it. 

From the Oriskany (No. 6), the following species have 
been determined : — * Tentuculites elongalus, *Platyceras Geb- 
hardii, Platyostoma ventricosum, *Pterinea lextills (var. 
arenarici), * liensselaeria ovoides, Ealonia peculiarly, *&piri- 
fer arrectus, /S. arenosus, Meristella sp. 

We find therefore at this point, a total thickness of some 
five hundred feet of well-marked Lower Helderberg rocks, 
overlaid to the north-west by an immense development of 
Cauda Galli Grit. The strata are not all visible at any one 
place ; but the complete series is given from several quarries 
in the immediate vicinity of the town. The main trend of 
the monoclinal ridges that characterize the region, is usually 
about N. 60° E. and S. o0° \V. ; but they are crossed ob- 
liquely by transverse flexures, running nearly north and 
south, which elevate the strata in anticlinals transverse Id the 
main uplift. In these are located the quarries that furnish 
the best sections; the particular members visible in each, 
depending, of course, on the amount of transverse uplift 
from below, and the extent of erosion above. 

298 Lower Helderberg Rocks of Port Jervis, etc. 

The two points of importance and novelty in this Port 
Jervis section are, the peculiar character of the beds termed 
(2), and the fossiliferous layer (5c) at the top of the Upper 
Pentamerus. The division called 2, for which I suggest 
provisionally the name of Favosite Limestone, is full of 
corals, principally Favosites, many of which are very mas- 
sive. Small spheroidal coralla are abundant also. Eminent 
geologists question the correctness of the horizon that I have 
assigned to this member, as soon as they look over a collec- 
tion of its contents. It is at once believed that such specimens 
must be from the equivalent of the "Coralline Limestone" 
at Schoharie ; and the most abundant Favosites resembles 
F. JSTiagarensis. But an examination of the table will show 
that any other than a Lower Helderberg horizon for this Port 
Jervis limestone is simply impossible. The resemblance of 
the coral-bed of this locality to the one at Schoharie is in its 
corals only ; the other fossils described in Vol. 2, N. Y. Paige- 
ontology, as belonging to the "Coralline Limestone" at Scho- 
harie, are unknown here. Some of the corals are very large. 
One, a Favosites Helderbergia, is dome-shaped or plano- 
convex, fourteen inches in horizontal diameter and five in 
height. The coral] ites in this species are very uniform in 
size, and curve very regularly towards the outer surface ; 
but most of the specimens are irregular in form, and in the 
direction and size of the corallites. There are many small 
spheroidal coralla also, in one of which I detected the two 
rows of minute mural pores characteristic of F. JSfiagarensis. 

The lower layers of this bed have thin, shaly partings, 
similar to those of the rock below, (I) ; the upper portion 
is a coarse, brecciated limestone, shunned by lime-burners, 
and contains, besides the corals and stromatoporse, a great 
abundance of Pentamerus galea tus and encrinal fragments. 
Its fossil contents are not regularly arranged, but seem to 
have been drifted about by, the waves. 

I regret that it has not been possible, prior to the publica- 
tion of this paper, authoritatively to determine the corals 

Lower Helderberg Bocks of Port Jervis, etc. 299 

from this bed, and thus to define more positively the inter- 
esting problem of its relation to the Coralline of Schoharie, 
which has usually been claimed as of Niagara age. It 
plainly overlies the Tentaculite Limestone, in all the quarries 
of this vicinity. These are now in every case worked in 
(16), as that furnishes the only lime salable for building 
purposes; and (2), the Favosite limestone, invariably forms 
its roof. 

Description of a new species of Pteropod. 

Genus HYOLITHES, Eich. 


Shell transversely trigonal or nearly semicircular, tapering 
gradually and evenly backward for about two-thirds of its 
length, then more rapidly — becoming conical and terminat- 
ing posteriorly in an obtuse point. Ventral side slightly 
convex, narrowly rounded upwards at the lateral edges ; 
dorsal side convex and narrowly rounded in the highest part. 
Largest specimen in my possession, one inch and a quarter 
long, width of aperture four lines, height two and a half 
lines. The anterior two-thirds taper at the rate of one line 
in half an inch ; the posterior third tapers more rapidly, and 
is besides a little elevated. Lines of growth crowded, — 120 
to the inch, — curved forward very decidedly upon the ven- 
tral side, and continued straight over the dorsal. The lip, 
judging from the ventral stria3, must have projected forward 
rather more than half a circle. 

Geological position and locality ; at the top of the Lower 
Helderberg group (5c of this paper), near Port Jervis, 
Orange County, N. Y. 

The specific name refers to the year (1876) in which the 
description was written. 
November, 1876. 23 An:n, Lyc, Nat, Hist., Vox. xi. 

300 Descriptions of New Noctuce, etc. 

XXVIII. — Descriptions of New Noctuce, with remarks on 
the variation of Larval Forms in the Group. 

Br A. R. GROTE. 
Read Dec. 11th, 1876. 

I have already called attention in the "Popular Science 
Monthly" (for December, 1876), to the method of variation 
displayed by certain kinds of Noctuoc. These variations were 
observed in the cases of representative species, that is to say 
forms which have an ally in a widely separated locality, such 
as JCurope is when compared with our Atlantic Coast Territory. 
It was found that the differences between such species are ex- 
pressed on the upper surface of the wings (especially the 
front pair) most prominently; the under surfaces in the con- 
trasted forms agreeing very nearly in both color and design. 
An instance was cited in the IsTorth American Catocala relicta 
and the European Catocala frapcini. Although the differ- 
ences between the two are greater than in some other cases, 
and the changes undergone by one form or the other, or both, 
since a separation from a common stock, are thus greater 
than has often happened, yet the peculiar color and size of 
the two insects render the comprehension of the fact more 
easy. Beneath, both species have remained white. Above, 
the European form contrasts by its more uniformly gray and 
obscure primaries ; in the American insect, these are white, 
more or less invaded by transverse bands of more intense 
gray or black. It is suggested that the habit of the moths 
which ensures the concealment from light, and from the 
more immediate atmospheric changes, of the under surface 
of the body and wings, has been the principal factor in the 
case. In the day-time, the moths rest against an opaque 
substance, the fore wings covering the hind pair. Both these 
species belong to the subgenus Catocala, as limited by 
Hubner. They are structurally identical ; and no other 
species of this particular subgenus of the large genus Catocala 

Descriptions of Nero JVbcluce, etc. 301 

are yet known. The European moth is a little the larger of 
the two. In a single specimen very clearly, and in others 
more obscurely, I have observed in the American form blue 
scales edging the white band which crosses the upper surface 
of the hind wing. This fact is interesting, because the band 
which occupies an analogous position in the European form, 
is wholly of a grayish blue. Especially interesting will be 
the study of species comparatively isolated in their structure 
from their nearest allies in our fauna. Such an instance in 
the JSToctuoa is Euparthenos nubilis Grote ex Hubner. The 
genus Eiqxirthenos Grote (— Parthenos Hubn.) is lower 
than Catocala, and in the cut of wing, the length of palpi, 
and the ornamentation (especially beneath), approached 
Opkideres of the Tropical Eastern Hemisphere. 

With regard to Catocala relicta, I have corrected* the 
mistake of previous writers, who considered the variation of 
the front wings, which are more or less invaded by black 
shades, to be a sexual character, the darker specimens being 
supposed to be the males. This mistake is fallen into by 
Mr. Herman Strecker, who figures two male specimens of 
the species as of opposite sexes, the whiter male being con- 
sidered as a female. This is shown by the shape of the 
abdomen in the two figures ; while at this time Mr. Strecker 
was unaware of the distinctional characters offered by the 
frenulum, which render the recognition of the sex an easy 
matter in the Nocture. This is shown by his remark that he 
cannot determine the sex of a specimen of Catocala marmo- 
rata figured by him, for the reason that the abdomen happened 
to be missing. In the case of C. relicta Mr. Strecker has 
overlooked even the shape of the abdomen, identical in his 
two figures, and has relied upon the statement of previous 
writers with regard to the assumed sexual character of the 
color of the fore wings, without personal verification in de- 
termining his material. 

* Can. Ent. vii, ISO. 

302 Descriptions of JSFew Noctuce, etc. 

With regard also to the differences in larval color and 
ornamentation in these representative species of Nbctuce, we 
find that they are often more clearly expressed than in the 
perfect state. This immature stage of growth has submitted 
independently to modification. An instance is offered by 
the American Apatela occideritalis and the European Apatela 
psi. Here the moths are exceedingly similar, and difficult 
to distinguish ; while the larva of the American species, de- 
scribed by Mr. Wm. Saunders, of London, Ontario, offers 
prominent differences when compared with this same state in 
the European species. All the cases cited by Guenee, based 
upon drawings of the larvae of North American JVoctuce by 
Abbot, where the moth resembles an European form very 
nearly, but the larva is very different, should probably be 
considered here. The larva has varied through natural 
selection, while the perfect form has remained more fixed. 
The whole extensive genus Apatela (= Acronycla) is re- 
markable for the eccentricities of the larval forms as com- 
pared with the uniformity of the species ; so that the conclu- 
sion is not unreasonable that these larval differences have 
been evolved by a natural protective law.* There is within 
the genus Apatela another case of representation, between 
the American Apatela funeralis and the European Apatela 
ahii, where a very singular form of larval ornamentation has 
been equally retained, while the comparisons as yet made 
between the moths show sufficient difference to warrant clis- 
tinctional names. Again, in the case of the larva? of the 
Cotton Worm moth (Alelia argillacea) I have pointed out 
two varieties,! which feed side by side, one with and one 
without a dorsal stripe. It will be interesting to observe 
the particulars of the struggle between these two varieties in 
the case of this imported insect. 

Where the habit of life of the larva leads to no conceal- 

* Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. So., 1, 130, quoted by Prof. Morse in his Address before the 
Section of Biology of the Am. Asso. Adv. Sci., Buffalo, 1876. 
f Alabama Geological Survey for 1S75, 201. 

Descriptions of New JSToctace, etc. 303 

ment of any part of the body dining any particular period 
of the twenty-four hours, the causes for its variation may be 
sought outside of climatic influences to some extent. They 
will evidently bear more heavily upon the moth, which never 
or rarely voluntarily exposes the under surface of the body 
and wings to the light. In the case of Catocala relicta, be- 
fore cited, I have been struck with the fact that the color of 
the upper surface of the primaries, which are alone exposed 
while the moth is at rest in the daytime, does not assist so 
well in its concealment from enemies as the hue of the same 
parts in the European species. 

With regard to the "phytophagic species," first observed 
by Mr. Walsh and afterwards by Prof. Riley, I still think 
that they should not be necessarily considered as "species in 
process of formation," although it may be convenient to 
give them different Latin designations. Some of these cases, 
such as that of Tortrix Riley ana, Grote, may rest on an 
error of observation. Both Prof. Zeller and myself believe 
that the ordinary male of this species is mistaken for a phy- 
tophagic variety by Prof. Riley. I have formerly shown 
Mr. Walsh's mistake with regard to Sphingicamjm distigma, 
which he regarded as a different insect, generically and spe- 
cifically, from Dvyocampa bicolor, on the strength of observa- 
tions in breeding the insect, in which he was apparently de- 
ceived. These "phytophagic variations" may not go further 
than they do now, and the forms may continue to interbreed, 
or finalty displace each other. 

Very much more careful observations are needed to draw 
conclusions as to the relation of the larval state to its food. 
A separation of the determining cause of variations needs 
tact, as well as a knowledge of the facts. 

In conclusion, I think that these representative species, 
studied in all their stages, will throw a strong light upon the 
horde of forms of these insects with which we are ensured. 
I shall be glad if my observations and deductions merely 
serve to draw fresh attention to the subject. 

304 Descriptions of New Noduce, etc. 

The following forms of North American Noctuse seem to 
be either imperfectly described or new to science : 

Agrotis rufipectus, Morrison. 

<j> . Antennae simple, ciliate. Head and collar disconcolorous, dark 
brown (reddish brown in the type) ; collar with a narrow pale edging. 
Thorax and fore wings concolorous, grayish over purplish or fuscous 
brown. Lines narrow, dark, well written. Basal line distinct. Trans- 
verse anterior line with the inner line obsolete, slightly dentate at costa, 
indentated on submedian fold ; the line is comparatively straight. Median 
space wide; no claviform ; orbicular concolorous, rounded, incompletely 
annulate; reniform stained by the diffuse median darker shade, edged 
more distinctly than the other spot, and more complete. Transverse pos- 
terior line slightly waved, accentuated by dots or points, not much ex- 
serted, outer line obsolete. Terminal space paler than the rest of the 
wing, contrasting with subterminal. Beneath paler, costa of both wings 
powdered with reddish. A continued broad exterior common line. Cel- 
lular mark on hind wings extended. Abdomen beneath and lateral hairs 
reddish. Hind wings above pale fuscous, concolorous, with line hardly 
noticeable. Exp. U mil. Lewis Co., N. Y., July 29, Mr. W. W. Hill, coll. 

In this species the fore tibire, I believe, are unarmed. The 
type which I have before me, was sent to Mr. Morrison for 
description, at his request for new material in this genus, and 
is briefly described by him in the Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist, XVII, 165. The species may be known by its single, 
fine, scalloped transverse lines on the primaries, and the dis- 
colorous head and thorax. It seems to bo allied to A. collaris 

Agrotis perconflua, n. s. 

This form is stouter than conflua and brighter colored. Fore tibia? 
armed. Palpi at tips, upper surface of head and collar pale, contrasting. 
Palpi and breast rusty brown. Fore wings bright red brown, paler at 
base and vaguely paler along costa, with a purply tinge over median 
nervules. Lines indistinct, broken, obsoletely geminate. No claviform 
perceivable. Ordinary spots pale as in conflua, reniform stained iuferiorly. 
The black t. p. line is broken into cuneiform marks. Terminal space 
concolorous with subterminal. Subterminal line very distinct, pale, pre- 
ceded by black dots, and by a narrow dark shade on costa; fringes con- 
colorous. Hind wings pale fuscous, with discal mark and pale fringes. 
Beneath pale, with the costal regions of both wings reddish; common 

Descriptions of JVew Noctuce, etc. 305 

exterior lines, the outer incomplete; bind wings with discal mark and 
the inner exterior line continuous, somewhat jagged inferiorly. Thorax 
red brown; abdomen pale above, with reddish or ochery shades beneath. 
Expanse 33 mil. From Prof. J. A. Liutner, Schenectady, N. Y., July 8. 

Differs from by the concolorous terminal spaces, 
pale black-marked subterminal, and broken t. p. line. It is 
brighter colored and stouter than its ally, the t. p. line more 
inwardly bent snbmedially. 

Agrotis placida, n. s. 

?. Fore tibite unarmed ; antennas simple. Fuscous gray. Fore wings 
smooth, dark fuscous. Basal and subterminal spaces blackish and darkest ; 
median space a little lighter, slightly brownish ; terminal space gray, con- 
trasting. Lines even, perpendicular, pale. Transverse anterior line with 
a slight subcostal notch, slightly oblique ; median space wide ; stigmata 
difficult to make out, pale ringed, concolorous ; median shade noticeable, 
obscuring the reniform. .Transverse posterior line with a straight out- 
ward costal extension beyond the point of origination, thence somewhat 
squarely exserted opposite the cell, and running nearly straight down- 
wards without submedian sinus. Subterminal line indicated by the great 
difference in color between the two terminal spaces; fringes dark. Hind 
wings concolorous, rather dark fuscous, with paler interlined fringes. 
Beneath fuscous, with a slight purply shade, irrorate, with an external 
common band incomplete; a slight discal mark on hind wings. Terminal 
abdominal hairs somewhat ocherous. Expanse 35 mil. Lewis Co., N. Y., 
July 26. 

Differs from other species of the ciqnda group in the shape 
of t. p. line at costa. 

Hadena hillii, n. s. 

$. Eyes naked; tibiae unarmed. Abdomen with short black tufts on 
basal segments. White, gray, and black, very distinctly marked. Lines 
black, geminate. A black basal dash. Sub-basal space wide, whitish. 
T. a. line black, its inner line indistinct, erect, touching the orbicular, 
dentate on costa, opposite the orbicular, again with a broad obtuse tooth 
from median to submedian vein, and with a shorter one at internal margin. 
Claviform large, concolorous, defined by two narrow black lines which 
run entirely across the median space. Orbicular white, irregularly 
rounded, a little oblique, large. Reniform well sized, white, of the normal 
kidney shape. T. p. line originating above the reniform, well exserted 
beyond the reniform, running rather strongly in at vein 2, and thus narrow- 

306 Descriptions of New Noctuce, etc. 

ing the median space inferiorly. This line is scalloped, the outer line 
faint. On the subterminal space the nervules are marked with black. 
Subterminal line preceded by a light fuscous shade; the usual W-mark 
much reduced. Terminal line black, interrupted. Fringes grayish. 
Costal anteapical white dots in a fuscous shading. Hind wings rather 
dark fuscous with whitish fringes. Collar and thorax whitish; tegulae 
lined with black; collar with a blackish shade; abdomen pale fuscous. 
Beneath pale ochery fuscous ; hind wings with a small incomplete discal 
anuulus and a discal streak; common line sinuous. Expanse 30 mil. 
Lewis Co., N. Y., Mr. W. W. Hill, July 26. 

This is a very distinctly marked, clear colored species, 
with something of the habit of Dianthoecia capsularis. I 
name it after its discoverer. It is very different from II. 
leucoscelis Grote, another white-colored species, being more 
silky-winged and differing throughout in ornamentation. 

Polia medialis, n. s. 

£. Eyes naked, with lashes; tibiae unarmed; A rather large species, 
vividly marked, white, gray, black, and fuscous. Median space discolor- 
ous, being of an even wood-brown or fuscous, shaded with gray on costa. 
A basal black dash. Basal and terminal spaces gray, shaded with fuscous. 
T. a. line black, its inner line faint, not very oblique, of the usual dentate 
form. Claviform coucolorous with the wood-brown median space, large, 
reaching to the median shade, narrowly outlined with black, its lower 
margin straight, running along the submedian fold. Orbicular large, 
whitish or gray, oblique, with the reniform black-ringed. Median shade 
zigzig; reniform connected with t. p. line by black shades along the veins 
and discal fold, of the usual shape, large, whitish, but not outwardly ex- 
cavate, being nearly straight on this side. T. p. line with its inner line 
evident, dentate, black; its outer indistinct. The white spaces between 
the component lines of all the three first transverse lines, in this species, 
are very apparent. T. p. line running obliquely inwardly from the point 
of its subcostal angle, without any inward bend submedially. Subterminal 
line white, preceded by black points or streaks at the dentations. Termi- 
nal space a little deeper shaded with fuscous opposite the cell, and again 
at internal angle. A dentate terminal line cutting the fingers. Hind 
wings blackish fuscous ; beneath grayish fuscous, with double exterior 
shaded common lines, and broad discal mark on hind wings. Abdomen 
fuscous, tufted basally. Thorax gray, with the tegulae laterally shaded 
with fuscous, and with double lines on collar. Expanse 41 mil. Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., September 13, Prof. Lintuer. 

This differs from the description of P. coiifragosa, Morr., 
in the discolorous median space and in other particulars. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 307 

XXIX. — A Partial Synopsis of the Fishes of Upper 



Read December 4, 1S7R. 

The material on which the present paper is based was ob- 
tained by the writer and his assistant, Mr. Charles H. Gilbert, 
during the past summer (1876), in a month's residence and 
constant field-work at Rome, Georgia; a week's seining in 
the South Fork of the Ocmulgee River at Flat Rock, 
Dekalb Co., Georgia; and a day's work in tributaries of the 
Chattahoochee River near Atlanta. As the fish-faunae of 
these streams differ materially, I have deemed it best to take 
them up separately. 

Part I. "Water Basin of the Etowah, Oostanaula, 

and Coosa. 

Rome, Floyd Co., Georgia, is located in the hill country 
at the junction of the Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers, which 
unite to form the Coosa. Farther south-west, the Coosa in 
turn unites with the Cahawba and Tallapoosa to form the 
Alabama River. As the Etowah is the longest of all these 
branches, it may, perhaps, be considered as the head stream 
of the Alabama River. 

These rivers are all too wide and deep, and their bottoms 
too rocky, for much successful seining ; hence we gave our 
attention chiefly to their smaller tributaries. Of these, 
Silver and Rocky Creeks yielded the largest results, both in 
number and variety. The principal streams examined were 
Silver, Mobley's, and Dykes' Creeks, tributary to the Etowah ; 
Rocky, John's, Big Arniucha, Lovejoy, Waters', Big Dry, 
Little Dry, and Lavender Creeks, tributary to the Oostanaula ; 
and Horse-leg and Beech Creeks, tributary to the Coosa. 
Most of these are clear streams, formed from "spring runs." 
June, 1877. 24 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

308 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Some of them are muddy with red clay after a rain ; and a 
few are merely successions of weedy pools full of spatter- 
docks and snakes. Of course, certain differences were ob- 
served in the faunae of these streams, but nothing that need 
be dwelt upon here. 

So far as is known to the author, there is no printed record 
of any fish whatever from the water basin of the Etowah ; 
and the few species which have been described by Agassiz, 
Storer, and Girard, from neighboring parts of Alabama, are 
most of them very imperfectly known. The writer has, 
therefore, been able to do just what he anticipated doing in 
selecting this point for field-work, viz. : (a) to verify a 
number 'of little known species; (b) to consign a number of 
nominal species to the limbo of synonymy; and (c) to make 
known a few peculiar forms which are believed to be new to 

Of most of the species here mentioned, hundreds of speci- 
mens were taken ; and the descriptions in this paper have 
been generally drawn from the average of a large number of 
specimens, and not from a few individuals. These specimens 
are deposited in the Museum of the Butler University at 
Indianapolis, Indiana, under the auspices of which institution 
they were collected. 



= Boleichthys Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1859, 104. (Type B. exilis 

> Hololepis Agassiz, Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 4. CType Boleosoma 
barrattii Holbrook). 


Boleichthys elegans Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1859, 104. Jordan and 
Copelaud, Bull. Buff. Nat. Hist. Soc, 187G, 135. 

Numerous specimens of a small Boleichthys from the ' 
Etowah are identified with the above species, with some 
doubt. However, they cannot well belong to any other de- 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 309 

scribed species. They are so small and fragile that the fin 
formulae, and some other characters, cannot easily be made 
out ; but I find no discrepancy between the characters shown 
by my specimens and those noted in Girard's brief descrip- 

My specimens are short, chubby, and compressed, bearing 
some resemblance in form to Microperca punctulata. The 
mouth is moderate, with equal jaws : the two dorsal fins 
about equal, and distinctly separated by an interspace. The 
scales are comparatively large, but apparently quite variable, 
the number of transverse series varying from 42 to 56. The 
lateral line traverses the scales of the operculum, and ends 
about midway of the body, being distinct on from 13 to 30 
scales. This is also quite variable, one side of the same 
specimen often having twice as long a lateral line as the 
other. Lateral line arched high over the pectorals, running 
parallel with the elevated and rounded nuchal region. 

Head 35 in length (without caudal, as in all cases in the present paper) : 
depth 45. Eye 3 in head. Fin rays, 1). X, 13, or IX, 12 or 13. A. II, 7, or 
II, 8. Scales, 42, 41, 44, 44, 4(1, 48, 55, 56, in as many specimens, those 
with the most scales usually having the lateral line continued farthest. 

Color greenish, with dark specks : fins mottled : a dark line forward 
from eye. 

Length of specimens examined a little less than an inch. They prob- 
ably reach a somewhat larger size. 

Habitat. Mill ponds in the Etowah water basin. Most 
of my specimens taken in Dyke's Pond, near Rome, Ga., 
with Boleosoma sligmoeum and Minnilus lirus. 


= Hadropterus Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, 1854, 305. (Type 
77. nigrofasciatus Ag.) 

> Cottogaster Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 18G9, 211 (not of Putnam?). 
(C. aurantiacus Cope.) 

>Hypohomus Copk, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1S70. (Type C. auran- 
tiacus Cope.) 

= Plesioperca Le Vaillant, Nouv. Archives du Museum, 1873. 

310 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 


Hadropterus nigrofasciatus Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, XVII, 305, 

1854. Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 18G3, 4. 
Etheostoma nigrofasciatum Jordan, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 164, 

187G (not of Manual Vert., 1876, 223 = Alvordius evides J. 

and C). 
Plesioperca anceps Le Vaillant, 1. c. 

This species is merely mentioned by Prof. Agassiz,* and 
does not seem to have been noticed by any other Ameri- 
can author. My specimens show the following characters : — 

Head and body stout and heavy, the latter deep and compressed, the 
depth being about 5 in the length in the larger specimeus. Head and 
mouth much as in Alvordius aspro, but heavier, and the mouth rather nar- 
rower: intermaxillaries slightly projectile, but the skin of the middle of 
the upper lip continuous with that of the forehead, as in Percina. Eye 
moderate, 4 in head. Head about 4 in length, without caudal. 

Scales rather large, 58 in the lateral line, which is continuous; median 
line of the belly, and the whole chest, covered with small scales. 

Fins all large; dorsals slightly connected by membrane at the base; 
the second dorsal about the size of the anal. 

Fin rays, D. XII, 11 or 12. A. II, 10. 

Color dark olive above, with blackish markings as usual in these fishes : 
sides with vertical bars, somewhat diamond-shaped, but quite narrow, 
acute above and acuminate below, more or less confluent along the 
middle; about 12 in number; in color, dark greenish, varying to jet black 
in accordance with the feelings of the fish. These bars are most distinct 
near the middle of the body, and broadest behind. 

Inner half of eacli of the vertical fins, black, outer half more or less 
speckled and barred : top of head black, a black band through eye and 
snout, and a dark vertical shade below the eye; markings more or less 
shown by all the Darters. A small black spot between two smaller ones 
at base of caudal fin. 

Length four inches. 

Habitat. My specimens were taken in small tributaries of 
the Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers, in clear, rapidly flowing 

* Prof. Agassiz's specific account is as follows : " From the ncigborhood of Mobile, 
Alabama. Discovered by Albeit Stein, Esq. Brown above, lighter below, with tr;ius- 
verse black bauds, wider iu the middle than nearer to the back or belly." 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 311 

water, with Percina caprodes. Silver Creek, Rocky Creek. 
Known to the fisherman as Crawl-a-bottom. • 

= Boleosoma Dekay, N. Y. Zoology, 1842, 20. (Type B. tessellation.) 

> Arlina Gkd., Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1859, 64. (Type A. effulgeas.) 

> Estrella Gkd., 1. c. 65. (Typei?. atromaculata.) 

? > Cottogaster Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 4. (Type B. tessel- 
latum, Thompson.) 


Body slender, of about the size and form of Boleosoma brevipinne Cope. 
Depth 5 in length in adult. Head 4| in length, narrow and thin, the snout 
pointed. Mouth small, inferior; intermaxillaries projectile, the skin of 
the lip and front not continuous ; vomerine teeth. 

Fins rather large, D. X, 11 or 12; A, II, 7; the spines well developed 
and subequal. Caudal emarginate. Scales rather large, 5-46-7, lateral 
line distinct. Opercles scaly, cheeks and neck also. 

Colors rather bright. Tessellated above, as usual in Boleosoma ; fins 
mottled; sides with about 8 M or W-shaped dark green blotches below 
lateral liue, — fainter and smaller than in D. blennioides, — and various 
duller ones above. Body in the larger specimens sprinkled with small 
orange dots, which are more conspicuous after death, when the green has 
faded. Pectorals and caudal yellowish barred. Spinous dorsal with a 
band of bright orange-red above, and one or two narrow dark ones below 
it. A dark stripe forward from eye, and another downward. 

Length of largest specimens, 2 inches. 

Habitat. In small tributaries of the Etowah and Oosta- 
naula Rivers, especially in clear waters and in mill-ponds of 
the hill-country. Known to boys and fishermen as Speck. 

It will perhaps be necessary to revive the genus Arlina 
for this species, B. effalgens, and B. maculaticeps. It would 
differ from Boleosoma in the presence of two well-developed 
sub-equal anal spines. 


< Percina Haldeman, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sc, VIII, 1842, 330. (Type 
Perca itebulosa Haldeman = E. caprodes Raf.) 

= Pileoma Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 16. (Type P. semifasciala Dek. 
= E. caproOes Raf.) 

— Asproperca Heckel, MSS. in Cauestrini, Verhand. Zool. Bot. Ver- 
ein, Wien, X, 1860. 

312 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 


Scicena caprodes Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, 334. 

Etheostoma caprodes Raf., Icli. Oh., 1820, 38. Kirtland, Zool. Ohio, 
1838, 168, 192; Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., Ill, 346, 1841. Storer, 
Synopsis, 1846, 270. 
Pileoma caprodes Agassiz, L. Superior, 1850, 308: Amer. Journ. Sci. 
Arts, 1854, 305. Le Vaillant, Recherches sur les Poissons, etc. 
Percina caprodes Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1859, 66. Putnam, 
Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 5. Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1865, 82; 
Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1869, 211. Jordan, Inch Geo!. Survey, 1874, 
213; Manual Vert, 1876, 224; Bulletin Buff. Ac. Sci., 1876, 93. 
Jordan and Copehvnd, Am. Nat., 1876, 337; Bull. Buff. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 1876, 135. 
Percina nebulosa "Haldeman, Journ. Ac. Sci., Phil., 1842, 330." Girard, 
Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1859, 66. 
Perca nebulosa Dekay, Fishes of N. Y., 1842, 7. 
Etheostoma nebulosa Storer, Synopsis, 1846, 271. 
Pileoma semifasciatum Dekay, Fishes of N. Y., 1842, 16. Giinther, Cata- 
logue of Fishes, 1859, I, 76. 
Etheostoma semifasciata Storer, Synopsis, 271. 

Percina semifasciata Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1859, 66. Gill, 
Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1860, 20. 
Percina bimaculata " Haldeman, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1843, 157." 

Etheostoma bimaculata Storer, Synopsis, 1846, 271, 272. 
Etheostoma zebra Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1850, 308. 

Pileoma zebra Agassiz, 1. c. Le Vaillant, 1. c, 1873. 
Percina zebra Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1859, 66. 
Asproperca zebra Heckel, 1. c. 

This species is abundant in all the tributaries of the 
Etowah, Oostanaula, and Coosa Rivers. Comparison with 
northern specimens fails to show any difference of any sort. 
This is known to the fishermen as Crawl-a-bottom and Hog- 
molly. The latter appellation is more usually applied to 
Caioslomits nigricans, and is apparently a corruption of 

Percina carbonaria Girard, from Texas, differs in several respects from 
my specimens of this widely diffused species. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 313 


-- Stizostedion Rafinesque, Ich. Ohiensis, 1820, 21. (Type Perca 
salmonea Raf.) 

? Pomacampsis Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 23. (Type Perca nhjropunc- 
tata Raf. = ?) 

>Sandrus Stark, "Elements Nat. Hist., I, 465, 1828." (Same type.) 

= Lucioperca Cuvier and Vai.enc., 110, 1829. (Type Perca luci- 
operca L = Lucioperca sandra Cuv., Europe.) 

= Stizostedium Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 18G5, 82. 


Perca salmonea Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, V, 354; Ich. Ohi., 

1820, 21. 
Stizostedion salmoneum Raf., Ich. Oh., 1820, 23. 
Stizostedium salmoneitm Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 18G5, 82. Jordan, 

Man. Vert., 187G, 225; Bull. Buff. Nat. Hist. Soc, 187G, 92, and 


This species occurs in the Oostanaula River, and is known 
locally as Salmon Trout. I have no adult specimens at hand, 
and therefore refrain from attempting a comparison between 

it and >S. vitreum. 


= Micropterus Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., IV, 325, 1800? (Type 
M. dolomieu Lac. = ? Labrus salmoides Lac.) 

>Calliurus Raf., Ich. Ohi., 1S20, 2G (not of Ag.). (Type C. punctu- 
latus Raf. = Labrus salmoides Lac.) 

= Lepomis Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 1820, 30. (Not Lepomis Raf., Journ. 
de Phys., 1819.) 

>Aplites Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 31. (Type Lepomis pallia la Raf.) 

> Nemocampsis Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 32, 1820. (Type Lepomis flex- 
uolaris Raf. = Labrus salmoides Lac.) 

> Dioplites Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi. 1820, 32. (Type L. salmonea Raf. 
= L. salmoides Lac.) 

>Huro Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. II, 124, 1828. (Type H. 
nigricans C. and V. = Cichla floridana Le S.) 

>Grystes Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. Ill, 54, 1829. (Type 
Labrus salmoides Lac.) 

* See Gill -'On the Species of the Genus Micropterus (Lac.) or Grystes (Auct.)" in 
Proceedings Am. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1S73, XXII. B, 55; — from which valuable 
paper, most of the synonymy here given has been copied. 

314 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

6. MICROPTERUS PALLIDUS Gill and Jordan.* 

Lepomis pallida Raf., Ich. Oh., 30, 1820. 

Cichla floridana Le Sueur, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., II, 1822, 219. 

Micropterus floridanus Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Museum, 1876. 
Huro nigricans Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. IT, 124, 1828. Rich. 

P. B. A., Ill, 4, 1836. Jardiue, Nat. Lib. I, Perches, 108, 1835. 

Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 15. Storer, Syn. 1846, 277. Giinther, 

Cat. Fishes, I, 255, 1859. 
Grystes nigricans Agass., L. Superior, 1850, 297. 
Micropterus nigricans Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1865, 83, and 1870, 

451. Gill, Rept. Comin. Agr., 1866, 407; Proc. Am. Asso. Adv. 

Sci., 1873, 70 B. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 214; Man. 

Vert., 1876, 229. 
Grystes nobilior Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, XVII, 1854, 298. Put- 
nam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 6. 
Grystes nuecensis Baird and Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1854, 25. 

Dioplites nuecensis Girard, U. S. Pac. R. R. Surv., 4, 1858; U. S. 

Mex. Bound. Surv., 1859, 3. 
Grystes salmoides Holbrook, Ich. S. C, 1855, 25, and Second Ed., 1860, 28. 

Norris, Am. Ang. Book, 1864, 99. 
Grystes megastoma Garlick, Treat. Art Prop. Fish, 1857, 108. 

Abundant in the Etowah, Oostanaula, and Coosa Rivers, 
rather more so than the next species, and everywhere con- 
founded with it under the name of Trout. 


Labrus salmoides Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., Ill, 716, 1800 ? 

Grystes salmoides Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss., Ill, 54, 1829. 
Jardine, Nat. Lib. I, Perches, 158, 1835. Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 26, 
1842. Storer, Synopsis, 1846, 288. Herbert, Fish and Fishing, 
Micropterus salmoides Gill, Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., 1873, 67 B. 
Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 214; Man. Vert., 1876, 230. 
Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., IV, 325, 1800? 

*Prof. Gill calls my attention to the fact that what is probably this species from 
Mexico, has been refiguved by LeVaillant and ISocourt, under the names of Dioplites 
treculii sp. n., D. salmoides (Uolbr.), D. variabilis (LeSueui - ) and D. nuecensis Grd., 
in Etudes sur les Poissons < Mission Scientilique a la Mexique, 1874. Letter-press 
descriptions have not yet appeared. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 315 

Bodianns aclrigan Rafinesque, Am. Mo. Mag. and Crit. Rev., 1817, II, 120. 
Lepomis achigan Gill, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1860, 20. 
Micropterus achigan Gill, Rept. Comm. Ag., 1866, 407. 
Calliurus punctulatus Raf., Ich. Ohi # 26. 
Lejiomis trifasciata Raf., ib. 31. 

Lepomis Jl'-xuolaris Raf., ib. 31. 

Lepomis salmonea Raf., ib. 32. 

Lepomis notata Raf., ib. 32. 

Etheostoma calliura ~Raf. , ib. 32. 

Cichlct fastiata Le Sueur, Journ. Ac. Sci. Phil., 216, 1822. Kirtland, Zool. 

Ohio, 191, 1838. 

Centrarchus fascialus Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., V. 28. 

Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 28, 1842. Storer, Syn. 200. Thompson, 

Hist. Vt., 1842. Giiuther, Cat. Fishes, I, 258. 

Grystes fasciatus Ag., L. Superior, 295, 1850. Eoff Smiths. Rep., 

1854, 289. Putnam, in Storer's Fish Mass., 278, 1855. 
Micropterus fascialus Cope, Proc. Ac. Sci. Phil., 1865, 83; Journ. Ac. 
Sci. Phil., 1869, 216; Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 450, 1870. 
Gristes nigricans Herbert, Fish and Fishing, 195. 

Grystes nigricans Garlick, Treat. Art Prop. Fish, 105, 1857. Norris, 
Am. Angler's Book. 103, 1864. 
Cichla ohiensis Le Sueur, Journ. Ac. Sci. Phil., 218, 1822. 
Cickla minima Le Sueur, Journ. Ac. Sci. Phil., 220, 1822. Kirtland, Rept. 

Zool. Ohio, 191, 1838. 
Centrarchus obscurus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 30, 1842. Storer, Synopsis, 

1846, 40. Giiuther, Cat. Fishes, I, 258, 1859. 
Grystes salmonoides Giiuther, Cat. Fishes, I, 252, 1859. 

Iii the Etowah, Oostanaula, and Coosa Rivers, with the 
preceding. The yellow and black caudal markings, so strik- 
ing in young specimens from the Ohio River, and which sug- 
gested to Ratinesque the name of Calliurus, are not welt 
shown by my specimens. The lower fins are unusually red, 
and there is a tendency to the formation of parallel lines of 
dusky spots along the rows of scales. These peculiarities 
perhaps indicate a permanent variety. 


Ambloplites Rafinesquk, Ich. Ohi., 1820, 32. Type Lepomis ichtheloi- 
des Raf. = Bodianus rupestris Raf. 

316 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Bodianus mpestris Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag., 1817, 120. 

Ambloplites mpestris Gill, Pro8. Phil. Ac. Sci., 18G0, 20. Cope, 
Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 18(59, 217; Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 1870, 
451; Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1865, 83. Jordan, Intl. Geol. Surv., 
1874, 215; Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1S76, 92; Man. Vert., 
231, 1876. 
Icthelis erythrops Raf., Ich. Ohi., 29, 1820. 
Lepomis ictheloides Raf., Ich. Ohi., 32, 1820. 

Ambloplites ichtheloides Agassiz, Ainer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 1854, 
299. Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv., X, 8, 1858. 
Centrarchns cenevs Cuv. and Val., Poissons, III, 8S. Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 
27, 1842. Richardson, Fauna Boreali Americana, 1836, III, 18. 
Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV., 239. Storer, Synopsis, 
289, 1846. Gunther, Cat. Fishes, I, 256, 1858. 
Ambloplites ccneus Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 1854, 299. 
Girard. Pac. R. R. Rep., X, 1858, 8. 
Centrarchns pentacanthus Cuv. and Val., III., 88. Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 
1842, 30. Storer, Synopsis, 1846, 290. 

This species is moderately common in the Etowah and 
Oostanaula, where it is known as Goggle-eyed Pearch. 


" Lepomus Raf., Anal. Nature, 1815." (Agassiz.) 
< Lepomis Rafinesque, Journal de Physique, 1819. (Type Labras 
awihts L.) 
= Pomotis Raf. 1. c. (Same type.) 
Icthelis Raf., Ich. Oh., 1820, 27. (Same type.) 
= Ichthelis and Pomotis sp. Later writers. 

9 . LEPIOPOMUS PALLIDUS Gill and Jordan. 
Labrus pallidus Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc, 420, 1814. 
Labrus appendix Mit., Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, 407 (not Pomotis appendix 

of authors). 
Pomotis incisor Cuv. and Val., VII., 466. Dekay, Fishes, N. Y., 33, 1842. 
Storer, Synopsis, 293, 1846. Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. and 
Arts, 1854, 302. Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv., 1858, 24. Gimther, 
Cat. Fishes, I, 269, 1859. 
Ichthelis incisor Holbrook, Ich. S. C, 1860, 12. Putnam, Bull, M. 

C. Z., 1863, 6. Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 235 and 317. 
Lepomis incisor Gill, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 1864, 93. Cope, 
Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1865, S3. 

*I have seen fit to restore the correct orthography of this much abused name. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 317 

Lepomis megalotis Cope, Joum. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1869, 220; Proc. Am. Phil. 

Soc, 1870, 452 (not Iehthelis megalotis Raf.). 
? Lepomis ardesiacus Cope, Jour. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1869, 222; Proc. Am. Phil. 

Soc, 1870, 453. 
? Lepomis purpurascens Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 453. 
Ichlhelis macrochira Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 215 (not of P*af.). 

This abundant species is known to the Etowah fisherman 
as the Spotted Pearch, or simply Pearch. My specimens 
are all young, and are precisely like young specimens of the 
same species from the Ohio. 


Pomotis obscurus Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sc. and Arts, 1854, 302. 
Iehthelis incisor var. obscurus Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 236. 

This species is most nearly related to L. pallidus, but it is 
certainly distinct. It is known to the fisherman of the Eto- 
wah as the "Brim" (Bream), and according to some of them 
it is the only species to which that name can properly be 
applied. This species hides under rocks and bushes in deep 
holes in the smaller streams, and cannot easily be taken with 
the seine. We procured four or five large specimens, which 
showed when fresh the following characters. As in Chceno- 
bryttus melanoiJs (Grd.), the coppery colors become black 
in spirits. 

Dark-green above, shoulders and front of back with distinct greenish- 
black spots ; sides with wide dark-green bars, much as in young specimens 
of incisor; thorax bright dark coppery red, spotted with blackish, some- 
times with orange; sides of body below mixed blackish and pale carmine; 
face, lower jaw, and lower part of sides of head, a peculiar bright leaden 
blue, mixed with some reddish, — a very distinctive feature, as shown by 
Prof. Agassiz. Cheeks orange and lead-blue, without distinct stripes; 
opercular spot rather large, all black, much as in L. incisor; dorsal and 
caudal fins blue-green ; anal still darker and bluer. A dark blackish-green 
spot on last rays of dorsal and anal, as in L. incisor. In this species, as 
in other brightly colored Percoids, the colors become suddeuly dull and 
pale in death. 

318 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Eye large, the iris black. Depth of body about half length, without 
caudal j length of head somewhat less. Pectoral fins very long and 
pointed, reaching beyond anal. 

Spines shorter than in L. incisor. Profile much steeper than in speci- 
mens of incisor of the same size. 

Large adult specimens are said by the fishermen to be 
thick, round, and almost black in color. 

Habitat. Small tributaries of the Etowah and Oostanaula 
about Rome, Ga., particularly Dry Creek and Silver Creek. 


Xenotis Jordan, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci. 1877 (Type Pomotis fallaxB. &G.). 


Pomotis sanguinolentns Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sc. Arts, 1S54, 301. 

This handsome species abounds in all the tributaries of 
the Etowah, Oostanaula, and Coosa. It is known to the 
fishermen as Sun Pearch. 


Pomotis inscriptus Agassiz, 1. c. 302. 

Ichthelis inscriptus Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 237. 

A single specimen of this handsome species is in my col- 
lection from the Etowah. It was not noticed at the time of 


= Aplodinotus Rafinesque, Journal de Physique, 418, 1819. (Type 

A. grunniens Raf.J 

= Amblodon Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 1820,24. (Type A. grunniens.') 

<Corvina "Cuvieu, Regne Animal, 1829." (Type C. nigra Cuv.) 

= Haploidonotus Gill, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 104, 18G1. (Type A. grun- 

niens Raf.) 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 319 


Aplodinotiis grunniens Raflnesque, Journal de Physique, 1819, 418. 

Amblodon grunniens Raf., Icli. Oh. 1820, 24. Agassiz, Arner. Jour. 

Sc & Arts, 1854, 307. Girard, Pac. R R. Survey, 1858, 06. 
Haploidonntus grunniens Gill, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc., 18G1, 104, and 
in other papers. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 21C; Bull. Buff. 
Soc. Nat. Hist , 1876, 92; Manual Vert., 241, and of late Amer- 
ican writers generally. 
Scicena oscula LeSueur, Jour. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1822, 254. Kirtland, Rep't 
Zool. Ohio, 1838, 1(58 and 192. 
Corvina oscula Cuvier and Val. Poissons, V, 1830, 98. Rich. F. B. A. 
1836, 68. Kirtland, Bost Journ. Nat. Hist., 1840, III, 350. 
Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 73. Storer, Synopsis, 184C, 219. 
Giinther, Cat. Fishes, II, 297, 18G0, and of various compilers. 
Scicena grisea LeSueur, Jour. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1822, 254. 
Corvina grisea Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 76. 

b. var. ? lineatus. 

Amblodon lineatus Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, 1854, 307. 
(Osage River.) 
Haploidonotus lineatus Gill, Proc. Phil. Ac Sc, 1861, 105. Jordan, 
Alan. Vert., 1876, 242. 

c var.? concinnus. 

Amblodon concinnus Ag. Am. Journ. Sc Arts, 1854, 307. (Tenn. R.) 

Haploidonotus concinnus Gill, Proc Phil. Ac Sc, 1861, 104. Jor- 
dan, Man. Vert., 212. 

d. var? reglectus. 

Amblodon neglectus Girard. Mex. Bound. Surv. 12, 1859. (Rio Grande). 
Haploidonotus neghctus Gill, Proc Phil. Ac. Sc, 1861, 105. 

The "Drum" is abundant in the river-channels of the 
Etowah and Oostanaula, but I was unable to secure speci- 
mens. Young specimens from the French Broad and Cum- 
berland Rivers in Tennessee, show the lines of black dots 
ascribed to lineatus and neglectus, but do not otherwise differ 
appreciably from grunniens. In view of this fact, and as 
Prof. Agassiz's comparative diagnoses show no tangible spe- 
cific characters, I deem it best to refer all our Huploidonoti 
to one speeies, until real differences are shown. 

320 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 


< Cottus (Artedi) "Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 1748." ("Type C. gobio." 

<Cottus Girard. Monograph N. Am. Freshwater Cottoids, 1851. 

= Potamocottus Gill. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1801, 41. 
(Type P. Carolines.") 

— Pegedichthy s Jordan. Man. Vert., 1876, 244. (Type P. ictalurops, 
not of IIaf.) 


A species of this genus occurs in great abundance in trib- 
utaries of the Etowah and Oostanaula, particularly in Love- 
joy, Rocky, and Silver Creeks. 

Of the hundred or more specimens secured, none appear 
to be mature, and but three of them have reached a length of 
three inches. From these three large specimens the present 
description is drawn. 

For the purpose of comparison with Girard's descriptions 
I have here followed the order of his account of C. meridion- 
alis, a species probably as closely related to P. zopherus as 
any mentioned in Girard's Monograph. Its nearest relations, 
however, seem to be with P. Carolina. If P. zopherus, 
meridionalis, Carolina}, and alvordii should prove ultimately to 
be varieties of one species, I shall not be surprised, although 
I have at present no evidence that such is the case. 

Body rather slender, the greatest depth 5f in total length, or4| without 
caudal. Body not greatly tapering, the least depth about one-fourteenth 
of the total length. The greatest thickness of the body is a trifle more 
than the greatest depth. 

The head is just one-third of the length without the caudal flu, or more 
than one-fourth, that flu included. Its width is about equal to the length 
of its upper surface. 

The eyes are large and close together; their form is circular, and their 
diameter is one-fourth the length of the head. The iuterorbital space is 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 321 

very narrow, scarcely more than half the width of the eye. The mouth 
is moderately large, and there are teeth on the palatines. 

The preopercular spine is very large, hooked upwards and backwards; 
and below it are two other smaller ones, the lower minute. 

The first dorsal commences behind the insertion of the ventrals. It is- 
quite high, and its upper edge is quite convex. It is but little lower than 
the second dorsal. There are seven rays, the second, third, and fourth 
being the highest. The second dorsal is contiguous, and the two are 
connected by membrane. It is composed of seventeen rays. The caudal 
fin is considerably shorter than the head. In all the fins the tips of the 
rays project beyond the membrane. This is especially true of the pecto- 
rals. The ventrals are immediately beneath the pectorals, and consist of 
one spine and four soft rays. 

The pectorals are rather large, reaching to the anal, and about to the 
fifth ray of the second dorsal. Their base of iusertiou is oblique and 
somewhat curved. 

B. G. I). VII-17. A. 13. V. I, 4. P. 14. 

The vent is much nearer to the snout than to the base of caudal. The 
lateral line is high and parallel with the back. It vanishes at the end of 
the anal tin. 

General color very dark, almost black, with three wide jet-black cross 
bands, and a bar at the base of the caudal; belly pale; tins mottled and 
barred ; no red. 

Habitat. Small tributaries of the Etowah and Oostanaula, 
abounding in shallow rapids with Calostomus nigricans, a 
species the young of which it much resembles in color. It 
is locally known as "Blob," and "Muffle- Jaw." 

The most important characters of P. zopherus seem to be 
the high first dorsal, the narrow interorbital space, and the 
black color. This latter feature suggested the specific name. 

It is well separated from all of Dr. Girard's species, — if 
they truly are species. To the present writer, his accounts 
seem to be descriptions of individuals rather than of species ; 
but my acquaintance with these fishes is too limited for me 
to express any opinion on these matters. 


X E N I S M A . 

= Xenisma Jordan, Check List, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 187C, 142. 
(Type X. stellifera Jordan.) 

322 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

The genera of our Cyprinodonts are in an extremely con- 
fused state. The following is an attempt at an analysis of 
their characters, as far as they can be ascertained, from the 
literature of the subject : — 

♦Intestinal canal short, but little convoluted; bones of each mandib- 

ulary firmly united (carnivorous species). 
a. Anal fin of the male not modified into an intromittent 
b. Teeth in a single series, incisor-like, notched; dorsal 

nearly over ventrals ; form stout. . . Cytrinodon. 

bb. Teeth all pointed ; ventrals present, 
c. Teeth in a single series; dorsal in advance of anal. 

d. Dorsal and anal fins long (each with more than 20 

rays) Girarpinichtiiys. 

dd. Dorsal and anal fins short (each with 10 to 14 

rays) Lucaxia. 

cc. Teeth in narrow bands. 

e. Dorsal fin commencing in advance of anal. 

/. Branchiostegals 6 Hyprargyra. 

ff. Branchiostegals 5 Fuspulus. 

ee. Dorsal fin commencing directly over anal; both fins 

large; branchiostegals 4 ; coloration peculiar. Xexisma. 
eee. Dorsal fin commencing behind origin of anal; bran- 
chiostegals 5. 
g. Body small, short and thick, with broad head ; 

(subgenus?). ' Micristiits. 

gg. Body elongate, slender, with narrow head. Zygonectes. 
aa. Anal fin of the male modified into a peculiar, sword- 
shaped, intromittent organ; teeth pointed; dorsal fin 

short, behind anal Gambusia. 

** Intestinal canal elongated, with numerous convolutions; bones of 
each mandibulary not united, the dentary being movable ; sexes 
differentiated ; limnophagous. 
h. Teeth pointed, in bands; dorsal in advance of anal, 

greatly developed" in $ (of more than 12 rays). Moli.iexesia. 
kh. Teeth pointed, in a single series; dorsal behind anal, 

small (less than 12 rays) Girardixus. 

hhh. Teeth unknown ; dorsal in advance of anal, small (less 

than 12 rays) Apixia. 

Xenisma stellifera Jordan and Copeland, Check List (name only). 

This species — the type of the group called Xenisma — 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 323 

may be compared with the other known species, Xenisma 
catenata * as follows : — 

Common characters. Dorsal and anal long, similar, and placed directly 
opposite each other. Branchiostegals 4. Veutrals with 6 rays ; intestinal 
canal short ; teeth pointed, in bands. Males with orange spots, females 
marked with short olive-brown lines. 
a. D. 13; A. 13; hit. 1. 53; dorsal and anal greatly elevated 
in $ , the longest ray of the dorsal reaching caudal when 
laid back, its height equal to the depth of the body ; 
orange spots irregularly placed, never forming continu- 
ous rows. Length 3 to 4 inches. Habitat. Head waters 

of the Alabama River. stellifera. 

aa. D. 13 or 14; A. 15; lat. 1. 47; dorsal and anal much less 
elevated even in $ , falling far short of caudal when laid 
back; the orange (or brown) spots, one on each scale, 
forming regular lines along the sides. Length, 4 to 6 
inches. Habitat. Head waters of Tennessee River, catenata. 

My specimens of J£. stellifera show the following charac- 
ters : — 

Head 3f to 4 in length, flattened and broadened above in the usual 
Fundulus fashion : eye large, about 4 in head. Body rather long; depth 
about 5 in length; scales closely imbricated, much deeper than long, as 
in Luxilus, their edges punctate with black, 52 or 53 transverse rows of 

Dorsal beginning directly over anal, its last rays in males highly ele- 
vated, reaching base of caudal, their height equal to depth of body; anal 
similar, more elevated in front, and less so behind, the last rays falling 
just short of caudal. In female specimens, these fins are less elevated, 
but still very high. Pectorals reaching beyond base of ventrals, the lat- 
ter reaching anal in $ , but falling just short in $. 

D. 13 (rarely 12) ; A. 13, rarely 12 ; V. 6 ; B. 4. 

Colors brilliant; general color a bright pale greenish or livid blue, 
bluish silvery below with a golden lustre forwards. Body, cheeks, etc., 
in $ with large, bright, dark orange spot*, irregularly placed, not follow- 
ing the rows of scales, and not always on the middle of the scales. These 

*The synonymy of this species is as follows : — 
Pcecilia catenata Storer, Synopsis, 430. 

Hydrargyra catenata Agassiz, Araer. Jour. Sc. and Arts, 1S54, 353. 

Fundulus catenatus Guuther, Cat. Fishes, VI, 322. Cope, Jour. Ac. Sci. Phil., 

1S60, 238. 
Zygonectes catenatus Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 252. 
Xenisma catenata Jordan and Copeland, Check List. 

June, 1876. 25 Ann. Lyc Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

324 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

spots are not uniform in size ; some are as large as a pin's head. Females 
with oblong horizontal line-like spots of olive brown, more numerous 
and smaller, and forming streaks to some extent. Fins (in $) all pale 
orange, with many spots of brilliant dark orange; caudal faintly barred 
with orange. Fins iu §, plain olivaceous. 

A large pale yellow blotch on the back in front of the dorsal fin, very 
distinct in life, so that the fish may be recognized in the water as far as 
it can be seen, fading in alcohol ; a pale blue blotch from eye to mouth and 
a greenish one below it. Length 3 to 4 inches. 

Habitat. Very abundant in many tributaries of the 
Etowah, Oostanaula, and Coosa rivers, preferring the clear, 
cold water of the "spring branches." Most specimens from 
Silver, Lavender, and Rocky creeks. We were unable to 
hear any vernacular name for it. Its congener, catenata, is 
known as the Stud-fish or Studdy-Pearch. This species is 
probably the most beautiful in life of all our Cyprinodont 

E S X Linnaeus. 


Esox Indus Mitchill, "Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc, I, 410" (not of Lin- 

Esox reticulatus Le Sueur, "Jour. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1818, 414." Storer, "Kept. 
Fish Mass., 97;" Synopsis, 1846, 437; Fishes Mass., 1855, 311. 
Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 223. .Thompson, Hist. Vermont, 
1842, 138. Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV, 269. ?Kirtland, 
Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV, 233 (probably salmoneus). Cuv. and 
Val., XVIII, 327. Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1865, 79; Cyp. 
Penn. (Trans. Am. Phil. Soc), 1866, 408. Gunther, Cat. Fishes, 
VI, 229. 
Picorellus reticulatus Jordan, Man. Vert. 255. 

? Esox tridecemlineatus "Mitchill, Mirror, 1825, 361." 

? Esox tridecemradiatus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 225. 

b. var. aflinis. 

? Esox phaleratus Say, LeSueur., Journ. Phil. Ac. Sc. 1, 416. Dekay, 

Fishes N. Y., 226. Storer, Synopsis, 437. 
Esox affinis Holbrook, Ich. S. C, 1860, 198. Gill, Am. Journ. 6c. Arts, 

1864, 94. Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1870, 467. 
Picorellus affinis Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 255 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 325 

This species is very abundant iu Dyke's Pond and other 
mill-ponds tributary to the Etowah River, where it is known 
as Jack. 

I recognize E. affinis as a variety even, solely on the author- 
ity of Holbrook and Cope. Careful comparison of specimens 
of " reticulatus " from the Delaware and Housatonic rivers, 
with "<7$m£s" from the Etowah and Ocmulgee, fails to 
show any permanent difference whatever. The alleged 
greater number of dorsal and anal rays in the northern fish 
is due simply to Storer's having counted the rudimentary 
rays or " stubs," while Holbrook counted only the developed 
ones. It is the difference between " D. 17" and "D. II, 
15." There is no obvious difference in dentition. The col- 
oration varies somewhat, but my brightest colored specimens 
are from the clear tributaries of the Etowah, and the dullest 
from the muddy Ocmulgee. 



Campostoma Agassiz, Araer. Journal Sci. and Arts, 1855, 219. (Type 
Rutllus anomalus Raf.) 


var. anomalum (Teeth 0, 4-4, 0). 

fButilus anomalus Rafluesque, Ich. Oh., 1820, 52. 

Campostoma anomalum Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 1855, 218 

(part). Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 8. Jordan, Man. Vert., 

1876, 275; Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 94. 
Exoglossum lesueurianum "Kirtlaud, Rept. Zool. Ohi., 1838, 169, 193," 

(not of Raf.). 
Exoglossum spinicephalum "Cuv. and Val., XVII, 489, 1844." Storer, Synop- 
sis, 429, 1846. 
Exoglossum dubium Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., V, 272, 1845. Storer, 

Synopsis, 429, 1846. 
Campostoma dubium Cope, Cyprinidae of Penn., 1866, 395. Giinther, 

Cat. Fishes,VII, 183, 1868. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Survey, 1874, 225. 
Chondrostoma pullum Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 1854, 357. 
? Campostoma formosulum Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 176; U. S. 

Mex. Bound. Surv., 1858, 41. 

326 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

? Campo stoma nasutum Girard, Froc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 176; U. S. and 

Mex. Bound. Surv., 41. 
? Campostoma hippops Cope, Froc. Fbil. Ac. Sci., 1SG4, 284; Journ. Phil. 

Ac. Sci., 1869, 235. 
Campostoma callipteryx Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 284; Cyp. Penn. 

Campostoma mormyrus Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 284; Cyp. Penn. 

395; Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1869, 235. 
Campostoma gobioninum Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 284; Cyp. Penn., 

395; Journal Phil. Ac. Sci., 1869, 235. 

b. var. prolixum (Teeth 1, 4-4, OJ. 

Leitciscus prolixus Storer, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., July, 1845; Synopsis, 1846, 

417 (Fide Agassiz). 
Chondrostoma prolixum Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci., and Arts, 1854, 

Campostoma anomalum Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 1855, 218, 

(part). Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1869, 235. 

This species is quite abundant in the more sluggish streams 
tributary to the Etowah and Oostanaula. My specimens 
from the south are uniformly more slim than those from 
Indiana. They have also longer and narrower heads, and 
larger scales. Their coloration, too, is more uniform. All 
the Georgia specimens examined have the teeth 1, 4-4, 0, as 
stated by Agassiz and Cope, in Tennessee River specimens. 
Those from the north have the teeth uniformly 0, 4-4, 0. 

The southern form may then be taken as a variety, to 
which Storer's name, prolixum, may be applied. Storer's 
short and irrelevant description might refer to several other 
species as well as to the present one, but Prof. Agassiz lo- 
cates it here. 

The tendencies of the two varieties are shown by the fol- 
lowing table of the average of the measurements of several 
specimens of each. 

Head in length, . . anomalum 4i. prolixum 4?. 

Depth in length, . . anomalum 4|. prolixum 4£. 

Eye in head, . . anomalum 4£. prolixum 4. 

Eye in interorbital space, anomalum 2. prolixum l£. 

Lateral line, . . anomalum 55. prolixum 49. 

Teeth, . . . anomalum 4-4. prolixum 1, 4-4, 0. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 327 


= Semotilus Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 1820, 49. (Type S. dorsalis Raf. 
= Cyprinus corporalis Mit.). 

XLeucosomus IIeckel, Russeger's Reise, 1843, 1042. (Type L. chry- 
soleuctts Heckel, = Leuciseus argenteus Storer, — not Gyp. chrysoleucus Mit.) 

> Cheilonemus Baiud, Storer, Fishes Mass., 1855, 288. (Type Leu- 
ciseus pulchellus Storer, = L. argenteus Storer). 


Cyprinus corporalis Mitchill, Am. Monthly Mag. II, 1817, 289, and 1818, 
Leuciseus corporalis Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 213. 
Semotilus corporalis Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 8. lb. in Storer's 
Fishes Mass., 256. Cope, Cyp. Penn., 362, 1866 ; Proc. Phil. Ac. 
Sci., 1865, 85; Hayden's Geol. Surv. Terr., 1870, 442, and 1871, 
472. Abbott, Am. Nat., April, 1870, 12. Jordan, Ind. Geol. 
Surv., 1874, 223 ; Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1876, 94 ; Man. Vert., 
1876, 278. Goode, Bull. U. S. Mus., VI, 1876, 64 ; and of various 
late U. S. writers. 
Leucosomus corporalis Giinther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 269. 
Cyprinus atromaculatus Mitchill, Am. Monthly Mag., II, 324, 1817. 

Leuciseus atromaculatus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 210. Storer, 

Synopsis, 1846, 409. 
Semotilus atromaculatus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 204; Pac. 

R. R. Rept., 1858, 283. Abbot, Am. Nat., April, 1870, 13. 
Leucosomus atromaculatus Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac, 1861, 523. 
Semotilus dorsalis Raf., Ich. Ohi., 1820, 49. Kirtlaud, Zool. Ohio, 1838, 
169; Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., Ill, 1840, 345. Girard, Pac. R. R. 
Surv., 283. 
Leuciseus doi-salis Storer, Synopsis, 411. 
Semotilus cephalus Rafinesque, Ichthyologia Ohiensis, 1820, 49. Kirtland, 
Zool. Ohio, 169 ; Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., Ill, 345, 1840. Girard, 
Pac. R. R. Survey, 283, 1858. 
Leuciseus cephalus Dekay, Fishes of N. Y., 214, 1842. Storer, 
Synopsis, 409. 
Leuciseus iris "Cuv. and Val., XVII, 255, 1844." 
? Leuciseus rotengulus "Cuv. and Val., XVII, 318." Storer, Synopsis, 

Leuciseus storeri Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 319." 

Ia uciscus pulchelloides Ayres, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Ill, 157. 
Leucosonms incrassatus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 190; Pac. R. R. 

Surv., 1858, 252. 
Semotilus macrocephalus Girard, Proc Phil. Ac, 1856, 204. 

Leucosomus macrocephalus Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv., 252. 

328 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Semotilus speciosus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 204; Pac. E. E. 

Surv., 1858, 2S3. 
Semotilus hammondi Abbott, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1860, 474. 

b. var.? pallidus. 

Leucosomus pallidus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc., 1856, 190; Pac. E. E. 
Surv., 251. 
Semotilus pallidus Cope, Cyp. Penn., 363. 
Semotilus corporalis var. pallidus Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 279. 

This familiar species is abundant in the basin of the Eto- 
wah and Oostanaula. As elsewhere, it prefers clear waters, 
and it is most abundant in small brooks. It is known as 
Creek Chub or Roach. 


>Nocomis Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 190. (Type N. nebras- 
censis Grd.) 

> Ceratichthys "Baird, 1853." Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 
212. (Type Semotilus biguttatus Kirtland.) 

>Hybopsis Girard, 1. c 211 (not of Agassiz, 1854). 

>Erinemus Jordan, Man. Vert., 279, 1876 (subgenus). (Type C. 
hyalinus Cope.) 


a. var. amblops. 

Hutilus amblops Eafinesque, Ich. Oh., 1820, 51. 

? Ceratichthys amblops Girard, Proc Phil. Ac Sc, 1856, 213. Cope, 

MSS., 1870. 

b. var. winchelri. 

? Gobio vernalis Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac Sci., 1856, 188 ; Pac. E. E. Surv., 

1858, 249. 
Hybopsis winchelli Girard, Proc Phil. Ac Sc, 1856, 211; Pac E. E. Surv., 

1858, 255. 
Ceratichthys hyalinus Cope, Jour. Ac. Sc. Phil., 1869, 236. Gunther, Cat. 

Fishes, VII, 179. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 223; Man. 

Vert., 279. 

c var. rubrifrons. 
JVocomis amblops var. rubrifrons Jordan, MSS. (Ocmulgee E.) 

I adopt Rafinesque's name amblops, for this abundant and 
widely diffused species, for the following reasons : 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 329 

1. The reference of Girard's Hybopsis wincJielli to this 
species renders necessary the substitution of an older appel- 
lation for the well-chosen name hyalinus. 

2. Rafinesque's short description of his Rutilus amblops 
from the falls of the Ohio (where this species abounds) may 
apply to the hyalinus (but might apply to two or three other 
fishes, but not as well). 

3. Girard identifies Rutilus amblops as a species of Cera- 
tichthys, and catalogues it as such. He gives no descrip- 
tion ; but as Rafinesque's account would apply to neither of 
the two other species in that region (JV. biguttatus, JS7~. dis- 
similis), Girard probably intended the name C. amblops 
for the species since called C. hyalinus by Prof. Cope ; and 
we should accept Girard's identification as correct, until it is 
proved to be positively erroneous. 

4. Where the adoption of a specific or generic name is to 
any extent a matter of choice, in the opinion of the present 
writer, preference should always be given to a descriptive 
name over a personal one. 

Comparison of specimens from the Ohio, French Broad, 
Clinch, Etowah, Ocmulgee, and other rivers, shows several 
diiferences, but none wiiich are in my opinion sufficiently 
constant or decided to be deemed of specific value. 

Three varieties may probably be recognized, as follows : — 

Head broadest; eye largest, 3 in head, its length greater than 
the width of the broad interorbital space ; snout blunt, 
probably never tuberculate. mouth largest, the lower 
jaw being rather short; barbels long; color variable, 
usually hyaline, with a black lateral shade ; size probably 
largest; depth 5 in length ; teeth 1, 4-4, 1. Habitat. Ohio 
Valley. amblops. 

Head narrower : eye large, 3 in head, much wider than the 
rather narrower interorbital space ; suout bluntish, less 
so than in the preceding ; not noticed as tuberculate ; 
barbels shortest, decidedly shorter than in the preced- 
ing; colors rather dark, the dark lateral stripe passing 

330 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

around the nose; depth 5 in length; teeth 1, 4-4, 1. 
Habitat. Etowah River, Black Warrior River (water 
basin of Alabama River), Tennessee River. . wixcdelli. 

Head narrowest; eye moderate, 3£ in head, less than the inter- 
orbital space, which is narrow and long, the snout pro- 
jecting considerably; mouth smallest, lower jaw rather 
more lengthened; barbels quite long; face rosy in sum- 
mer males, and the snout provided with small tubercles ; 
body stoutest, depth 4£ in length ; color quite pale, with 
a leaden band along the sides, teeth 1, 4-4, 0. Habitat. 
Ocmulgee River. rubrifrons.* 

The variety winchelli is abundant in all tributaries of the 
Etowah, Coosa, and Oostauaula, where it shares with other 
small minnows the name of Roach. Girard's original speci- 
mens were from the Black Warrior. His description applies 
perfectly to my specimens. The reference of the species to 
Hybopsis arose from a misunderstanding of the characters 
of that genus. Prof. Cope identifies my specimens of JST. 
winchelli with his C hyalinus, and considers the northern 
form (JV. amblops) as specifically distinct, f C hypsinotus 
Cope, and C. labrosus Cope, are undoubtedly good species. 
The latter, from the backward position of the dorsal, is 
probably to be referred to Apocope. 

* Nocomis rubrifrons sp. nov. 

Head rather long and comparatively narrow and pointed, the snout unusually pro- 
jecting. Head 4 in length; eye moderate, 3J to 3^ in head, less than the interorbital 
space. Depth 4£ in length. Barbels quite long and distinct. Scales large, dotted 
above, 36 in the course of the lateral line, 13 in front of the dorsal. Fins moderate, the 
first rays of the dorsal generally twice the height of the last. 

D., 1,8. A., I, 7. 

General color pale olivaceous; sides with a plumbeous band, sometimes dark and 
passing through the eyes, more usually pale. Snout in many specimens of a pale pink 
or reddish color, thickly covered with very minute, dust-like tubercles; teeth in 6 
specimens (all examined) 1, 4-4, 0. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Habitat. South fork of Ocmulgee River, at Flat Rock, Dekalb Co., Ga. 

f Since the above was in type, renewed examination has convinced me that Prof. 
Cope's view is the correct one, and that amblops, winchelli, and rubrifrons are to be con- 
sidered as distinct species. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 



Argyreus Heckel, Russeger's Reisen, 1843, 1, 1040 (or "Fische 
Syriens, 1843, 50"). (Type Cyprinus atronasus Mit. ; name preoccupied.) 

Rhinichthys Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1850, 353. (Type Cyprinus 
atronasus Mit.) 


Rhinichthys obtusus Agassiz, Aruer. Jour. Sc. aud Arts, 1854, 357. Jor- 
dau, Man. Vert., 1876, 280. 
Argyreus obtusus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 185. 
Bhinichthys obtusus Giiuther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 1868, 190. 
Rhinichthys lunatus Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1864, 278; Journ. Phil Ac. 
Sc, 1869, 228. Jordan, Iud. Geol. Survey, 1874, 223; Man. 
Vert., 281. 
Argyreus lunatus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870. 

Georgia specimens of this species are shorter, and darker 
than typical lunatus, and they have the lateral band quite faint. 
All have a dusky blotch in the middle of the base of the 
dorsal ; and some specimens (males) in all cases have traces 
of a rosy lateral band. These also have the pectoral some- 
what enlarged. 

The following table shows the measurements of a number 
of specimens of Rhinichthys from different regions : 


« 7 

ii i. 













8 a 

o « 







2 o 


O « 






Head in length.. 











Depth in length.. 






























1 7 

1 7 

1 7 

1 8 

1 7 

1 7 

1 7 



1 7 

1 7 

1 7 

1 7 

1 7 











332 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Specimens identical with II. obtusus Ag. are abundant in 
the small clear brooks which flow from the springs in the 
hill country, known locally as Spring Branches. Most of 
my specimens were taken in Mobley's " Spring Branch," 
which flows into Silver Creek, near Rome, Ga. The species 
is known locally as Rock Fish. 


Phenacobius Cope. Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1867, 96. 
Sarcidium Cope. Hayden's Geol. Survey, 1870, p. 440. 


Form rather slender, scarcely compressed and nearly terete, much as in 
Catostomus teres, which species it resembles in color. 

Back nearly straight, hardly elevated at all; caudal peduncle rather 
stout. Depth 6 in length of body, without caudal. 

Head large, 4£ in length of body, bluntly rounded, convex above, the 
vertex nearly plane ; cheeks much swollen ; snout blunt and heavy ; mouth 
small, inferior, its structure as described by Cope under P. uranops; a 
small groove between premaxillary and nasal bones. Preorbital bone 

Eyes large and prominent, 1J in length of muzzle, 3 J in head, wider 
than the interorbital space ; eyes high up, the orbits rising above the level 
of the top of the head. 

Scales quite small, longer than deep, thin and rather loosely imbi'icated, 
about equal over the body ; about 60 (58 to 62) in the lateral line, which is 
nearly straight. 

Fins rather small. Dorsal very slightly in advance of ventrals, slightly 
nearer snout than base of caudal. Pectorals not reaching ventrals. Ven- 
trals reaching vent, which is an unusual distance in advance of anal. 

Pharyngeal bones rather small, the teeth slender, pretty strongly hooked, 
4-4. Peritoneum white, intestinal canal shorter than body ; air bladder 
quite small. 

Color pale olivaceous, white below, a silvery lateral streak underlaid by 
blackish, which appears as a vague dusky blotch at base of caudal ; head 
nearly black above ; cheeks bright silvery ; dorsal scales dusted with fine 
black points ; fins unicolor; a yellowish vertebral line. 

D., I, 8. A., I, 7. Lat. 1. 60. 

Habitat. This species is abundant in Silver Creek, Floyd 
Co. , Ga. , just above its junction with the Etowah. It reaches 
a length of four inches. I at first considered it P. uranops 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 333 

Cope, but an examination of Cope's types, has convinced me 
that it is distinct. P. uranops has a longer and narrower 
head and more upward range to the eyes ; and the dorsal is 
considerably nearer snout than caudal. 

In P. catostomus, the dorsal is nearly midway, the cheeks 
more swollen, and the mouth less inferior. The scales appear 

The species now known of this genus are the following ; 
teretulus Cope, mirabilis Grd., liosternus Nelson, scopiferus 
Cope, catostomus Jordan, and uranops Cope. The genus 
Sarcidium is not distinguishable, and it has been abandoned 
by its author. 


= Hybopsis Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 358. (Type H. 
gracilis Agassiz). 

> Alburnops Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 194. (Type A. Men- 
nius Grd.) 

>Hudsonius Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 210. (Type Clupea 
hudsonia Clinton). 


Hybopsis gracilis Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 358. Girard, 
Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci, 1856, 211. Cope, Cyp. Penn., 1866, 381. 

A few specimens of this species w r ere found mixed with 
those of Nocomis ivinclielli from the Etowah River. The 
differences between the two were not noticed while in the 
field. H. gracilis is, however, a genuine Hybopsis, and 
is distinct from any species known to the author. My spec- 
imens do not enable me to add anything of importance to 
Prof. Agassiz's description. 


? ? Chrosomus erythrogaster Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 359 (not 
of Raf. ?) 

A small Hybopsis abounds in tributaries of the Etowah 
and Oostanaula about Rome, Ga. 

334 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Its coloration is brilliant, and reminds one of Ghrosomus 
ery throy aster, and it is possibly the species referred to by 
Prof. Agassiz (above cited) as having a continuous lateral 
line. This species is apparently related to Hybopsis rubri- 
croceus, chiliticus, and chlorocephalus Cope, but I cannot 
identify it with any of them, nor with any of the species of 
Alburnops Girard, to which group or subgenus the present 
species belongs. 

My specimens show the following characters. 

Form chubby, little compressed, much as in Chrosomus, the back some- 
what elevated ; depth i\ to 5£ in length ; caudal peduncle not much con- 
tracted, but more so than in xamocephalus. Head rather large, 4.1 to 4£ in 
length, rather rounded above, with the snout somewhat pointed : mouth 
large, oblique, upper jaw a trifle longest. Eye as long as snout, 3 to 3£ in 

Scales everywhere large, slightly dark-edged, but not enough so to give 
a dusky color. Lateral line scarcely decurved, continuous, with 36 to 38 
scales; dorsal scales large, as usual in this genus, 16 before the dorsal fin. 

D., I, 8. A., I, 8. Dorsal fin very slightly behind ventrals; pectorals 
not reaching ventrals ; the latter reaching vent. 

Snout minutely tuberculate in males, as in Hy7)opsis xcenocephahts and 
Nototropis rubrifrons ; teeth in all examined 2, 4-4, 2. 

Coloration (in spirits) pale yellowish, with a plumbeous lateral band 
and a pinkish stripe above it ; snout dusky. 

In life, — back of a clear hyaline green as in Labidesthes, but with bril- 
liant blue reflections; belly, etc., clear silvery, with blue lustre, not 
yellow. A scarlet bar across dorsal, anal, and base of caudal ; a scarlet 
band from upper edge of opercle to caudal, very bright when the fish is 
just dead, shining silvery red in life. Iris with a red touch above. Sides 
with a very distinct silvery band, below the red line. A row of black 
dots along lateral line, forming a small distinct spot at base of caudal. 
Top of head and vertebral line golden; tubercles whitish. 

Habitat. In Etowah, Oostanaula, and Coosa Rivers, and 
their tributaries, quite abundant in shallow still places and 
fords in the creeks, where it is often the commonest of the 
little Minnows. Length 2£ inches. 

This small species is an ally of the last, but it is entirely 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 


different in color, coarser in appearance, and has a larger 
bead, month, and eye. 

Body rather shoi't and deep, with a thick caudal peduncle ; depth 45 to 
5 in length; back wide, not elevated. Head large, i% iu length, flattish 
and broad above, the snout rounded but rather long, mouth large, oblique, 
jaws about equal; eye very large, 2k to 3 in head. Scales large, dark- 
edged above. Lateral line somewhat decurved, with 38 scales, marked by 
a series of black points ; 13 large scales in front of dorsal. Dorsal fin 
just behind the middle of the body, very slightly behind veutrals ; pecto- 
rals not reaching nearly to ventrals. D., I, 9; A., I, 8; teeth, 2, 4-4, 2; 
snout in males somewhat swollen, and covered with minute tubercles. 

Coloration in life, olivaceous above and quite dark, owing to the broad 
dark edges of the scales. A jet-black caudal spot, and a band along 
caudal peduncle, which vanishes into black points along the sides, and re- 
appears on the opercles, passing around the'snout. 

Two varieties or forms may be appreciated, the one larger, stouter, and 
with a larger mouth and much larger eye. They seem, however, to shade 
into each other. They occur together in about equal abundance. 

The following table of measurements shows the tendency 
of each : — 


a (wide mouth). 

Var. b (narrow mouth). 

Head in length 














Depth in length 














Eye in head 














Lat. 1 














Scales before D 


Habitat. With the preceding, and nearly as abundant. 
Length 2f inches. 


<Photogenis Cope, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, 1866. (Type P. spilop- 

= Plargyrus Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 2S7 (uot of Raf., = Leuciscus 

Minnilus, Section Photogenis Cope and Jordan, Proc. Phil. Ac. 
Nat. Sci., 1877. 

336 Fishes of Upper Georgia, 

I retain the name Photogenis provisionally for a large 
group of related fishes which form a most characteristic feature 
of the "Minnow-fauna" of the southern states. Cyprinella 
4 is very closely related to JS/btotropis, the form of the scales 
being the only tangible generic difference, and that probably 
is of little importance. 

The species, however, have a number of superficial charac- 
ters in common. The mouth is sub-inferior in all, and the 
snout and ante-dorsal region is covered with small white 
tubercles in spring. The dorsal has a large black spot on 
the membrane between the last rays. This is always present 
in adults, and is most distinct in males. In all species known 
to me, the tip of the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins is filled with a 
shining satin-white pigment in spring and summer, a charac- 
teristic and most exquisite feature of coloration. The species 
are most readily known in life by their color-markings, which 
are more varied than in any other genus of Cyprinidre, 
although not so gaudy as in several others. It is necessary 
to take account of these coloration features in the discrimina- 
tion of species, although immature and alcoholic specimens 
show them imperfectly. 

The case is similar to that of the genus Dendroeca among 
birds. It would puzzle any ornithologist to identify our 
warblers with the feathers plucked off — i. e., with the colora- 
tion lost. 

The species now referred to Photogenis, agree in the/ollow- 
ing characters : — 

Body more or less compressed, covered with rather large scales, which 
are closely and smoothly imbricated, the exposed surfaces being higher 
than long. Head moderate or rather small, with a rather small eye. 
Mouth not large, usually little oblique, and typically slightly overlapped 
by the upper Jaw. No barbels. Ventral fins somewhat in advance of dorsal. 
Anal fin short (except in grandipinnis, pyrrhomelas, and xcznurus ) Pha- 
ryngeal teeth hooked, without masticatory surface, their edges sharp and 
always entire. Teeth 1, i-i, 1 (rarely one-rowed). Snout tuberculate, 
and fins with white pigment, in spring males. Photogenis is distinguished 
from Lythrurus by the sharp edged teeth, which have no grinding sur- 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 337 

faces ; from Cliola by the backward dorsal ; from Cyprinella by the unser- 
rated teeth. It however is probably rather a section of Nototropis, than a 
distinct genus. 


Body elongated, fusiform, compressed, more slender and graceful than 
caUistius; depth 4i| in length (4£ to 5). Head quite long, truncate at the 
snout, 4| in length, (without caudal) (4i to 4£), rounded above, and in males 
thickly tuberculate. Mouth large for the genus, somewhat oblique, over- 
lapped by the narrow upper jaw. Eye not large, about 4£ (4£ to 5) in 
head ; iris white ; maxillary reaching beyond nostrils. Scales large, deep, 
closely imbricated, 45 in the course of the lateral liue, 19 or 20 in front of 
the dorsal. 

Fins moderate ; dorsal behind ventrals, slightly nearer the caudal than 
the snout, its height about 6£ times in length of body ; pectorals not 
nearly reaching ventrals, the latter to vent. 

Color pale clear olive, with a rich, faint blue lustre, much paler than in 
either of the other species here described. Sides and fins in males with 
the usual satiny pigment; cheeks somewhat pinkish, but no red pigment. 
Black dorsal spot not very distinct, but visible in all adults. A very dis- 
tinct, large, oblong or quadrate, jet black spot at the base of the caudal, 
extending up on the rays. This spot is very conspicuous in all specimens — 
even the smallest. Its length is usually about one-third that of the head. 
In no other species known to me is this spot so large or distinct. 

Teeth 1, 4-4, 1 ; dorsal rays I, 8 ; A., I, 8 ; length 4 inches. 

Habitat. Small tributaries of the Etowah, Coosa, and 
Oostanaula, where it is the most abundant minnow. It is 
everywhere known as Spotted Tail Minnow, or Spot Tail. 

This is the least gaudy, though perhaps the most graceful, 
of all our species of this* genus. It reaches a larger size 
than any of the others. 


Body rather stout and compressed, much as in pyrrhomdas, much heav- 
ier forward, and more cornutus -like, than in stigmaturus or ccuruleus. Dor- 
sal outline considerably elevated. Depth 4| (4i to 5) in length. Head 
stout and rather blunt, 4^ in length. Upper part of head flattish, in males 
sparsely covered with smallish tubercles, which are always arranged in 
a few more or less distinct longitudinal rows, not scattered without order, 
as in other species. , 

Mouth rather large, slightly overlapped by the heavy snout, nearly hor- 
izontal, the maxillary reaching to the nostrils. Eye rather large for the 
genus, 3* in head (3^ to 4). 

338 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Scales large, deep, less closely imbricated than in cceruletts or analostamts ; 
39 in the lateral line (38 to 41), 15 or 1G in front of dorsal. Fins rather 
large, the height of dorsal about 5£ in length of body. Dorsal fin slightly 
behind ventrals, midway between snout and caudal. Ventrals reaching 
vent; pectorals not to ventrals. D., I, 8. A., I, 8 (sometimes I, 9). 

Coloration dark and brilliant. Back very dark steel blue ; sides a very 
clear silvery violet, with blue shades ; belly and lower fins satin white. 
A heavy black spot on upper posterior part of dorsal, extending down- 
ward and forming a horizontal bar at the base which rises into a sort of 
spot in front, as in Lythrurus diplmmius ; the rest of the fin bright vermilion 
red, excepting the silvery tip. Caudal satin white at tip ; the rest of the 
fin bright red, except the yellowish base. 

A red lateral streak in place of the usual golden one : a broad golden 
vertebral band. 

A large distinct round black spot at base of caudal, not so bright as in 
stigmatums, the pigment seeming to lie under the scales (i. e., scales less 
transparent than in stiymaturus) . 

Females paler in color, with less black and no red. 

Teeth 1,4-4,1, as in stigmaturus. Length 4 inches. 

Habitat. Tributaries of the Etowah and Oostanaula, in 
clear water. Most of my specimens were taken in Silver 


Body fusiform, somewhat elongated, moderately compressed; depth 4| 
in length (4^ to 5). Head moderately large, 4^ in length (4i to 4i), the 
snout rather pointed, overlapping the small, oblique mouth. Upper sur- 
face of head and neck thickly covered with small tubercles, in the males. 
Eye moderate, 3£ in head ; the iris white. Maxillaries reaching nostrils. 

Scales firm, high and narrow, edged with dusky, 38 iu the course of 
the decurved lateral line (37 to 39) ; 13 to 17 iu front of dorsal. 

Fins all high, the height of the dorsal nearly £ of the length of the fish. 
Dorsal fin behind ventrals, its beginning equidistant between base of cau- 
dal and front of eye. Pectorals not reaching ventrals ; the latter to vent. 

This is one of our most elegant species. Its general color is a bright 
steel blue; the sides more silvery, pinkish-shaded anteriorly; the belly 
silvery white. Along the sides is a very distinct brilliant blue-green band,, 
most conspicuous towards the caudal fin. This color is not a matter of 
lustre, but depends on the presence of blue pigment lying under the 
scales. In spirits it becomes of a dark steel blue color. 

Fins all clear bright yellow, as in a highly colored Chrosomus. A vague 
diffuse dusky blotch on last rays of dorsal, as usual, and some black edg- 
ings on the anterior rays of most of the fins. Tips of dorsal, anal, and 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 339 

caudal, as usual, filled with satin-white pigment. No red. Young with 
the black, white, blue, and yellow obscure. 

D., I, 8. A., I, 8. Length 3 inches. Teeth 1,4-4,1, of the usual type, 
hooked and sharp-edged. 

Habitat. This exquisite little fish occurs in abundance in 
the clear tributaries of the Oostauaula River, above Rome, 
Ga. Most of our specimens were taken in Rocky Creek, — 
one of the clearest of the mountain streams of that region. 
It also goes in shoals in the river channel. 

I give below an attempt at a synopsis of the species of 
this genus described from the region east of the Mississippi. 
Of these, eurystomus was found in the Chattahoochee River, 
and xcemmis in the Ocmulgee. These will be described 
further on. Grandipinnis Jordan MSS., will be elsewhere 
characterized. Spilopterus Cope, is from the Ohio Valley 
and north-west ; pyrrliomelas , from North Carolina. (Jer- 
costigma Cope, calliura Jordan MSS., and analostana Grd., 
are true Cyjyrinellce, having serrate teeth. 

Galacturus Cope, has the physiognomy of Photogenis, but 
differs in having the grinding surface on the teeth. It is 
probably referable to Luxilus. 

* Anal fin elongate, I, 10 or I, 11 ; no distinct caudal spot; 
body and head stout; fins red in $. 
f Scales on flanks tuberculate as well as those on head 

and neck, Ocmulgee River, .... x^enurus. 

ft Scales on flanks not tuberculate ; dorsal less posterior, 
body deeper; red pigment more nearly flame-color, 

Catawba River, pyrrhomelas. 

ttt Tubercles unknown ; doi*sal and anal immensely elevated, 

their tips nearly reaching caudal : E. Georgia, grandipinnis. 
** Anal fin short, I, 8 or I, 9. 

a. No conspicuous black caudal spot. 
b. Colors chiefly blue and silvery ; sides with a distinct 
band of clear blue ; fins yellow ; scales firm and 
smooth; body slender; mouth small; no red; eye 
3^ in head; size small. Alabama River, . cckruleus. 
bb. Colors olivaceous, no blue lateral band; fins not 
June, 1877. 26 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

340 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

c. Head, mouth, and eye rather small, the latter 4£ 
to 5£ in head ; no red ; black fin-markings dis- 
tinct; scales firm. 
d. Mouth oblique; body considerably compressed ; 
depth more than one-fourth of length. Ohio 
River, Potomac River, Great Lakes, teeth 
serrate (Cyprinella), . . . analostanus. 
dd. Mouth wider, nearly horizontal ; body elongate ; 
less compressed ; depth less than one-fourth 
of length. Ohio Valley and north-west, spilopterus. 
<cc. Head, mouth, and eye large, the eye about 4 in 
head ; fins sometimes with red ; black markings 
obscure; an obscure black caudal spot; scales 
rather loose ; size large ; appearance of Luxilus. 
Chattahoochee River, . . . eurystomus. 

aa. A conspicuous black spot, much larger than eye, at 
base of the caudal fin ; size large. 
e. Fins in $, with much red; form stout; eye and 
mouth large ; coloration dark ; nuptial tubercles 
sparse, arranged in rows; caudal spot smaller than 
in the next, nearly round; lateral line about 39. 

Alabama River, callistius. 

ee. Fins without red ; form elongate ; eye and mouth mod- 
erate ; coloration pale ; nuptial tubercles crowded ; 
caudal spot more distinct than in any other Amer- 
ican Cyprinoid, ovate; lat. 1. about 35. Alabama 
River, . stigmaturus. 


=.Xuxilus Rafinesque. Ich. Oh., 1820, 48. (Type L. chrysocephalus 
Raf. = Cyp. cornutus Mitch.) 

= Hypsolepis Baird. Agassiz, Am. Jour. Sc. Arts, 1854, 359. (Type 
Cyprinus cornutus Mitch.) 

= Plargyrus Girard. Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 195 (not of Raf.). 
(Type Leuciscus plagyrus Kirt. = Cyp. cornutus Mit.) 

-cHypsilepis Cope. Cyp. Penn., 1866, and of authors. 


Cyprinus cornutus Mitehill, Am. Monthly Mag., 1817, 289, and 1818, 324. 

Leuciscus cornutus Storer, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., IV, 182, 1842. 

Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 207. Storer, Synopsis, 409, 1846. 

Gunther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 249, 1868. 
Hypsolepis cornutus Storer, Fishes Mass., 1855, 284. Cope, Proc. 

Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 279. Putnam, Bulletin M. C. Z., 1863, .7. 
Plargyrus cornutus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 196. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 341 

HypsUepis cornutus Cope, Cyp. Perm., 18(56, 372 ; Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 

1867, 158; Journal Phil. Ac. Sci., 1868, 229. Jordan, Ind. Geol. 

Surv., 1874, 223. Uhler and Lugger, Fishes of Md., 1S76, 

148, and of late American writers. 

HypsUepis cornutus vars. gibbus, frontalis, cerasinus, cornutus, cyaneus 

Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1867, 157. 
Luxilus cornutus Jordan, Bull. Buff. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1876, 94; 
Manual Vert., 1876, 286. Nelson, Bull. Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Cyprinus mcgalnps Raf., Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, 121. 
Cyprinus melanurus Raf., I. c, 1S18, 121. 
Luxilus chrysocephal us Raflu, Ich. Oh., 48, 1820. 

Semotilus diplemia Kirtland, Rept. Zool. Ohio. 169, 1838 (not of Raf.). . 
Leuciscus diplemia Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., V, 276, 1S46. 
Storer, Synopsis, 411. 
Argyreus rubripinnis Heckel, Russeger's Reisen, 1843, 1040. 
Leuciscus gibbosus Storer, "Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, 1845;" 
Synopsis, 418, 1846. 
Hypsolepis gibbosus Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sc. Arts, 1854, 359. 
Plargyrus gibbosus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 196. 
Leuciscus p>lngyrus Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., V, 26, 1845. 

Leuciscus plargyrus Storer, Synopsis, 410, 1846. 
Leuciscus frontalis Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1850, 368. 

HypsUepis frontalis Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sc. Arts, 1854, 359. Putnam, 

Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 7. 
Plargyrus frontalis Girard, 1. c. 
Leuciscus gracilis Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1850, 370. 
Plargyrus gracilis Girard, 1. c. 

HypsUepis gracilis Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1867, 157. 
Plargyrus typicus Girard, 1. c, 195. 
Plargyrus argentatus Girard, 1. c, 196. 

Plargyrus bowmani Girard, 1. c, 196, and Pac R. R. Surv., X, 263, 1858. 
HypsUepis obesus Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac Sc, 1867, 157 (not L. obesus 
Storer, fide Agassiz). 

This familiar species is excessively abundant in the basin 
of the Etowah. My specimens do not differ obviously from 
var. cornutus (of Cope) from the Ohio River. This fish is 
popularly known as Rotten-gut or Rot-gut Minnow, because 
its flesh spoils so soon after death. I did not find it either 
in the Chattahoochee or Ocmulgee, but in every other stream, 
east of the Mississippi, where I have fished, it occurs in 

342 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 


= Notropis Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, 204. (Type N. 
atherinoides Raf. = Alburnellus sp.) 

= Minnilus Rafinesque, Ich. Oh., 45, 1820. 

= Alburnellus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 193. (Type A. dilec- 
tus Girard.) 

= Minnilus Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876. (Type 31. dinemus Raf. = Al- 
burnellus jaculus Cope.) 


Body slim, somewhat compressed, of the general form of Lythrurus 
aniens, or some small-headed Minnilus ; depth 4§ to 5 in length. Head 
rather small, short, moderately deep, flattish above, 4£ in length. Mouth 
rather large, very oblique, the lower jaw slightly projecting. Eye very 
large, white, longer than snout, 3 in head, about reached by the maxillary. 
Head and dorsal region profusely covered with white tubercles in the males. 
Scales very small, scarcely higher than long, loosely imbricated, obscure 
and difficult to count, about 45 (42 to 48) in the course of the lateral line, 
about 25 in front of the dorsal. Dorsal fin far back, decidedly behind 
ventrals, its height 5 to 5h in length of the body. Fins all moderate. 

D., I, 8; A., I, 9, to I, 11, the number varying, usually I, 10. Teeth as 
in Lythrurus diploemius, 2, 4-4, 2, but without grinding surfaces. 

Color pale, olivaceous, transparent green above, in life, general appear- 
ance decidedly pallid. Upper half of body with many black specks and 
points, which run together along the sides, forming a very distinct metal- 
lic blue band. 

This band passes across the opercles, and around the snout, about the 
width' of the eye. This is a very characteristic feature of the fish. A 
streak of black dots running along bases of dorsal and anal ; that on the 
dorsal suggesting the peculiar dorsal spot of L. diplazmius and L. ardens, 
but not exactly forming a spot on the fin. Tip of snout almost always 
black; a golden lateral streak in life; belly transparent silvery. Fins 
pale olivaceous, pale red in most male specimens (in July), probably 
brighter in spring. 

Length 2k inches. $ with spawn July 10th. 

This small species is one of the most characteristic fishes 
of the Etowah basin. It abounds in still deep waters, and 
in the clear mill-ponds. No species closely related to it 
seems to have been described. Its nearest relatives are prob- 
ably Lythrurus ardens and JSfototropis maiutinus. The want 
of grinding surfaces to the teeth will separate it from the 
genus Lythrurus. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 343 


? Alburnits amabilis Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1856, 193. 

? Alburnellus amabilis Girard, Mex. Bound. Surv., 1859, 51. Cope, 
Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 464. 
? Alburnits megalops Girard, 1. c. 

? Alburnellus megalops Girard, 1. c. Cope, 1. c. 
? Alburnits socius Girard, 1. c. 

? Alburnellus socius Girard, 1. c. 

I refer to this species a small minnow from the water 
basin of the Etowah. My specimens show the following 
characters : — 

Head rather long, moderately pointed, about 4i in length, with a large 
oblique mouth, the maxillary reaching to the eye. Eye very large, white, 
about 3 in head, greater than interorbital width, or length of snout. Body 
slender, the depth about 5 in length. Lateral line, 37 ; 16 scales before the 
dorsal. D., I, 8; A., I, 10. Fins rather high, the veutrals reaching to the 
last rays of dorsal. 

Color pale silvery green, with black points ; sides and cheeks with a 
broad silvery band ; belly pale. A vague dusky blotch at base of caudal, 
quite distinct in some specimens. 

Teeth in two examined, 2, 4-4, 1. 

This speeies resembles JV. photogenis (P. leucops Cope) more than do 
most of the species. The large size of the eye, and the positiou of the 
dorsal, which is less posterior than in rubellus, etc., are characteristic. 

Habitat. Small tributaries of the Etowah, Oostanaula 
and Coosa Rivers ; abundant. Known locally as " Roach." 
This is nearest the description of amabilis in form and color- 
ation, but it has the large eye of megalops. If amabilis, 
megalops, and socius are unlike, there is nothing in the de- 
scriptions to show it. Since the above was in press, I have 
examined the types of Girard above cited. This is not like 
any of them and I therefore propose to call this species 
stilblus, in allusion to its bright white lustre. 


< Abramis Cuvier, "Regue Animal, II, 1817." (Type Cyprinus brama 
L., Europe.) 

344 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

= Notemigonus Rafinesque, Journal de Physique, 1819, 421. (Type 
X. auratus Hat'. = Cyp. americanus L.) 

= Stilbe Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 204. (Type C. crysoleucas Mit.= 
C. americanus L.) 

= Leucosomus Girard, 1853 (not of Heckel = Semotilus). (Type C. 
crysoleucas Mit.) 

= Luxilus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc., 1856, 203 (not of Itaf.). (Type 
C. crysoleucas Mit.) 

= Plargyrus Putnam, Bulletin M. C. Z., 1863, 7 (not of Raf.). (Type 
Butilus (Plargyrus) chrysoleucas (Mit.) Raf.) 

= Stilbius Gill, Can. Naturalist, 1865, 18. (Type Cyprinus americanus 


Cyprinus americanus Linnaeus, "Syst. Nat., I, 530." Lacepede, "V, pi. 
15, 1803." Shaw, " Gen. Zool., V, 204." 
Leuciscus americanus Storer, Synopsis, 408, 1846. 
Leucosomus americanus " Girard, 1853." Storer, Fishes Mass., 1855, 

Luxilus americanus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 203. 
Plargyrus americanus Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 7. Cope, Proc. 

Phil. Ac. Sc, .1864, 281. 
Stilbius americanus Gill, Canadian Naturalist, Aug., 1865, 18. 
Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 224. 
Stilbe americana Cope, Cyp. Penn., 1866, 389. Abbott, Am. Nat., 1870, 
4. Goode, Bulletin U. S. Museum, VI, 1876, 64. Uhler and 
Lugger, Fishes of Maryland, 1876, 145. 
Abramis americanus Giiuther, Cat Fishes, VII, 1868, 305. 

Notemigonus americanus Jordan, Bulletin Buffalo Nat. Hist. Soc, 
1876, 93; Man. Vert., 291. Nelson, Bull. Ills. Nat. Hist. Soc, 
Cyprinus crysoleucus Mitehill, " Rept. Fishes N. Y., 23;" "Trans. Lit. 
and Phil. Soc, 1, 459, 1815." 
Butilus chrysoleucus Raf., Ich. Oh., 1820, 48. 

Cyprinus (Leuciscus) chrysoleucus Rich., " F. B. A., Ill, 122, 1837." 
Leuciscus chrysoleucus Storer, "Rept. Fish Mass., 1839, 88." 

Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV, 305, 1843. 
Stilbe chrysoleuca Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 204. 
Cyprinus hemiplus Raf., Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, 121. 
Abramis versicolor Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 191. 

Leuciscus versicolor Storer, Synopsis, 415. 
Leuciscus obesus Storer, " Proc Bost. Soc Nat. Hist., July, 1845;" Synop- 
sis, 418, 1846. 
Stilbe obesa Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 359. 
Luxilus obesus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 203. 
? Luxilus seco Girard, 1. c ; Pac R. R. Surv., X, 281. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 345 

This species is quite abundant in still places in small 
streams, and in cut-offs among weeds and "Spatter-docks." 
My specimens do not differ obviously from northern ones of 
this widely diffused species. 



< Catostomus Le Sueur, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., I, 1818. (Type Gyp. 
catostomus Foster = C. hudsonius Le S. = C. longirostrum Le Sueur, the 
prior name.) 

>Decactylus Rafinesque, Ich. Oh., 1820. (Type C. bostoniensis Le 
S. = C. teres). 

>Hypentelium Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag., 1818. (Type 
Exoglossum macropterum Raf. = C. nigricans'). 

> Hylomyzon Agassiz, Amer. Jouru. Sci. Arts, 1855, 207. (Type C. 
nigricans Le Sueur.) 


var. etowanus. Var. nov. 

var. nigricans. 

Catostomus nigricans Le Sueur, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1, 102, 1818. 
Kirtland, Rept. Zool. Ohio., 1838, 169, 193. Dekay, Fishes 
N. Y., 1842, 202. Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., V, 273, 

1845. Storer, Synopsis, 421. Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 453." 
Giinther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 17, 1868. Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. 
Sci., 1868, 236; Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 468. Uhler and 
Lugger, Fishes of Md., 1876, 138. 

Cyprinus {Catostomus) nigricans Rich., "F. B. A., Ill, 120." 
Hylomyzon nigricans Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855, 90. Put- 
nam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 10. Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 
285. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 231. 
Hypentelium nigricans Jordan, Bull. Buff. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1876, 96; 
Man. Vert., 1876, 294. Nelson, Bull. Ills. Mus., 1876. 
Catostomus maculosus Le Sueur, 1. c, 103. . Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 203. 
Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 454." Storer, Syn., 422. Uhler and 
Lugger, 1. c, 139. 
Exoglossum macropterum Raf., Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., I, 421. Cuv. and Val., 
"XVII, 486." Storer, Synopsis, 428. 
Hypentelium macropterum Raf., Ich. Oh., 1820, 68. 
? Catostomus xanthopus Raf., Ich. Oh., 57. 
? ? Catostomus (Eurystomus) megastomus Raf., Ich. Oh., 59. 
Catostomus planiceps Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 450." Storer, Synopsis, 

1846, 426. 

346 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

My specimens of this species from the Etowah agree 
closely with each other, and differ somewhat from northern 
specimens. The southern form is, perhaps, a recognizable 
variety, which may be termed etowanus. 

This form may be characterized as follows : — 

Head shortish, 4^- to 4^ in length ; eye moderate, about as in nigricans. 
Form, scales, etc., as in var. nigricans. Lat. 1., 48. D. uniformly I, 10. 
A., 1, 7. V., 9. Pectorals shorter and broader than in nigricans, 4? to 5 
in length of body. 

Body nearly black above, the color running down on the sides, and 
changing abruptly into the silvery hue of the belly. A whitish spot at 
the base of each scale, — these forming conspicuous pale streaks along 
the rows of scales. Dorsal black edged ; other fins decidedly red in life. 

Habitat. Water basin of the Etowah and Oostanaula, 
abounding in rapids and clear places. Known as Hog-molly 
(Mullet), Crawl-a-bottom, and Hog Sucker. 

A number of specimens of this variety, compared with 
nigricans of the same size, show the following differences : — 

* D. I, 11 ; head long (4i in length) ; pectorals long; 4 to 4£ 
in length of body ; lower fins olivaceous or dull orange ; 
colors relatively dull ; scales without streaks. Northern. 


** D. I, 10; head shorter (4j) ; pectorals shorter (4 J) ; lower 
fins red; colors brighter; pale stripes along the rows 
scales. Southern etowanus. 


= Moxostoma Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 354; not Mox- 
ostoma of Raf., 1820. (Type C. oblongus Mit.) 

= Erimyzon Jordan, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1876, 95. (Type C. 
oblongus Mit.) 


Cyprinus oblongus Mitchill, "Report Fishes N. Y., 23," and "Trans. 
Lit. and Phil. Soc, I, 459." 
Catostomus oblongus Le Sueur, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1, 108. " ? 

Cuv. and Val., XVII, 441." Storer, Synopsis, 423. 
Labeo oblongus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 193. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 347 

Moxostoma oblongum Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, XIX, 203, 
1855. Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 18G3, 10. Cope, Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc, 1870, 468. Giinther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 1868, 21. 
Jordan, Inch Geol. Surv., 1874, 221. 
Erimyzon oblongus Jordan, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1876, 95; 
Man. Vert., 294. Nelson, Bull. Ills. Museum Nat. Hist., 1876. 
Catostomus gibbosus Le Sueur, Jour. Phil. Ac. Sci., I, 92, 1818. Storer, 
"Rep't Fishes Mass., 88." Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 443." Storer, 
Synopsis, 420; Fishes Mass., 291. Kirtland, Family Visitor. 
Labeo gibbosus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 194. 
Catostomus tuberculatus Le Sueur, 1. c, 83. Storer, "Report, 85." De- 
kay, Fishes N. Y., 199. Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 444." 
Catostomxis vittatus Le Sueur, 1. c, 104. Dekay, 1. c, 203. Cuv. and 

Val., "XVII, 459." Storer, Synopsis, 422. 
Catostomus fasciolaris Rafinesque, Ich. Oh., 1820, 58. 
Catostomus elegans Storer, Synopsis, 425. 

Labeo elegans Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1842, 192. 
Labeo esopus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 195. 

Catostomus esopus Storer, Synopsis, 425. 
Moxostoma anisurus Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855, 203 (not of Raf.). 
? Moxostoma campbelli Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 171; U. S. Mex. 

Bound. Surv., 34. 
Moxostoma kennerlyi Girard, 1. c. 1. c. 

My specimens do not differ obviously from northern ones 
of this widely diffused and variable species. It is known at 
Rome as Yellow Sucker. 


Catostomus melanops Raf., Ich. Oh., 1820, 57. Kirtland, Rep't Zool. Ohio, 
169, 193; Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., V, 271. Agassiz, Amer. 
Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 356. 
Ptychostomtis melanops Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855, 19. 

Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 478. 
Moxostoma melanops Jordan, Mss., 1875. 

Erimyzon melanops Jordan, Bull. Buff. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1876, 95; 
Man. Vert,, 294. Nelson, 1. c 
Catostomus fasciatus Le Sueur, in Cuv. and Val., "XVII, 449." Storer, 
Synopsis, 426. Giinther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 19. 
Ptychostomus fasciatus Milner, Rep't U. S. Comm. Fish and Fisheries, 
Moxostoma victorice Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 171; Mex. Bound. 
Surv., 34. 

Abundant in the Etowah water basin, where it is known 

348 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

as Sand Sucker or Striped Sucker. My specimens are iden- 
tical with those from the Ohio River and the Great Lakes. 
If E. sucetta (Lacepede) is not the same as E. melanqps, we 
can never know it until specimens are taken in the original 
localities. The name sucetta has priority. 


<Catostomus Lk Sueur, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., I, 1818. (Type C. 
hudsonius Le Sueur.) 

> Moxo stoma Rai<\, Ich. Oh., 1820, 54. (Type C. anisurus Raf.). 

xTeretulus Rafinesque, Ich. Oh., 57, 1820. (Type C. aureolus Le 

= Ptychostomus Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855. (Type C. 
aureolus, Le Sueur.) 

I dislike to introduce another specific name into a genus 
already overloaded with nominal species, but the present 
fish is so singular in its physiognomy, and so apparently un- 
like the other species of this genus, that I do not know what 
to do with it unless I give it independent rank. The only 
species which seems to be at all similar is M. bucco (Ptychos- 
tomus bucco Cope, Hayden's Geol. Surv. Wyoming, 1870, 

Body stout, compressed, heavy forwards, tapering behind into a slender 
caudal peduncle ; depth 4 in length ; head 4£ in length, very short, deep, 
and thick, almost cubical, the snout prominent and nearly vertical, the 
profile being abruptly decurved in a manner very unusual among Suckers ; 
eye excessively large, longer than snout, near to the top of the head, 
forming more than one-third of the side of the head (in a specimen six 
inches long), nearly equal to the wide and flattish interorbital space. 
Vertex slightly concave ; mucous ridges rather prominent. 

Greatest width of head (through cheeks) greater than the width of the 
body, and equal to greatest depth of head, U in length of head, and 6 in 
length of body ; mouth inferior, the lips but faintly plicate ; lower lip full, 
truncate behind, not ^-shaped. 

Scales large, equal ; 15 before dorsal fin ; lateral line distinct and nearly 
straight, with 43 scales. 

D., I, 13. A., I, 7. V., 9. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 349 

Color plain olivaceous above, silvery below ; dorsal and caudal dusky. 
Fins not red. 
Length of only specimen, 63 inches. 

Taken in Lovejoy's Creek, a small tributary of Oostanaula 
River, near Floyd Springs, 14 miles north of Rome. One 
of the " natives " " reckoned it was a Jumping Mullet," but 
no one else remembered having seen it before. 

a. var. duquesnii. 

Catostomns duquesnii Le Sueur, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., I, 105. Rafinesque, 
Ich. Oh., GO. Kirtland, Rep't Zool. Ohio., 169, 192 ; Bost. Journ. 
Nat. Hist., V, 268. Bekay, Fishes N. Y., 203. Storer, Synop- 
sis, 423. Ouv. and Val., "XVII, 458." Gunther, Cat. Fishes, 
VII, 18. Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 356. 

Ptychostomus duquesnii Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855, 89. 
Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 476. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 
1874, 221 ; Bull. BuflT. Soc. Nat. Hist., 876, 195. 

Teretulus duquesnei Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1838, 236. Nelson, 
1. c. Jordan and Copeland, Check List, 1876. 

Moxostoma duquesnei Jordan, Man. Vert., 295. 
Catostomus erythrurus Rafinesque, Ich. Oh., 59, 1820. 

Ptychostomus erythrurus Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 1870, 474. 

b. var. lachrymalis. 
Ptychostomus lachrymalis Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 474. 

I do not think it possible to recognize lachrymalis, duques- 
nei, erythrurus, and oneida, as characterized by Prof. Cope, 
as distinct species. In the Ohio River, the "Common Red 
Horse of the fishermen," usually answers Le Sueur's duques- 
nei best, but most specimens have nine ventral rays, while 
many have nine rays on one side and ten on the other ; and 
some not differing in any other respect, have ten. 

My specimens from the tributaries of the Etowah answer 
best to erythrurus and lachrymalis of Cope. Lachrymalis 
is the more abundant, and my specimens of it are more 
blackish in color, with larger mouth and smaller scales than 
those of the former. Both in life have the lower fins rosy, 


Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

becoming orange in death. They are locally known as 
White Sucker. "Without further discussion of this unsatis- 
factory subject, I present the following table of measure- 
ments of "Red Horse" from different waters; all of which I 
would refer to duquesnii et vars. 

Head in length 

Depth in length 

Eye in head 

Dorsal rays 

Ventral rays 

Lateral line 

Length of specimen 


•d . 

Pi 2 

« a 

DJ a 

ai a 

« § 

fl •» 

£ 3 

6 2 

- B 

. S. 

"2 ^ 

"a § 

en S 

W s 



o .5 

s 1* 

o X 

W « 

H J 

B J 

1? » 

S3 >§ 

>■ S 

t-5 s 


















































12 in. 


11 in. 

8 in. 

14 in. 

8 in. 

12 in. 

12 in. 

W S 



10 in. 


Ictalurus Eafinesque, Ich. Oh., 63. (Type P. maculatus Raf. = S. 
punctatus Raf., 1818.) 

ichth^:lurus punctatus. 

Silurus punctatus Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, III, 355. 

Ictalurus punctatus Jordan, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1876, 95 ; 
Manual Vertebrates, 300. Nelson, 1. c. 
Silurus maculatus Raf., Journal R. Inst., 1820. 
Pimelodus maculatus Kaf., Ich. Ohi., 62. 
Silurus pallidus Rafinesque, Journ. Royal Inst., London, 1820. 

Pimelodus pallidus Raf., Ich. Oh., 63. Rutland, " Rep't Zool. Ohio, 
169, 194." 
Silurus cerulescens Raf., 1. c. 

Pimelodus cerulescens Raf., Ich. Ohi., 63. Kirtlaud, 1. c. Storer, 

Synopsis, 405. 
Ictalurus ccerulescens Gill, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1862, 43. 
Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1865, 85; Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 
489. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Surv., 1874, 222. 
Ichthcelurus cceridescens Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1868, 237. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 351 

Silurus argentinus Raf., 1. c. 

? Pimelodus caudafurcatus LeSueur, Memoires du Museum, V, 152, 1819. 

Amiurus caudafurcatus Giinther, Cat. Fishes, V, 102. 
Pimelodus argyrus Raf., Ich. Ohi., 64. 
? Pimelodus furcifer Cuv. and Val., "XV, 139." 

Ictalurus furcifer Gill, 1. c. 
? Pimelodus olivaceus Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv., X, 211, 1858. 

Ictalurus olivaceus Gill. 1. c. 
Pimelodus hammondi Abbott, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1860, 568. 
f Ictalurus simpsoni Gill, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1862, 43. 

The Blue Cat or Channel Cat is taken in considerable 
numbers in the Etowah and Oostanaula. A large specimen, 
procured of a fisherman, does not differ obviously from oth- 
ers from the French Broad and the "Wabash. 


= Ameiurus Rafinesque, Ich. Ohi., 1820, 65. (Type P. cupreus Raf.) 
= Amiurus Gill, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1862, 45. 


Silurus cupreus Raf., Journal Royal Inst., London, 1820. 

Pimelodus cupreus Rafinesqne, Ich. Oh., 1820, 65. Kirtland, " Rep't 
Zool. Ohi., 169, 194;" Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. Dekay, 
Fishes, N. Y., 187. Storer, Synopsis, 404. Girard, Proc. Phil. 
Ac. Sc, 1859, 159. 
Amiurus cupreus Gill, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1862, 45. Cope, 
Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 1870, 485. Jordan, Bulletin Buff. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 1876, 96; Man. Vert., 302. Nelson, 1. c 
Ameurus cupreus Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1865, 276. 
? Pimelodus felinus Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv., X, 209. 

? Amiurus J el inus Gill, 1. c Cope, 1. c 
Pimelodus antoniensis Girard, 1. c 

Amiurus antoniensis Gill, 1. c. Cope, 1. c. 

This species abounds in the deeper and more muddy trib- 
utaries of the Etowah and Oostanaula. Most of my speci- 
mens were taken in Beech Creek. They do not differ obvi- 
ously from specimens from the Illinois River. It is known 
locally as Yellow Cat. 

352 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 


Noturus Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Mag., 1818, 41. (Type iV. flavus 

Sehilbeodes "Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sc, Indo-Nederl, 4, 258" (Type 
S. gyrinus Mitchill.) 


Head small, 4 in length, without furrow above, long and narrow, nearly 
as wide across the snout as behind the eyes ; width of head 5£ in length, 
without caudal, less than the width of the body; upper jaw much the 
longer; eye 6 in head ; barbels very short, the longest shorter than head. 
Premaxillary band of teeth without lateral processes. 

Body slender, elongate, compressed behind ; the belly full ; depth 5£ in 

Dorsal fin beginning one-third the distance from snout to caudal, mid- 
way between snout and middle of anal; dorsal and pectorals very small 
and short, their spines extremely weak and slender, not one-fourth the 
length of the head. Caudal fin rounded, continuous with the adipose fin. 

Fin rays. D., I, 6. P., I, 8. A., 14. 

Color pale reddish yellow, slightly blotched. 

Habitat. Silver Creek, — a single specimen taken a mile 
above its junction with the Etowah. 

The species of this genus have not been well described 
and it is not easy to present a comparative table of their 
characters. This species seems to differ from all the others 
in the small and narrow head, and particularly in the very 
small and slender dorsal and pectoral spines which are devoid 
of internal serratures. 



Anguilla " Thunberg, Nouv. Mem. Stock., 179." (Type Murcena an- 
guilla L. — A. vulgaris). 

39. ANGUILLA VULGARIS Fleming (Dareste). 

The Common Eel occurs in the Etowah and Oostanaula. 
The only specimens which we caught were less than half an 
inch long, and they escaped through the cover of the live- 
pail. The synonymy of this species will be presented else- 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 353 



Lepisosteus Lac£pede, "Hist. Nat. des Poissons, V., 1803, 331." 
(Type L. gavialis Lac. = Esox osseus L.) 
Lepidosteus Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, II, 1843. 

40. LEPIDOSTEUS OSSEUS. (Lacepecle) Agassiz. 

I shall present elsewhere what I consider to be the synon- 
ymy of this species, to which for the present all our long- 
nosed Gars may be referred. A single specimen was taken 
in the Etowah, which would probably be L. otarius Cope, in 
Prof. Cope's arrangement (Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1865, 
80), and L. treculii Dum. in the wonderful scheme of Prof. 
August Dumeril (Hist. Nat. des Poissons, 1870). This 
author recognizes 17 valid species of Lepidosteus proper, 
besides several doubtful ones. These are distinguished by 
characters often utterly trivial, some of them purely individ- 
ual and often unlike on different sides of the same fish ; 
others are dependent on age, — as the diameter of the eye 
compared with the length of the lower jaw. 

The specimen referred to from the Oostanaula differs from 
all the other specimens of Gar Pike which I have seen, in its 
color, it being almost jet black in life. 

I give here the measurements of three Gars, with the 
characters considered as specific in the schemes of Profs. 
Dumeril and Cope. 


Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

9 , Bg 

I s. § | 

h5 h3 « 

§ g 

5' M 

■; q 


Length of specimen 

Head in length (to upper base of caudal). . . 
Head compared to distance from V. to A... 

Eye in frontal width 

Eye in distance to opercle, anteriorly 

Eye in lower jaw ' 

Ventrals in relation to position of P. and A. 


Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Ventral rays 

Pectoral rays 

Lower jaw as to distance from P. to V 

Scales in first ring behind Ventrals 

Scales in second ring before V 

First ring before U. = which before C 

First ring before D. = which behind A 

Distance from V. to A. in length to j 
lower insertion of Caudal. J 

Oostanaula R. 
30 inches. 


















White R., Ind. 

30 inches. 






nearer P. 












Rock R., Wis. 
42 inches. 






4 in. nearer P. 






nearly equal. 






.-Fishes of Upper Georgia. 355 

Part II. Chattahoochee River. 

While Avaiting for a train at Atlanta, we were enabled to 
spend part of a day in studying the fishes of the tributaries 
of the Chattahoochee River. We first tried Peach Tree 
Creek, some five miles north of the city. This stream is 
deep and excessively muddy, and we secured nothing of note. 
We then proceeded to Pace's Ferry on the Chattahoochee, 
but the canes on the shores and the snags and rocks in the 
water, prevented us from accomplishing any thing. We 
then struck a clear rapid stream known as Nancy's Creek, a 
mile or two above its mouth, and secured the species below 
enumerated. It is to be noticed that the waters of the 
Chattahoochee, like those of the Etowah, find their way to 
the Gulf, while the Ocmulgee, whose source is only a few 
miles distant, flows into the ocean. 


2. *HELIOPERCA PALLIDA ("Mitch. ) Jordan. 

3. NOCOMIS BIGUTTATUS (Kirtland) Cope and Jordan. 

fCatostomus mdanotus Raf., Ich. Oh., 58. 

Ceratichthys melanotus Jordan, Man. Vert., 278. 
Semotilus biguttatus Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., 1840, III, 344. 

Leuciscus biguttatus Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1S42, 214. Storer, Sy> 
nopsis, 413. 

Ceratichthys biguttatus Baird, Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 213. 
Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 1863, 8. Cope, Cyp. Penn., 1866, 366.; 
Journ, Phil. Ac. Sci., 1868, 226; Proc. Am. Phil Soc, 1870,459. 
Giiuther, Cat. Fishes, VII, 178. Jordan, Ind. Geol. Survey, 1874, 
223. Jordan and Copeland, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1876, 
149. Nelson, Bull. Ills. State Mus., 1876. Uhler and Lugger, 
Fishes Md., 144. Cope and Yarrow, Lieut. Wheeler's Survey, 

Nocomis biguttatus Cope and Jordan, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sc, 1877. 

* Helioperca Jordan, gen. nov. This genus differs from Lepiopomus in the absence 
of palatine teeth, and in the structure of the gill rakers, which are more slender than 
in Lepivjwmus and beset with fine prickles, like the stem of a briar. The type is 
Labrus pallidus Mitch. ( = Pomotis incisor O. and V.). Pomotis obscurus Ag. and 
Lepiopomus iscliyrus Jor. and Nelson, Mss., belong to Helioperca. The etymology is 
helios, sun, and perke, perch, suggesting the vernacular name of '"Sun-fish," universal 
in this country. 

June, 1877. 27 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

356 Fishes of Upper Georgia, 

fLeuciscus croceus Storer, "Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, 1845;" 

Synopsis, 417. Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 359. 
f Nocomis nehrascensis Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 213; Pac. K. R. 

Surv., X, 254, 1858. 
Nocomis bellicus Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 213. 
Ceratichthys cydotis Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 277; Cyp. Penn., 365. 

Giinther, Cat. Pishes, VII, 178. Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 

1874, 136. 
? Ceratichthys micropogon Cope, 1. c, 1. c. Giinther, 1. c, 179 (hybrid?). 
Ceratichthys stigmaticus Cope, 1. c. 278, 1. c. 366. Giinther, 1. c. 

We did not find this common species in any other of the 
southern streams. It is probably not rare, however. L. 
croceus Storer and JV. bellicus Girard, seem to have been 
based upon it. Some highly colored spring males in my 
possession from the lakes of Northern Indiana, have the fins 
bright red, and the red spot on each side of the head, which 
suggested the name of "biguttatus," very conspicuous. 
Other spring males have a singular swollen crest on the head. 


Form elongated, resembling P. stigmaturus, but heavier forwards, the 
head more like that of Lnxilus coccogenis and L. comutus. Depth 4] in 

Head large, rather elongate, about 4 in length, its upper surface rounded 
and (in males) covered with small tubercles. 

Upper jaw slightly projecting beyond the large, oblique mouth, which 
reaches to opposite the eye. Eye large, 3| in head. Iris white, as in al- 
lied species. 

Scales moderately large, rather loose, the edges unusually pale. Lat. I. 
38 (37 to 40) ; 16 to 20 scales in front of dorsal. 

Dorsal fin behind ventrals, nearer caudal than snout, low, about 5| in 
length of body. 

D., I, 8. A., I, 8. Teeth 1, 4-4, 1, entire, without grinding surface. 

Color very pale olive; a faint dark caudal spot. Dorsal with a very 
faint dusky blotch on its last rays, and its tip, as well as those of the 
anal and caudal, filled with white pigment. Some of the smaller speci- 
mens had the caudal chiefly pale red, a red bar across dorsal, and a faint 
red bar down the cheeks, as in L. coccogenis. It is possible that the 
breeding colors are brilliant, but all my specimens are very pale. 

Habitat. Nancy's Creek, a small tributary of the Chatta- 
hoochee Kiver above Atlanta, where it is quite abundant. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 357 

For a comparison with other species of Photogenis, see Part 
I of this paper. 

5. ERIMYZON OBLONGUS (Mitchill) Jordan. 

6. MYXOSTOMA DUQUESNII (Le Sueur) Jordan. 

7. ICHTH^LURUS PUNCTATUS (Rafinesque) Jordan. 
This species is extremely abundant in Nancy's Creek, 

where we took two or three quite large specimens. In the 
north I have never seen it outside of the river channels, and 
hence its name of Channel Cat. Possibly the southern fish 
is different, but if so, the distinctions have escaped my no- 
tice. My specimens are very pale and silvery. 

Part III. Ocmulgee River. 

Our collections in this stream were made in the South 
Fork, or South River, at Flat Shoals (Flat Rock P. O.), 
in Dekalb Co., some 16 miles south-east of Atlanta. At 
this point the river flows down an inclined plane on a bed of 
granite, and as its banks have been cleared in the immediate 
neighborhood of the w Shoals," it offers excellent advantages 
for small seining. Our work was confined to one point, as 
the river is thickly wooded above and below, and therefore 
full of snags. 

All the species obtained here were exceedingly pale in 
color, probably owing in some way to the character of the 
water or the bottom. In a general way, the fauna is very 
similar to that reported by Prof. Cope, from the Catawba. 
The apparent absence of Luxilus comulus is noteworthy. Of 
course the sixteen species which we obtained form but a small 
part of the number of fishes which occur in the basin of the 

Three large specimens taken in rapid water. 

358 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Abundant; known as "Trout." 


= Calliurus Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854 (not of Rafinesque). 
(Type C. punctulatus Ag., not of Raf.) 

= Chsenobryttus Gill, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1864, 92. (Type Cal- 
liurus melanops Girard.) 

= Glossoplites Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 234. (Type Calluirus mel- 
anops Girard.) 

3. CH^NOBRYTTUS VIRIDIS (Cuv. and Val.) Jordan. 

Two specimens taken in the Ocmulgee River, respec- 
tively seven and three inches in length, are referred for the 
present to the above species. I have had considerable diffi- 
culty in identifying them, owing to imperfections in the de- 
scriptions. They agree fairly with C. gulosus Cuvier, but 
the coloration is certainly not that of "Pomotis vulgaris." 
C. viridis Cuv., is very briefly described, but the coloration 
is that of my specimens, and the reference of this species to 
Centrarchus, by Valenciennes, would imply that it is a large- 
mouthed species, and therefore a Chamobryttus. Calliurus. 
Jloridensis Holbrook, agrees in the main, but differs in one 
or two minor characters. Lepomis gillii Cope, describes my 
smaller specimen perfectly, even to the least detail, but my 
larger one differs somewhat. These differences are probably 
due to age. But Prof. Cope does not mention the teeth on 
the tongue, which seem to me to be a very important feature,' 
probably even of generic value.* 

At present it seems probable that our true Chcenobrytfi, or 
Sun fishes with rounded operculum, three anal spines, an ad- 
ditional maxillary bone, large mouth, and teeth on the tongue, 
will ultimately be reduced to tivo species, which are closely 

* Since the above was in press, I have examined the types of L. gillii Cope, and find 
that they have teeth on the tongue, and also various specimens in the Smithsonian Col- 
lections from localities in South Carolina and southward; I have no doubt whatever 
of the identity of viridis, Jloridensis, and gillii. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 359 

related, the one, C. gulosus (C. and V.), occurring chiefly 
west of the Alleghanies, and in the Great Lakes ; the other, 
G. viridis (C. and V.) , occurring in the South Atlantic States. 

The other species referred to Chamobryttus, or "Calliurus," 
seem to me to form a natural genus for which the name Apo- 
motis Raf., proposed for those species of Lepomis which 
have a very short opercular flap, must be retained. These 
have the tongue and pterygoids toothless, the mouth smaller, 
the supernumerary bone small but present, the spines low* 
and the appearance more like that of Lepomis. Type Ich- 
thelis cyanellus Raf., = Bryttus mineojxts Cope. The name 
Glossoplites was proposed by me for typical Chasnobryttus, 
under the erroneous impression that (Jhmnobryttus melanops 
Cope {Ichthelis Raf.), was the type of Chsenobryttus, instead 
of Calliurus melanojps Girard. Glossoplites is therefore to 
be suppressed. 

The synonymy of the supposed two species of Choanobryt- 
tus will probably be as follows : — 


Pomotis gulosus Cuv. and Val., Ill, 367 (Louisiana). 

Centrarchus gulosus Cuv. and Val., VII, 3-14. Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 
31 (copied). Storer, Synopsis, 291 (copied). Giinther, Cat. 
Fishes, I, 258 (copied). 

Calliurus gulosus Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 300 (no des- 

Chcenobryttus gulosus Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac Sci., 1865, 84 (Michigan, 
not described). Jordan, Man. Vert., 235 (copied). Jordan 
and Copeland, Bull. Buff.' Soc. Nat. Hist., 1876, 137 (name only). 
Jordan, Proc. Phil. Ac. Nat. Sci., 1877. 

Lepomis gulosus Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1868, 223 (copied?). 
f Calliurus punctulatus Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, 300 (Huuts- 

ville, Ala., Tenn. R. ; not described; not of Raf.;. 
Calliurus melanops Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv., X, 11, 1858 (Texas — va- 
rious streams). 

Bryttus melanops Giinther, Cat. Fishes, I, 260 (copied). 

Chcenobryttxis melanops Gill, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1864, 92 (not 
described; not of Cope). 

Glossoplites melanops Jordan, Man. Vert., 1876, 223 (Illinois R.) ; ib. 
317 (Lake Michigan; description of fresh specimens). 

360 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

Lepomis charybdis Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1868, 224 (copied; name pro- 
posed as a substitute for melanops, preoccupied by Eaflnesque). 
Chcenobryttus charybdis Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 252 (mere 


Centrarchus viridis Cuv. and Val., VII, 345 (South Carolina). Dekay, 
Fishes N. Y., 31 (copied). Storer, Synopsis, 291 (copied). 
Chcenobryttus viridis Jordan and Copeland, Bull. Bufl'. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 1876, 137 (name only). 
Bryttus reticulatus Cuv. and Val., VII, 345 (S. Car.), (and of various com- 
Calliurus floridensis Holbrook, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1855, 53 (St. John's 
Bryttus floridensis Giinther, Cat. Pishes, I, 260 (copied). 
Chcenobryttus floridensis Jordan and Copeland, Bull. Buff. Soc, 1876, 
137 (name only). 
Lepomis gillii Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1868, 225 (James R., Va. ; good 
description of a young specimen). 
Chcenobryttus gillii Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 452 ("All 
streams of North Carolina, east of the Alleghanies ; not found 
in the French Broad"). Jordan and Copeland, 1. c (name 
Glossoplites gillii Jordan, Manual Vert., 233 (copied). 

My larger specimen shows the following characters : — 

General form of Ambloplites ; rather elongate ; robust and thick ; depth 
2£ in length ; thickness half the depth ; head large, somewhat acuminate, 
2i in length. Eye large, equal to snout, 4£ in head ; maxillary extending 
to opposite its posterior margin ; supplementary bone large ; mucous cav- 
ities and grooves well developed ; cheeks and opercles with large scales 
in about six rows each ; limb of preopercle dentate ; profile making but a 
slight angle. A conspicuous patch of teeth on the tongue. 

Dorsal, X— 9, in a furrow ; A., Ill, 8. Lateral line 43, six rows of scales 
above it and about 11 below. Soft rays of vertical fins, considerably 

Spines stout, the longest dorsal spine % the length of the head, as long 
as from snout to middle of eye ; third anal spine still longer. All the 
spines shorter than the soft rays. Pectorals reaching beyond tips of ven- 
trals. Caudal emarginate. Opercular spot moderate, smaller than eye. 

General color olive green, with a golden lustre ; each scale with a black- 
ish spot, these forming very conspicuous lines along the rows of scales ; 
fins mottled, the mottlings darkest on the dorsal behind, but hardly forming 
a spot ; three broad faint oblique bars across the opercles ; faint traces of 
vertical bars ; the general color retained in spirits ; no red in life, except 
a shade on the iris, and no distinct black in death. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia, 361 

The small specimen is more elongate, with higher spines ; 
higher than the short rays, and the vertical bars quite dis- 
tinct, as in the young of Helioperca pallida. 

Length of larger specimen, 7 inches ; smaller 3 inches. 
Taken in the South Fork of the Ocmulgee River, where 
the species is known as "Bream" and "Red Eye." 

This species is closely related to "Oh. melanops^ or "gido- 
sus." A specimen of the latter from Lake Michigan, eight 
inches long, differs from the above description in the follow- 
ing particulars : — 

Body stouter, thicker and deeper; the generic characters more em- 
phatic; depth 2£ in length; head 2*; angle made by projection of snout 
greater ; lat. 1., 40; spines shorter, longest 3£ in head ; opercular spot very 
large, as large as eye. Coloration quite different; in spirits nearly black; 
in life as follows : — Dark olive green above ; sides greenish and brassy, 
with blotches of pale blue and bright coppery red, the latter shade pre- 
dominating; belly bright brassy yellow, profusely mottled with light red; 
lower jaw chiefly yellow; iris bright red; opercular spot black, bordered 
with copper color; three or four dark red bands radiating backwards from 
eye across cheeks and opercles, separated by narrow pale blue ones ; upper 
fins barred with black, orange and blue, the black predominating ; lower 
fins blackish. The young of this species is very much mottled and 
blotched, somewhat as in Ambloplites rupestris, but the pattern of marking 
more chain-like, sometimes forming obscure vertical bars. 


Labrus auritus "Linnaeus, Systema Naturae." 

Lepomis auritus Gill, Ainer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1864, 93. 
Ichthelis auritus Jordan and Copeland, Bull. Buff. Soc, 1876, 138. 
Pomotis rubricauda Holbrook, Ich. S. Car. 1st. Ed., 10, 1855. Giiuther, 
Cat. Fishes, I, 262, part. 
Ichthelis rubricauda Holbrook, Ich. S. Car., 1860, 15. Putnam, 

M. C. Z., 1863, 6. Jordan, Man. Vert., 239. 
Lepomis rubricauda Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 452. 

Many small specimens of this species were taken ; and the 
remains of two or three large ones, thrown away by the fish- 
ermen, were seen. The common long-eared Suufish of the 
North-east {Pomotis or Lepomis appendix of authors) is 
probably identical with Lepiopomus auritus. 

362 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

var. AFFINIS (Holbrook) Jordan. 

' A single large specimen of this species was taken. It is 
known locally as the Jack. 

6. SEMOTILUS CORPORALIS (Mitchill) Putnam. 

- A few small specimens from a little Spring run, — not 
found in the river. 


This little fish we found quite abundant. It is possible 
that it is specifically different from the northern form. 


var. AMARUS. 

var. hudsonius. 

Clupea hitdsonia Dewitt Cliuton, "Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., I, 
49, 1824." 
Leuciscus hudsonius Dekay, Fishes N. Y., 1812, 206. Storer, Sy- 
nopsis, 409. Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1850, 272. Giinther, Cat. 
Fishes, VII, 251. 
Hybopsis hudsonius Putnam, Bull. M. C. Z., 18G3, 9. Cope, Cyp. 
Penn., 386. Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 1870, 460. Jordan, 
Man. Vert., 1876, 281. Jordan and Copeland, Bull. Buff. Soc, 
1876, 150. . 

Hudsonius fluviatilis Girard, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 210. 

var. amarus. 

Hudsonius amarus Girard, Prop. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1856, 210. 

Hybopsis amarus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1870, 460» Jordan and 
Copeland, Bull. Buff. Soc, 1876, 150. 
Hybopsis phdehna Cope, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1864, 279. Abbott, Am. 

My specimens show the following characters : — 

. Head stout, broad above and rather short, 4£ in length, depth 4* ; the 
form elongated. 

Top of head flattish ; snout curved, but not so abruptly bent downward 
as represented in Dekay's figure of L. hudsonius. Eye very large, about 
3 in head, rather greater than snout. Mouth moderate, inferior, some- 
what oblique. 

Fishes' of Upper' Georgia. 363 

,' Scales large, 14 before the dorsal, 38 in the lateral line. Dorsal over 
ventrals; pectorals not reaching ventrals, the latter not to vent. D., I, 
7. A., I, 8. Teeth in specimens examined 1, 4-4, 0. Length of largest 
specimen 4| inches. 

i Color uniform — very pale olive, becoming silvery; a silvery lateral 
band, a gilt vertebral line, and traces of a faint caudal spot. 

Habitat. South fork of the Ocmulgee River, very abun- 
dant. This seems to differ from hudsonius chiefly in its pale 
Color and less convex front. I therefore here consider 
amarus as a variety only ; still it may be a distinct species. 
Later comparisons have assured me that the latter view is 


Episema Cope and Jordan, Proc. Phil. Ac. Nat. Sci., 1877. (Type 
photogenis s'cabriceps Cope.) 


, Body elongated, fusiform, compressed; depth 4f in length (4A to 44) . , 

Head elongate, somewhat abruptly truncate, about 4 in length ; snout 
projecting beyond the moderate-sized, oblique mouth, which reaches to 
nearly opposite the eye. Head and upper neck tuberculate, as in Photo- 
genis. Eye moderate, 4^ in head. 

Scales firm, closely imbricated, with dark edges, 15 before dorsal, 39 in 
the lateral line. Dorsal fin — iu male specimens — immensely high, its 
length moi-e than \ the length of the body (in females A), the last rays 
extending backward nearly as far as the large anal. . 

Dorsal directly over ventrals, or perhaps very slightly posterior, its first 
ray over the second or third of ventrals, nearer snout than base of Caudal 
fin. Pectorals not reaching ventrals, the latter to vent. D., I, 8. A., I, 8. 
Teeth uniformly, 0, 4-4, 0, of the same form as in P. stigmaturus, hooked, 
and with sharp, entire cutting edge. Females smaller than males ; dull 
in color, with small and slender heads ; the two sexes appearing like dif- 
ferent species. Length, 2 or 3 inches. 

Coloration brjlliant; clear dark' blue above, sides and below abruptly 
silvery ; a blue lateral streak resembling that of P. cceruleus, bounding the 
blue of the upper parts, the white pigment of the lower parts looking as 
if painted on over the biue. 

Dorsal with a large black spot on its last rays above ; dorsal, anal, and 
caudal with the usual satin-white pigment at their tips ; these fins other- 
wise of a bright clear ferruginous orange, characteristic of this species. 

Habitat. Very abundant in the South Fork of the Oc- 
mulgee. One of the handsomest of our Minnows, both in 

364 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

form and coloration. Its relationships are entirely with P. 
coeruleus, P. xcenurus, and other species placed in Plioto- 
genis, but the anterior dorsal necessitates its reference to 
Episema. E. callisema resembles Cyprinella wMpplei Grd., 
having a similar dorsal fin, but the latter species, according 
to Girard's description, has the dorsal nearer to the caudal 
than the snout. It has also a longer anal fin, a larger eye, 
and a deeper body, besides the presence of two rows of teeth. 

Minnilus xcenurus Jordan, Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1877, 79. 

This beautiful species is fully described in the paper above 
cited. It is the most abundant species in the Ocmulgee 
River, and Ave obtained hundreds of specimens. The males 
are provided with rows of quite large tubercles along the 
sides of the caudal peduncle — one on each scale — in addi- 
tion to those which are found upon the head and neck. The 
bases of the pectorals, ventrals, and anal, are filled with white 
pigment, as are the tips of the dorsal and caudal. The col- 
oration in general resembles that of P. callistius, but the 
black caudal spot is obsolete, and the size is much smaller* 
I at first identified this with P. pyrrhomelas Cope ; but a 
comparison with Cope's types shows several points of differ- 


A species of this genus, for which the above name is pro- 
posed, is very abundant in still waters in the Ocmulgee 
River. It differs from JSF. americanus in the extreme com- 
pression of the body, and in the longer anal fin. 

Head rather long and slender, depressed and flat between the eyes, more 
pointed than in N. americanus, and less rounded above, 4^ in length. 
Mouth longer and less oblique. Eye very large, white, much larger than 
in americanus, about 3 in head (nearly 4 in americanus of the same size), 
the maxillary reaching eye. 

Body elongate; depth 3| in length; excessively compressed, perhaps 
more so than in any other Cyprinoid whatever; the greatest thickness 
being less than the thickness of the head, and less than half the length of 
the head. Back and belly closely compressed. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 365 

Scales rather larger than in americanus ; lateral line 41 to 45 ; scales of 
sides and lateral line not dark-edged ; the punctulations above not gath- 
ered into little spots. 

D., I, 18. A., 1, 16 (1, 15 to 1, 18). Teeth 0, 5-5, 0, rather slender, with 
short hook, and the edge not strongly crenate ; the 5 nearly in one line. 

Color very pale olive above, with silvery lustre. My specimens are all 
extremely pale, which is, perhaps, a local peculiarity ; lower fins red in 
spring males. 

The described species of this genus may be compared as 
follows : — 

* Beginning of dorsal decidedly nearer caudal than muzzle. 
a. Eye moderate, about 4 in head. 

b. D., I, 7 or I, 8; A., I, 12 to I, 14; lat. 1. 50; scales 

small, their edges punctate ; head short, blunt, 
rounded above; lateral line strongly decurved; 
Maine to Minnesota and Alabama. . . americanus. 
bb. D., I, 10; A., I, 11; snout elongated, flattish; Cali- 

aa. Eye very large, about 3 in head (in specimens of 4 inches 
in length). 

c. Snout short ; mouth little oblique ; head 4£ in length ; 

D., I, 8; A., I, 14; body considerably compressed. 

Texas seco. 

cc. Snout elongated, flattened above; mouth strongly 
oblique ; head 4$ in length ; D., I, 8 ; A., 1, 16 ; scales 
large ; lat. 1. 43 ; body elongated, very strongly com- 
pressed; its thickness not half the length of the 

head. Ocmulgee R. ischanus. 

** Beginning of dorsal not nearer caudal than muzzle. 

d. Body long and slender, the head 4£ in length ; D., I, 8 ; A., 

I, 13 ; scales large ; snout blunt. Texas. . leptosomus. 

dd. Body stouter; head 4 in length; D., I, 8; A., I, 10. 

Arkansas. lucidus. 

12. ERIMYZON OBLONGUS (Mitchill) Jordan. 

This species occurs in the Ocmulgee in some abundance. 


Teretulus cervinus Cope, Journ. Phil. Ac. Sci., 1868, 235. Jordan and 
Copeland, Bull. Buff. Soc, 1876, 157. 
Ptychostomus cervinus Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 1870, 478. 
Moxostoma cervinum Jordan, Man. Vert., 296. 

This very distinct species has been well described by Prof. 
Cope. My specimens all have 9 ventral rays, instead of 10, 

366 Fishes of Upper Georgia.. 

and the dorsal rays vary from I, 10, to I, 12. This species 
seems to be the smallest of all the Catostomidae. It abounds 
in the rapids and rock pools at the "Falls" at Flat Shoals. 



Ptychostomus papillosus Cope, Proc. Am. Pliilos. Soc, 1870, 470. 

Teretulus papillosus Jordan and Copelaud, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 1876, 158. 

This marked and handsome species abounds in the Oc- 
mulgee Kiver, where it is known as the White Sucker. 
The papillose lips separate it sharply from all the other 
known species of this genus. My specimens differ some- 
what from Prof. Cope's description, as follows. The dorsal 
outline I should call considerably elevated, rather than "not 
at all elevated ;" the large head is rather more than one-fourth 
the length ; the eye is quite large, about 4 in head ; the lips 
seem to me to be, rather than "finely;" and 
finally the dorsal radii are I, 13, and I, 14. Its colors are 
very pale and silvery. 

15. ALOSA SAPIDISSIMA (Wilson) Storer. 

Fishermen told us that the Shad ascends the Ociiiul°:ee 
River as far as the Shoals. We saw no specimens. 

16. ICHTILELURUS PUNCTATUS (Rafinesque) Jordan. 

The Blue Cat y White Cat,, or Channel Cat, is excessively 
abundant in the Ocmulgee. We obtained a great number 
of specimens, mostly small. They seem to be identical 
with the northern species, although their habits appear dif- 
ferent. This species occurs only below the "Falls" or 
"Shoals." We were informed that all attempts to introduce 
it above have failed. 


A small Cat-fish from the Ocmulgee, was identified by me 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 367 

with Girarcl's Pimelodus viilpeculus * (Proc. Phil. Ac. Sci., % 
1859, 160), but a comparison with Girard's type, made as 
this is passing through the press, assures me of their entire 
difference. A. vulpeculus has equal jaws,, a truncate caudal, 
and 22 anal rajs. I therefore propose to call my species 
A. brunneus. 

My specimens show the following characters : — the meas- 
urements are taken from my largest specimen, which is about 
six inches long. 

Body slender, elongate, depressed and broad in front, closely compressed 
behind, the greatest depth only about £ of length. 

Head flat, broad, and long, about 4 in length. 

Upper jaw much longest, projecting more than in any other Aminrus 
known to me; mouth wide; its width half the length of the head; as 
great as the greatest depth of the head. Eye rather large, 5 in head and 
2\ in the interorbital space (in young of 6 inches) ; the latter broad, flat- 
tish, its width half the length of head. 

Dorsal fin well forward, nearer snout than adipose fin ; the length of its 
spine being contained four times between its base and the adipose fin, 
which is small and narrow, well forward from the caudal, slightly behind 
end of anal. Spines moderate, serrated. Anal fin short and deep, its 
base equal to length of caudal, and less than one-fifth the length (without 
caudal). Caudal fin slightly emarginate, more so than iu catus, much 
less so than in nigricans or albidus. 

D., I, 6. P., 1,-8. V., 8. A., 16 to 17. B., 10. 

Color pale olive brown, white below ; a blackish horizontal bar at base 
of dorsal, distinct in spirits. This species is well marked by its peculiar 
form, and very short anal fin. It is apparently related to A. platycephalus, 
but the latter has-' the jaws-equal and the anal fin longer. 

Habitat. Amiurus brunneus is extremely abundant in 

* Girard's account is aa follows : — " We have likewise collected in Charleston, S. C, 
a Cat-fish, the general form of which is more slender than that of the preceding species 
(I 1 . puma); the anal fin is deeper, and the caudal emarginated; features which will at 
once differentiate the species to which we give here the name of Pimelodus vulpeculus. 
The head, which is longer than broad, constitutes the fourth of the total length. The 
lower jaw is somewhat shorter- than the upper one. The eyes are of medium size; 
their diameter being contained about eight times in the length of the side of the head 
and four times only across the interocular space. The anterior margin of the dorsal is 
somewhat nearer the apex of the snout than the adipose, which is smaller and inserted 
more anteriorly than in P. puma. The caudal fin enters five times and a half in the total 
length. The base of the anal is equal to the caudal." 

368 Fishes of ZTpper Georgia, 

the South Fork of the Ocmulgee, where we took great 
numbers of small specimens, but none over six inches in 
length. It is said to reach a considerable size, and is known 
as the Yellow Cat. 


The present investigation has shown the occurrence of 53 
species in the rivers of Georgia, distributed as shown in the 
list on the next page. Those species which we found so 
common that they may be considered as characteristic of the 
fauna, — or in other words, so abundant, that any succeeding 
ichthyologist can visit these streams with a certainty of se- 
curing them, — are designated by a star (*). 

Note. The following species from Georgia, in the U. S. 
National Museum, may be added to the list on page 369. 
This paper will now practically include all that is definitely 
known in regard to the fresh-water fishes of Georgia. 

Euporaotls pallidas (Ag.) Grill and Jor. . . . Coosa River. 

Helioperca obscura (Ag.) Jor Coosa River. 

Xeuotis sanguiuolentus (Ag.) Jor. . . . Savannah River. 

Cbaeuobryttus gulosus (Val.) Cope Coosa River. 

Pomoxys hexacanthus (Cuv. and Val.) Ag. . . Coosa River. 

Asteruotremia mesotrema Jor., MSS. . Precise locality unknown. 

Photogenis grandipinnis Jor., MSS. . Precise locality unknown. 

Semotilus thoreauianus Jor.. MSS. . Precise locality unknown. 

Erimyzon melanops (Raf.) Jor Coosa River. 

Carpiodes cyprinus (Le S.) Ag Coosa River. 

Dorysoma eepediauum b«terurum (Raf.) Jor. . . Coosa River. 
Ichtlnvlurus punctatus (Raf,) Jor. .... Coosa River. 

Lepidosteus osseus (L.) Ag. Coosa River. 

Boleosoma olmstedi (Storer) Ag. . . . Ocmulgee River. 

Centrarcbus irideus (Bosc.) C. and V. ... Coosa River. 

Centrarclms inaeropterus (Lac.) Jor. . . . Ocmulgee River. 

Aphodbderus sayauus (Gill) Dekay Coosa River. 

Pomoxys annularis Raf. Coosa River. 

Esox caveneli Holbr Coosa River. 

Hybopsis xaniocepbalus Jor. Coosa River. 

Notemiiionus iscbauus Jor. (large specimens, lower 

rins yellow, crimson-tipped) .... Ocmulgee River. 

Amlurus marmoratus (Holbr.) Jor. . . . Altamaba River. 

Amiurus lividus (Raf.) Jor, ...... Coosa River. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia, 


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370 Fishes' of Upper Georgia. 



: A visit to Powell's River and other tributaries of Clinch 
River, near Cumberland Gap, Tenn., and to the French 
Broad and Big Pigeon Rivers, near Newport, Tennessee, 
enabled us to make considerable collections. Most of the 
species obtained have been well described by Prof. Cope, 
and I confine myself to a simple enumeration of them. 

1. Alvordius aspro Cope and Jordan. 

2. Diplesium shnoterum (Cope) Copeland. 
, 3. Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede) Gill. 

4. Ambloplites rupestris (Raf.) Gill. 

5. Haploidonotus gi'unuiens Raf. 

: 6. Potamocottus, sp. (caroling Gill?). 

7. Xenisma catenata (Storer) Jordan. 

8. Campostoma anomalum prolixnm (Stor.) Jord. 

9. Nocomis biguttatus (Kirt.) Cope and Jord. 
10. Nocomis amblops (Raf.) Cope and Jord. 

: 11. Phenacobius uranop's Cope. 

12. Luxilus cornutns (Mit.) Jord. 

13. Luxilus coccogenis (Cope) Jord. 

14. Luxilus galacturus (Cope) Jord. 

15. Nototropis photogenis (Cope) Jordan (Photogenis leucops Cope). 

16. Nototropis dinemus (Raf.) Jordan (Alburnellus jaculus Cope). 

17. Catostomus teres (Mit.) Le S. 

18. Catostomus nigricans Le S- 

• 19. Erimyzon oblongus (Mit.) Jord. 

20. Myxostoma duquesnei (Le S.) Jord. 

: 21. Ichthselurus punctatus (Raf.) Jord. 

22. Pelodichthys olivaris (Raf.) Gill and Jord. 

23. Noturus eleutlierus Jordan (Sp. nov.). 

A single specimen of a Noturus, about 4 inches long, was 
taken alive from the jaws of a large water snake ( Tropido- 
notus sip)edo?i). It is related to A", miurus Jordan MSS. (sp. 
nov.), but differs in several respects from my specimens of 
that species. The anal fin contains but 11 rays, but as its 
position is unusually far behind the vent, this peculiarity may 
be the result of some accident to the fish when younger. The 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 371 

characters shown by my specimen are brought out in the 
following synopsis of the described species of Noturus, drawn 
from the type specimens of exilis, miurus, marginalus, eleu- 
tlierus and leptacanthus, from numerous examples of Jiavus 
and gyrinus, and from the published descriptions of the other 
species. The new species or variety from the French Broad, 
I here refer to as JSf. eleutherus, in allusion to the free adipose 

* Pectorals with 6 to 8 soft rays ; spines stout, that of the 
dorsal two-fifths the height of the fin, or more, 
t Pectoral spines merely rough, not serrated, but usually 
channelled behind; body stout aud thick, tadpole-like. 

a. Head about 4 in length, shortish and very broad ; depth 

5 or less in length; dorsal spine nearer anal than 
snout; adipose fin high, not notched at all ; anal fin 
high, of about 13 rays ; barbels shortish ; spines all 
strong; pectoral spine straightish, half the length of 
the head. Color nearly uniform yellowish brown, a 
dark lateral streak. Ohio Valley, to N. Y. and Penn., 

etc gykinus (Mit.,1818). 

ft Pectoral spines very strongly serrated behind, the lower 
half of each being provided with 5 or more prominent 
recurved hooks ; anterior edges finely dentate or nearly 
smooth; body elongated ; head flattened. 

b. Spines extremely strong ; pectoral spine curved, half or 

more length of head ; body moderately elongated, the 
depth about 5^ in length ; head broad and flat, 3iJ in 
length ; dorsal spine nearer anal than tip of snout ; 
upper jaw notably longest ; distance from snout to 
dorsal more than one-third of length; dorsal spine 2 
to 2\ in head. 

c. Adipose flu continuous, high, interrupted by a notch, 
which does not quite break its continuity, the rudi- 
mentary caudal rays beginning in the notch ; anal 
with 12 or 13 rays; dorsal region elevated, and 
ventral region correspondingly contracted, pro- 
ducing a hump-backed appearance ; much mottled 
blackish and yellowish; margins of dorsal, anal, 
and caudal fins, and a broad patch in the middle of 
the adipose fin, definitely black. Ohio Valley and 

S. W. miurus (Jordan, 1877). 

cc. Adipose fin high, divided to its base, a space nearly 
twice the diameter of the eye intervening between 
June, 1877. 28 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xl 

372 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

its termination and the beginning of the rudiment- 
ary caudal rays ; spines larger and rougher than in 
any of the preceding ; anal fin short and deep, of 
eleven rays (abnormal?) ; fins not black-margined; 
no definite black blotch on adipose fin; eye small; 
interorbital space rather narrow ; form, coloration, 
and general appearance of a young Pelodichthys. 
French Broad R., Tennessee eleutherus Jordan, 1877: 
bb. Spines shorter and weaker; pectoral spine straightish, 
about one-third the length of the head ; dorsal 
spine 3}- in head; body much elongated, more so 
than in any of the others, the depth one-sixth or 
less of the length; head small, 4^ in length; dorsal 
spine rather nearer snout than beginning of anal; 
jaws nearly equal; dorsal fin scarcely higher than 
long ; distance from snout to dorsal less than one- 
third of length; adipose fin with a shallow notch, 
as in marginatus; color neai-ly uniform; tip of 
dorsal blackish; anal rays 14 to 16. Illinois. "Wis- 
consin. .... exilis (Nelson, Dec, 1876). 
bbb. Spines moderate, the serrations weak ; pectoral spine 
about half length of head ; body greatly ' elon- 
gated, as in the preceding; head broad, thin, and 
very flat; 8£ in length; dorsal spine much nearer 
anal than snout; dorsal fin £ higher than long; 
distance from snout to dorsal more than £ of 
length ; premaxillary band of teeth without back- 
ward process ; anal rays 16 to 20. Ohio to Penn. 

and N. C marginatus (Baird, 1869). 

** Pectoral fius with 8 soft rays ; head very small and narrow, 
with a small eye; the upper jaw much projecting; spines 
very short and small; that of the dorsal not one-third the 
height of the fin, and all of them less than one-fourth of 
the head; head 4 in length; anal rays about 14; dorsal 
nearer anal than snout; adipose fin not notched at all; 
color mottled. Alabama River. leptacanthus (Jordan, 187?). 
*** Pectorals with 9 to 11 soft rays, adipose fin notched. 

c. Head little longer than broad, much depressed and 
flat; barbels rather short; intermaxillary band of 
teeth with a very distinct backward process; pec- 
toral spine coarsely dentate outside, grooved within ; 
middle of body nearly cylindrical, subcarinate above ; 
head deep, yet flattened ; 4 in length ; size very large, 
reaches length of a foot. Platte R. to St. Lawrence 
R., Ohio Valley, and N. E. . . *flavus (Raf., 1818). 

* = N~. occidentalis Gill, 1862. = N '. platycephalus Gunther, 1864. N. occidentalis Gthr., 
is probably 2V T . marginatus. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 373 


Ill the Rock Castle River and tributaries, in Rock Castle 
and Laurel Counties in S. E. Kentucky, we obtained the 
following species : — 

1. Etheostoma flabellare Raf. 

2. Boleosoma maculatum Ag. (=brevipinne Cope). 

3. Diplesiura simoterum (Cope) Copeland. 

4. Alvordius aspro Cope and Jor. 

5. Perciua caprodes (Raf.) Grd. 

6. Micropterus salmoides (Lac.) Gill. 

7. Micropterus pallidas (Raf.) Gill and Jor. 

8. AmblopliteS rupestris (Raf.) Gill. 

9. Xenotis megalotis (Raf.) Jor. 

10. Campostonia anomalum (Raf.) Ag. 

11. Hyborhyiickus notatus (Raf.) Ag. 

12. Semotilus corporalis (Mit.) Putn. 

13. Nocomis biguttatus (Kirt.) Cope aud Jor. 

14. Phenacobius uranops Cope. 

15. Chrosomus erythrogaster Eaf. 

16. Luxilus cornutus (Mit.) Jord. 

17. Luxilus galacturus (Cope) Jord. 

18. Lythrurus ardeus (Cope) Jord. 

19. Hemitreinia vittata Cope. 

20. Nototropis dinemus (Raf.) Jord. 

21. Nototropis micropteryx (Cope) Jord. 

22. Catostomijs teres (Mit.) Le S. 

23. Catostomus nigricaus Le S. 

24. Erimyzon oblongus (Mit.) Jord. 

25. Myxostoma duquesnii (Le S.) Cope. 

26. Anguilla vulgaris Fleming. 

27. Pelodichthys sp. (nov. ?) 

A single specimen of (Pelodichthys), about a foot long, was 
taken near Livingston in the Rock Castle, but having no 
means o£ preserving it at hand, I was compelled to throw it 
away. My field notes indicate a different species from P. 
olivaris, but are not sufficient to characterize it. They are 
as follows : — 

Head very long and broad, 3£ in length, the depth much less; lower 
jaw longest; body moderately elongated. Dorsal spine not obvious, 


Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

apparently slender and closely connected to the first short ray. In front 
of this a short stub beneath the skin. 

Barbels long, longer than head. 

Color pale, nearly uniform, D., I, 8. P., I, 7 -f-. A., 15. Length about 
a foot. 

No detailed specific description of *P. olivaris has ever 
been published. The following characters are shown by two 
specimens from the French Broad, respectively 10 and 14 
inches in length. 

Body very long, slender, much depressed forwards, closely compressed 
behind. Head very long and flat, tapering downwards and forwards, 
broadly rounded in front. Eye small ; barbel shorter than head. 

Dorsal spine small, moderately stout, enveloped in skin, about half the 
height of the fin. A concealed ventral spine, about \ the height of the 

Pectoral spine very strong, f the height of the fin, flattened, serrated 
behind, somewhat enveloped in the skin at base. Adipose fin high and 
long. Dorsal spine nearer snout than tip of adipose fin. 

Caudal fin slightly emarginate. Jaws thin and flat; the lower consider- 
ably longer; the width of the mouth half the length of head. Jaws with 
a very broad band of slender pointed teeth, that of the upper jaw with a 
strong backward process. Lateral line very distinct. 

Color mottled brown and yellowish above, chiefly yellowish white be- 
low ; fins blackish, mottled. 

Pin rays, D., I, 7. A., 13. V., I, 8. P., I, 10. 


Length, in inches . . . . 
Head in length . . . . 
Depth in length . . . . 
Eye in head ....*. 

Eye in snout 

Depth of head in its length 
Interorbital width in head . 
Dorsal spine in head . . . 
Dorsal rays in head . . . 
Pectorals in head . . . . 
Pectoral spine in head . . 
Ventrals in head .... 
Ventral spine in head . . 
Base of* anal in head . . . 

no. 1. 





























NO. 2. 

*In Gill's Report on Ichthyology, Capt. Simpson's Exploration, lately published, Is 
a full account of this species with its synonymy. Raflnesque's generic name Pylodictis 
(properly Pelodichthys) has a year's priority over Hopladelus. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 375 

We heard several peculiar vernacular names for fishes on 
the Rock Castle and Cumberland, some of which may be 
worth recording : 

Dollardee. Helioperca pallida. 

Brim. Xenotis raegalotis. 

Log Perch. Percina caprodes. 

Jumper. Jumping Pearch. Micropterus sps. 

Blue Minnow. Luxilus galacturus. 

Bed Minnow. Lythrurus ardens. 

Minny (with contempt). Nototropis micropteryx. 

Steel-backed Minnow. Campostoma anomalum. 

Ci*eek Chub. Semotilus corporalis. 

River Chub. Nocomis biguttatus. 

I was told by a fisherman that the young of the latter spe- 
cies (JV. biguttatus) made the best kind of bait for " Jump- 
ing Pearch," as "it will swim longer than any other with a 
hook in its body." It will be observed that the above are 
almost the identical words used by Rafinesque concerning 
his "Indian Chub " (Luxilus kentuckiensis) . 


As exact synopses of the fauna of any region are desira- 
ble, I here append a list of the fishes taken by Prof. H. E. 
Copeland t and myself in the immediate neighborhood of 
Indianapolis, Ind., in White River and small tributaries 
during the three years past. The relative abundance of the 
different species, as shown by our collections, is indicated by 
the words "common," "frequent," "uncommon," and "rare." 


1. Microperca punctulata Putn Rare. 

2. Etheostoma flabellare Raf. Rare. 

3. Nothonotus camurus (Cope) Jor Rare. 

4. Poecilichthys variatus (Kirt.) Ag. , . . . . Common. 

5. Poecilichthys spectabilis Ag Frequent. 

6. Pleurolepis pellucidus (Baird) Ag. ..... Frequent. 

7. Boleosoma maculatum Ag Common. 

8. Alvordius aspro Cope and Jor Frequent. 

9. Ericosma evides Jordan and Copeland .... Rare. 

376 Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

10. Rheocrypta copelandi Jor., MSS Rare. 

11. Diplesiura blennioides (Raf.) Jor Common. 

12. Percina caprodes (Raf.) Grd Common. 

13. Pomoxys hexacauthus (C. and V.) Ag Rare. 

14. Pomoxys annularis Raf. Uncommon. 

15. Ambloplites rupestris (Raf.) Gill Common. 

16. Micropterus pallidus (Raf.) Gill and Jor. . . . Common. 

17. Micropterus salmoides (Lac.) Gill Common. 

18. Apomotis cyanellus Raf. (et vars.) Common. 

19. Lepiopomus macrochirus Raf. (nephelus Cope) . Frequent. 

20. Helioperca pallida (Mit.) Jor Common. 

21. Xenotis inscriptus (Ag.) Jor Frequent. 

22. Xenotis megalotis (Raf.) Jor Common. 

23. Xenotis lythrochloris Jor., MSS Frequent. 

24. Xenotis aureolus Jor., MSS Frequent. 


25. Haploidonotus grunniens Raf. Uncommon. 


26. Potamocottus wilsonii (Grd.) Gill Uncommon. 

27. Potamocottus Carolina? Gill Rare. 


28. Labidesthes sicculus Cope ..." Common. 


29. Zygonectes notatus (Raf.) Jor. . .« . . . . Common. 


30. Umbra limi (Kirt.) Gthr Rare. 


31. Esox salmoneus Raf. Common. 


32. Campostoma anomalum (Raf.) Ag Common. 

33. Hyborhynchus notatus (Raf.) Ag Common. 

34. Hybognatbus argyritis.Grd Rare. 

35. Ericymba buccata Cope Common. 

36. Semotilus corporalis (Mit.) Putn Common. 

37. Nocomis biguttatus (Kirt.) Cope & Jor Common. 

38. Nocomis amblops (Raf.) Cope & Jor Common. 

39. Nocomis dissimilis (Kirt.) Cope & Jor Frequent. 

Fishes of Upper Georgia. 377 

40. Rbinichthys obtusus Ag Common. 

•41. Hybopsis stramineus Cope Frequent. 

42. Chrosomus erythrogaster Raf. Common. 

43. Lythrurus diplaemius (Raf.) Jor Common. 

44. Luxilus cornutus (Mit.) Jor Common. 

45. Cyprinella analostana Grd Common. 

46. Pbotogenis spilopterus Cope Frequent. 

47. Episema scabriceps Cope Locally abund. 

48. Episema ariomma Cope Frequent. 

49. Nototropis dinemus (Raf.) Jor Frequent. 

50. Nototropis rubellus (Ag.) Jor Common. 

51. Nototropis rubrifrons (Cope) Jor Common. 

52. Notemigonus americanus (Lac.) Jor Common. 


53. Catostomus teres (Mit.) Le S Common. 

54. Catostomus nigricans Le S Common. 

55. Erimyzon oblongus (Mit.) Jor. Common. 

56. Erimyzon melanops (Raf.) Jor Common. 

57. Myxostoma duquesnii (Le S.) Jor Common. 

58. Carpiodes carpio Raf. Rare. 


59. Ichtbaalurus punctatus (Raf.) Jor Rare. 

60. Amiurus melas Raf. Uncommon. 

61. Amiurus cupreus (Raf.) Gill Common. 

62. Amiurus xanthocephalus Raf. Common. 

63. Noturus sialis Jor., MSS Common. 

64. Noturus flavus Raf. ; Frequent. 

65. Noturus miurus Jor Common. 


66. Lepidosteus osseus (L.) Ag. (huronensis Ricb.) Uncommon. 


67. Polyodon folium Lacep Uncommon. 


68. Ammocoetes niger (Raf.) Jor Locally abund. 

69. Ammocoates argenteus (Kirtland) Jor Rare. 

*** The printing of this paper was begun in December, 1S76. The actual date of final 
publication is June, 1877. 

378 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

XXX. — The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

BY M. C. COOKE, M.A.; LL.D.; A.L.S. 
Corresponding Member Acad. Sci., N. Y. Read April 16th, 1877. 

The production of a monograph of the Myxomycetes by 
Dr. J. Rostafiuski, has presented an opportunity for a 
thorough revision of the North American species, and a new 
classification, in accordance, as far as possible, with this 
monograph. As the Polish language (in which the mono- 
graph is written) is one not generally read, there needs no 
apology for presenting the arrangement in an English dress. 

This communication necessarily is of a very technical and 
uninviting character ; but it is hoped that what is lacking in 
general interest will be compensated for in utility. There is 
no doubt whatever that the system proposed by Rostafinski 
is the one which will in the main be generally adopted ; and 
as it is now impossible to obtain the original work, this sy- 
nopsis is offered to the Academy for the assistance of Trans- 
atlantic mycologists. Although the measurements of the 
spores are given, that is by no means the most important 
element in the new classification. 

For half a century the Myxomycetes have been classified 
on the basis of external characters alone, or such only as 
could be discerned by the aid of a pocket lens. In one or 
two instances an additional genus has been constituted in 
which some prominence was given to characters determined 
by the aid of the microscope, as for instance in the genus 
Badhamia proposed by Berkeley in 1851, but the general 
feature of the classi6cation was one of external character- 
istics. The advance of Microscopy left behind such an in- 
complete system for many years, and at length Professor de 
Bary turned his attention to the subject, but made no definite 
propositions for a rectification of the classification, until in 
1873 his pupil at Strasburg, Dr. Joseph Rostafinski, pub- 
lished in an inaugural address the outlines of a system of 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 379 

classification, based on new principles. In 1875, the more 
elaborate, and detailed "Monografia Sluzowce" expanded and 
illustrated his views in a complete and almost exhaustive 

At first Rostafinski recognized in the "Mycetozoa," as he 
termed them, two primary dhflsions, in one of which the 
spores were developed externally, on the surface of certain 
definite spore-bearers, and in the other they were developed 
internally, covered at first by a protective membrane or 
sporangium. In the monograph only a passing notice is 
given of the first division, and in the more recent "supple- 
ment" it is not mentioned at all. The inference to be de- 
duced from this is that the Exosporons Mycetozoa are re- 
garded as an encumbrance to the system, and are intended 
to be ignored. 

The Mycetozoa proper being thus reduced to unity, our 
illustrations will be understood to refer to these alone. As 
in the Agaricini, so in the Myxomycetes, the first steps in 
classification relate to the colour of the spores. Two sec- 
tions include the species (1) with violet spores, and (2) 
those having spores otherwise coloured. The Amaurosporce 
and the Lamprosporce are the two primary sections, each of 
which is subsequently again divided into two subsections, in 
one of which no evident capillitium is present, and in the 
other some kind of capillitium is always developed. 

As the old method was based wholly on external features, 
so the new has nearly all its essential characteristics relating 
to internal structure. If there is any one feature in which 
the Rostafinski method is more assailable than another, it is 
the too slight regard which is given to external features. 
Naturally enough, in escaping from one extreme, the rebound 
has been to the other. Time and experience will undoubtedly 
hereafter develop a "happy medium." 

In making use of this system, the first determination req- 
uisite is the colour of the spores, then the presence or absence 
of a capillitium, and finally the character of the capillitium, 

380 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

when present, in all its details. Undoubtedly the leading 
idea of the classification is the capillitium, or the capillitium 
and columella, and this should be borne in mind in any 
attempt which is made to master the details of the scheme. 

The negative features of the method are important to 
remember in the transition from one system to another. The 
form of the sporangium must not be relied upon to the fullest 
extent of the old system ; and, especially in some genera, 
the presence or absence of a stem is to be regarded as of 
little moment. Above all, colour, as exhibited in sporangium 
or stem, must be held as wholly untrustworthy, and this ex- 
tends equally to the capillitium and spores in the Lamprosporaz. , 

Some disappointment will probably be felt at seeing so 
many old friends, formerly designated by distinct names, 
and each supposed to possess an individuality of its own, all 
thrown together in such species as Didymium farinaceum 
and Trichia fragilis. And again, on the other hand, that 
such minute differences, which require both faith and practice 
to appreciate, should separate Trichia affinis from Trichia 
chrysosperma. These applications of the system, however, 
do not vitiate the system itself, which undoubtedly must be 
accepted as a great and thorough reform of the classification 
of the Myxomycetes. 

It is unnecessary to attempt any controversion of the propo- 
sition once made, but soon ignored, that these organisms are 
more intimately related to animals than plants. Although 
the proposed name of Mycetozoa is still retained by 
Rostafinski, it is entirely divested of any insinuation in the 
direction of Infusoria or JRhizopoda. 

This arrangement of the American species was completed 
before the appearance of Rostafinski's supplement to his 
monograph, and although all essential corrections have been 
made, the sequence of orders and genera is that of the mon- 
ograph. We have appended a synopsis of all the Orders, 
Families, and Genera, as they finally appear in the Supple- 
ment. Two of the genera established in the monograph, 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 381 

viz. : Trichamphora and Scyphium, have been cancelled, 
and two new genera added, which are indicated by an 
asterisk (*). 

Sub-Division I. AMAUROSPOR^E. 
Section A. ATRICHsE (without capillitium). 
Order I. Protodermese. 

Genus 1. Protoderma. 

Section B. TBICBOPHOB^E (with capillitium). 
Order II. Calcarese. 


Genus 2. CienJcoicskia. 


Genus 3. Badliamia. 

" 4. Physarum. 

" 5. Fullgo. 

" 6. Craterium. 

" 7. Leocarpus. 

" 8. Crateriachea. 

" 9. Tilmadoche. 


Genus 10. Chondrioderma. 
" 11. Didymium. 
" 12. Lepidoderma. 


Genus 13. Diachea. 
" 14. Spumaria. 

Order III. Amauroehsetese. 

Genus 15. Echinostelium. 


Genus 1G. Lamproderma. 
" 17. Comatricha. 
" 18. Stemonitis. 


Genus i$3^ AmaurocJicete. 


Genus 20. Brefeldia. 

382 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 


Genus 21. Enerthenema. 

Sub-Division II. LAMPROSPORiE. 
Section A. ATBICH^E (without capillitium). 
Or»er IV. Anemese. 


Genus 22. Dictyostelium. 


Genus 23. Licea. 
" 24. Tubulina. 
" 25. Lindbladia. 


Genus 26. Clathroptychium. 
" 27. Enteridium. 

Order V. Heterodermeae. 


Genus 28. Dictydium. 
" 29. Heterodictyon. 
" 30. Cribraria. 

Section B. TBIGHOPHOBJE (with capillitium). 
Order VI. Columelliferse. 


Genus 31. Siphoptychium.* 
" 32. Reticularia. 

Order VII. Calonemes*. 


Genus 33. Perichcena. 


Genus 34. Cornuvia. 

" 35. Arcyria. 

" 36. Lachnobolus. 

" 37. Dermodium. 

" 38. Lycogala. 

" 39. Oligonema. 
Family 18. TRICHIACEJ1. 

Genus 40. Prototrichia.* 

" 41. Trichia. 

" 42. Hemiarcyria. 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 383 


Myxogastres Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 67. 
Myxogasteres Endl., Gen., p. 25. 
Mycetozoa DeBary and Rostafinski. 

Division I. EXOSPORE.ZE. 
This division, as originally proposed, contains the genus Ceratium, but 
latterly it has scarcely been insisted upon as a consistent ally of the 2d 

Division II. ENDOSPORE^E. 

Sub-Division I. AMAUROSPOR^. 
Spores violet, or brownish violet. 

Section A. ATBICH^J. 
Sporangia without a capillitium. 

Order I. ProtodermesB. 


Genus 1. Protoderma R. 

1. Protoderma pusilla (Schr.). 

Licea pusilla Schrad., t. 6, fig. 4. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2316. 
Physarum licea Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 143. 

Spores .017 mm . 
On pine wood. Bethlehem (Schw.) ; Carolina (Curt.). 

Sporangia constantly possessed of a capillitium. 

Order II. Calcarese. 

Genus 2. Cienkowskia R. 

2. Cienkowskia reticulata (A. and S.). 

Physarum reticulatum Alb. and Schw., t. 7, f. 2. Schw., Amer. Bor., No. 

Diderma reticulatum Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 112. 

Spores -009 mm . 
On dead leaves. Salem (Schw.) ; Car. (Curt.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.)« 

384 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 


Genus 3. Physarum P. 

3. Physarum lividum R. 

Physarum effusum Link, Herb. 

Physarum griseum Link, Diss., ii, 42. 

Spumaria Hchemformis Schwz., Araer. Bor., No. 2364. 

Didymium glaucum Phillips, in Grevillea, V, 113. 

San Francisco (Harkness). 
Var. B. licheniformis Schw. 

Spores -01--0125 n ™. 

This variety is the United States form. If Physarum effusum Schw., 
Am. Bor., 2297, is the same as Link's, it also belongs to this species. 

Bethlehem (Schw.). 

4. Physarum didermoides (Ach). 

Diderma oblongum Schum., Saell. 1423. 

Didymium congestum B. and Br., Ann. N. H., 1850, p. 365. Cooke, Hdbk. 
No. 1130. 

Spores -0125— •on nm . 
Car. (fide Rostafinski). 

5. Physarum auriscalpium Cooke. 

Sporangia globose, depressed, ochrey yellow, covered with orange 
mealy scales above, with a very short, almost obsolete, stem. Columella 
not evident. Capillitium strongly developed, expanded at the angles, 
which are filled with yellow granules of lime, combined into a network ; 
deposits of lime in irregular angular masses. Spores violet-brown, nearly 
smooth or minutely warted, .013— .015 ram . diam. Cooke, Brit, dlyx., fig. 253. 

On rotten wood. Carolina (Ravenel, No. 1854). 

6. Physarum schumacheri Spr. 

Physarum compactum Ehr., Syl. Ber., 21. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2283. 
Physarum citrinum Schum., Saell., 1436. 
Diderma citrinum Pries, Sys. Myc, iii, 100. 
Didymium melleum B. and Br., Cey., No. 751. 
Didymium chrysopeplum B. and C, Grev., No. 348. 
Spores -007— •011 wm . 

Car. (Schw.). 

This is probably the species intended by Schweinitz. 

7. Physarum sulphureum A. and S., t. 6, fig. 1. 
Physarum sulphureum Schw., Amer. Bor., No. 2289. 
Spores '01— •011 mm . 
On dead leaves. Car. (Schw., Curt.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 385 

8. Physarum leucopus Link, Diss., ii, 42. Schw., Amer. Bor., 2275. 
Didymium leucopus Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 121. 

Physarum bullattim Ditrn., t. 22. 

Spores -0095— -011 mm . 
Bethlehem (Schw.). 

9. Physarum cixereum (Batsch). Schw., Amer. Bor., No. 2291. Rav., 

Fun. Car., i, 79. 
Didymium cinereum Fries, Sys. Myc., iii, 126. 
Physarum plumbeum Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 142. 
Didymium terrigenum B. and C. 

Spores -0075— 013 mm . 
On leaves, twigs, etc. Car. (Schw.); New York (Schw., Peck); Car. 
(Cur., Rav.) ; San Francisco (Harkuess). 

[Physarum luteo-valve Schw., Am. Bor., 2298, is very uncertain. Friea 
has referred it to Perichama, and Rostafinski does not venture to refer it 
to anything.] 

10. Physarum psittacinum Ditm., t. 62. 
Didymium fuhipes Fr., Stirp. 
Didymium erythrinum Berk., Grev., No. 344. 
Didymium Bavenelii B. and C, Grev., No. 346. 
Spores -0083— -0092 mm . 
On damp putrid logs. Car. (Rav.). 

11. Physarum pulcherrimum B. and Curt. In N. A. Fungi, Grevillea, 
No. 354. Rav., Fungi Car., ii, 77. 

Spores -0083— -0092 mm . 
On dead pine wood. Car. (Rav..) ; Penn. (Mich.). 

12. Physarum Berkeleyi Rtfki., Mon. p. 105. 
Physarum flavicomum Berk., in Hook., Journ., 1845, p. 66. 
Physarum cupriceps B. and Rav., in Rav., Fungi Car., iii, 76. 
Physarum cupripes B. and Rav., in Grevillea, vol. iii, p. 65. 
Physarum roseum B. and Br., Grevillea, vol. iii, p. 65. 

On dead wood. 

Spores -00S3— -01 mm . 
Car. (Rav.). 

Physarum pulcherripes Peck, is probably referable to this very variable 

13. Physarum Ditmari Rost. 
Physarum virescens Ditm., Sturm, t. 61. 
Physarum thcjoteum Fr., Gast., p. 21. 
Didymium nectriceforme B. and C, Grev., 353. 
Didymium croceo-flavum B. and Br., Cey., 757. 
Spores -006— •009 mm . 
New England (Murray); Carolina (Ravenel) ; New York (Peck). 

386 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

14. Physarum conglomeratum (Fr.). 
Diderma conglomeratum Fr., S. M., iii, 111. 

Diderma granulatum Fr., S. M., iii, 210. 

On wood, leaves, etc. California (Harkness). 

15. Physarum polymorphum (Mont.). 
Didymium polymorphum Mont., Cub., p. 314. 
Didymium polycephalum Rav., Grevillea. 

Didymium luteo-griseum B. and C, Grevillea, iii, p. 65. 
Didymium connatum Peck, N. Y. Reports. 

Spores -0088— •01 mm . 
On dead leaves. Car. (Curt., Rav.) ; N. Jersey (Berk.) ; New York (Peck). 
16. Physarum contextum Pers., Syn., 168. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2290. 
Diderma contextum Pers., Obs., i, 89. Ditm., t. 31. 
Leocarpus contextus Fries, S. V. S., 450. 
Diderma flavidum Peck, N. Y. Reports. 

Spores -011— -013 mm . 
On dead stems of plants. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.). 
17. Physarum gyrosum R. 
Reticulkxria mnscorum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 91. 

JEthaleum muscorum A. and S., t. vii, f. 1. Schw., Am. Bor., 2371. 
Spores -0083— •011 n > m . 
On mosses. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Boston (Farlow). 
18. Physarum sinuosum (Bull.). 
Angiorideum sinuosum Grev., t. 310. 
Diderma valvatum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 109. 
Diderma pallidum B. and C, in Grevillea. 
Angiorideum valvatum Fr., Sys. Myc. 
Physarum bivalve Schw., Am. Bor., 2293. 

Spores -0083— -009 mm . 
On pine leaves, stems, etc. Car. (Curt.) ; Salem (Schw.) ; Boston 
(Farlow); N. Eng. (Frost) ; N. York (Peck). 

19. Physarum Petersii B. and Curt., in Grevillea, N. A. Fungi, No. 356. 

Flocci yellowish, spores black. 

On dead wood. Ala. (Peters). 
Var. A. Farlowi R. 
Physarum Farlowi Rost., MSS. 

Boston and Pennsylvania. 
Var. B. intermedium Rost. 

Var. C. genuinum Rost. 


The Myxomycetes of the United Slates. 387 

20. Physarum obrusseum (B. and C). 

Didymium obrusseum B. and C, Cub., 532. 
Didymium tenerrimum B. and C, Cub., 533. 

Spores -008— •01 mm . 
Texas (Lindheimer) ; New Orleans (Drummond). 


Spores -O075 mm . 
Carolina (Curtis). 

22. Physarum elipsosporum Bost. 
Enteridium olivaceum Schw., Am. Fung., 23G5. 
Carolina (Schw.). 

23. Physarum schweinitzii, Berk., in Grevillea, N. A. Fungi, No. 358. 
Polyangium vitellinum Schw., Am. Bor. 
On vegetable fragments. Bethlehem (Schwz.). 

24. Physarum elegans Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2294. ' 

On leaves and plants. Salem (Schw.) ; Car. (Curt.). 

25. Physarum muscicola Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2278. 
New York (Torrey). 

26. Physarum polycedrox Schw., Am. Bor., 2300. 
On old trunks of Jurjlans. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

27. Physarum ccespitosum Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2301. 
On leaves and stems of Rhododendron. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

\_PJiysarum ccespitosum Peck, from the color of the spores, 
cannot be a Physarum; it may be the species of Sclrweinitz, 
for aught we can tell.] 

28. Physahum atrum Schw., Am. Bor., 2299. 
On bark. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

"Whatever Schweinitz's species may be, it does not appear 
that Rostafinski considers the Physarum atrum of Fries to 
be a Myxogaster at all. 

June, 1877. 29 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

388 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

Genus 4. Craterium Trent. 

Sub-gen. A. Leiocraterium. 

29. Craterium vulgare Ditm., t. 9. Schw., Am. Bor., 2305. 

Craterium pedunculatum Trent., Curtis, Cat., p. 112. 

Spores -0083— •01 mm . 

On leaves, stems, etc. Car. (Curt., Schw.). 

Sub-gen. B. Trachtcraterium. 
30. Craterium leucocephalum Pers. Ditm., t. 4. Schw., Am. Bor., 2306. 

Craterium leucostictum Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 152. 
Craterium pruinosum Corda, Ic, vi, f. 33. 

Spores -0083— -01 mm . 
On bits of wood, etc. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; N. York (Peck). 

31. Craterium minimum B. and Curt., in N. A. Fungi, No. 367. 
m On dead grass, etc. Car. (Curt.). 

32. Craterium porphyrium Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2308. 
On rotten wood. Bethlehem (Schwz.). 

Genus 5. Crateriachea R. 

The only species, Crateriachea mutabilis R., is not re- 
corded in the United States, unless Craterium obovatum 
Peck, proves to belong to this genus, which it is too imper- 
fectly described to determine. 

Genus 6. Tilmadoche Fr. 
33. Tilmadoche nutans (Pers.). 

Thysarum nutans Pers., Syn., 171. Schw., Am. Bor., 2277. 
rhysarum bulbiforme Schum., Saell., 1432. Fl. Dan., t. 1974, f. 3. 
Tilmadoche cernua Fr., S. V. S., 451. 
Thysarum connatural Ditm., in Stum, t. 41. 
Didymium polycephalum B. and Curt., MSS. 

Spores -009— -01 mm . 
On wood and leaves. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schwz.). Boston 
(Farlow) ; Conn. (Wright). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 389 


Physarum gracilientum Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 133. 
Didymium furfuraceum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 116. Curt., Cat., p. 111. 
Tilmadoche soluta Fries, S. V. S., 454. 
On dead wood. Car. (Curt.). 

35. Tilmadoche mutabilis Etfki. 
Physarum aureum Pers., Disp., t. i, f. 6. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2286. 
Physarum viride Pers., Syn., 172, t. 24. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2285. 
Physannn nutans B. viride Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 129. 
Physarum nutans P. aureum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 129. 
Physarum striatum C. aurantiacum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 131. 

Car. (Schw., Curt.); Bethlehem (Schw.). 
Var. B. aurantiacum. Schw., Am. Bor., 2287. 

Car. (Schw.) ; San Francisco (Harkness). 

36. Tilmadoche obloxga (B. and C). 
Trichamphora oblongum B. and C, Grev., No. 360. 
Spores -0075— -01 mm . 
Pennsylvania (Micheuer). 

Genus 7. Leocarpus Link. 

37. Leocarpus eragilis (Dicks.). 
Diderma vernicosum Pers., Obs., t. iii, f. 7. 
Leocarpus vernicosus Liuk., Obs. i, 25. Nees, f. 110, Grev., t. 111. Rav., 

Pun. Car., i, 78. 
Leangium vernicosum Fr., Stirp., p. 83. Schw., Am. Bor., 2303. 
Spores -012— •014 nn ». 
On stems, leaves, etc. Bethlehem (Schw., Curt.) ; Boston (Farlow) ; 
N. York (Peck) ; San Francisco (Harkness). 

Genus 8. Fuligo Hall. 

38. Fuligo varians Sommf., Fl. Lapp. 
Peticularia rufa Schw., Am. Bor., 2377. 
uEthalium septticum Fr. 
yEthalium flavum Schw., Am. Bor., 2367. 
JEthalium candidum Schw., Am. Bor., 2368. 
JEthalium violaceum Schw., Am. Bor., 2369. 
JEthalium vaporarium Pers., Schw., Am. Bor., 2370. 
uEthalium ferrincola Schw., Am. Bor., 2372. 
uEthalium geophilum Peck, N. Y. Reports. 

Spores -0075— -01 mm . 
On wood, stumps, etc. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; Boston 
(Farlow) ; N. York (Peck). 

390 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

Genus 9. Trichampliora Jungh. 
This genus is abolished by Rostafinski in his "supplement." 

Genus 10. Badhamia Berk. 

30. Badhamia iiyalina Berk. 
Physarum hyalinum Pers., Disp., t. 2, f. 4. Schw., Am. Bor., 2276. 
Physarum membranaceum Schum., Herb. 

Spores -01— •0125 ram . 
On bark. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.). 

40. Badhamia utricularis (Bull.). 

Physarum utriculare Chew, Fl. Par., i, 337. 

Spores -01— •0125 ram . 

Penn. (Mich.). 
Var. SeJiimperiana. 

Maine (Fuher, 32). 

41. Badhamia chrysotricha (B. and C). 

Physarum decipiens Curt., in Sill. Journ. 
Badhaniia decipiens Berk, in Grew, N. A Fungi, p. 66. 
Physarum chrysotridmm B. and C, Grev., pp. 357. 
On bark of oak trunk. Car. (Curt.). Ala. (Peters). 

42. Badhamia papaverea Berk, and Rav. In Grev., N. A. Fungi, No. 359. 
Spores -01— 012 mm . 
On decayed oak wood. Car. (Rav.) ; Maine (Fuller). 

43. Badhamia inaurata Curt. Phillips, Grevillea, V, p. 115. 
On wood. California (Harkness). 

Genus 11. Scyphium R. 

44. Scyphium curtisii Rtfki., Mon., 149. 
Didymium Curtisii Berk. , iu Grevillea, N. A. Fungi, No. 351. 

Spores -0125 mm . 
On dead leaves, grass, etc. ■ Car. (Curt., Rav.). 

45. Scyphium rubigixosum (Chev.). 
Physarum rubiginosum Chev., Fl. Par., p. 338. Cooke, Hdbk., No. 1137. 
Spores -014 mra . diam. 
On leaves, stems, etc. New Jersey (Ellis, 2347); N. York (Peck, 87). 

Rostafinski has abolished this genus in his "Supplement," 
and transferred both the speeies to Badhamia. 

The Myxomyceles of the United States. 391 

Family 4. DIDTMIACEi). 

Genus 12. Didymium Schr. 


46. Didymium clavus (A. and S.). 
Physarum clavus A. and S., Consp., t. 2, f. 2. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2281. 
Scores -0065— -00S3 mm . 
On dead leaves. Cav. (Schw., Curt.) ; Canada (Poe) ; Boston (Farlow). 

47. Didymium farinaceum Schrad, t. 3, f. 6. 
Physarum farinaceum Pers., Syn., 174. Schw., Am. Bor., 2280. 
Didymium lobatum Nees, f. 101. Schwz., Am. Bor., No. 2270. 
Physarum melanopus Fr., Gast., 25. 
Didymium melanopus Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 114. 
Didymium physarioides Klotsch. 

Spores -01— -0125™. 
On fallen leaves, etc. New York (Torr., Peck) ; N. Eng. (Russell) ; 
Car. (Curt., Schw.); Bethlehem (Schw.). 

48. Didymium granuliferum Phillips. In Grevillea, V, p. 114, t. 88, fig. 1. 
On herbaceous stems. San Francisco (Harkness). 

49. Didymium microcarpon (Fr.). 
Physarum microcarpon Fr., Gast., 23. 
Didymium nigripes Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 119. * 

Didymium xanthopus Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 120. 
Physarum xanthopus Schw., Am. Bor., 2288. 
Didymium megalosporum B. and C, Grew, No. 349. 
Spores -005S— •0065 mm . 
On fallen leaves. Bethlehem (Schw.); Car. (Curt.); Conn. (Wright); 
Boston (Farlow) ; N. York (Denslow) ; Maine (Bolles). 

50. Didymium physarioides Fr., Gast., 21. Curt., Cat., p. 112. 
Spumaria physarioides Pers., Syn., 163. 

Spores -012— •014™. 
On bark of trunks. Car. (Curt.). 


51. Didymium squamulosum A. and S., t. 4, f. 5. Schw., Am. Bor., 2271. 
Diderma squamulosum A. and S., t. 4, f. 5. 
Didymium herbarum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 120. 
Didymium leucopus Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 121. 
Didymium costatum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 118. 

Spores -0085— -01™. 
On fallen leaves. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) : Conn. (Wright) ; 
N. York (Peck) ; San Francisco (Harkness). 

392 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 


Physarum confluens Fr., S. M., iii, 124. Schw., Am Bor., 2292. 
Didymium effusion Link, Obs. 

Spores -01— •011 mm . 
On stumps. Car. (Schw., Curt.). 


53. Didymium proximum B. and C. In Grev., N. A. Fungi, No. 345. 

Didymium pusillum B. and C, Grev., No. 347. 
On dead pine leaves and herbs. Car. (Curt.). 

The following species are inadequately described to meet 
the requirements of the present classification. 

54. Didymium simulans Howe, in Bulletin Torr. Bot. Club., VI, 30. 
On bark and wood of Ailanthus. N. York (Howe). 

55. Didymium subroseum Peck, N. Y. State Museum Keports. 
Spores globose, smooth, -008 mm . 
On bark of Juglans cinerea. N. York (Peck). 

56. Didymium flavidum Peck, N. Y. State Museum Reports. 
Spores globose, -01 mm . 
On bark of Abies balsamea. N. York (Peck). 

Genus 13. Chondrioderma R. 


57. Chondrioderma spumarioides (Fr.). 

Diderma spumarioides Fries, Sys. Myc. , iii, 104. Berk, and Curt, in Grevillea. 
Carcerina spumarioides Fr., S. V. S., 451. 
Diderma farinaceum Peck, in N. Y. Reports. 

Didymium oxalinum Peck, is probably the variety carcerina of the same 

Spores -00S3— -blZ™. 
On moss, leaves, etc. Car. (Curt.). 

58. Chondrioderma albescens (Phil.). 

Diderma albescens Phillips, in Grevillea, V, pp. 114, t. 87, fig. 3. 
Spores violet-black. 
On pine bark. California (Harkuess). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 393 


59. Chondrioderma difforme (Pers.). 
Diderma difforme Pers., Disp., p. 9. 

Didymium difforme Schw., Am. Bor., 2272. 
Diderma cyanescens Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 109. 
Physarum caesium Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 147. 
Physarum album Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 147. Curt., Cat., pp. 112. 
Spores -01— -0125 mm . 
On herbaceous stems, leaves, etc Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Conn. (Wright). 

60. Chondrioderma testaceum (Schr.). 
Didymium testaceum Schr., t. V, f. 1, 2. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2273. 
Diderma testaceum Pers., Syn , 1G7. 

Diderma Mdrice Wilsoni Cliutou, in N. Y. Keports. 
Spores -0092— -01 mm . 
On dead stems of plants, leaves, etc. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; N. Jersey 
(Ellis); California (Harkuess). 

61. Chondrioderma globosum (Pers.). 
Diderma globosum Pers., Disp., t. i, f. 4, 5. 

Didymium globosum Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2274. 

Spores -0083 mm . 
On leaves. Car. (Schw., Curt.); Bethlehem (Schw.); Boston (Far- 
low); N. Eng. (Frost). 

62. Chondrioderma brunneolum (Ph.). 
Diderma brunneolum Phillips, in Grevillea, V, p. 114, t. 87, f. 4. 
On oak bark. San Francisco (Harkness). 

This seems, from the nature of the capillitium and some 
other points, to be hardly a good Chondrioderma. 


63. Chondrioderma radiatum (Linn.) 

Lycoperdon radiatum Linn., Sp. PL, 1654. 

Didymium stellare Schrad., t. 5, f. 3, 4. 

Diderma stellare Pers., Syn., 164. B. and Curt, in Grevillea. 

Diderma umbilicatum Pers., Syn., 165. 

Spores -009— •012 mm . 
On pine wood. Car. (Curt.). 

64. Chondrioderma gasterodes (Phil.). 
Diderma gasterodes Phillips, in Grevillea, V, t. 87, fig. 1. 
Spores violet-black, smooth, •015 mm . 
On bark and moss. California (Harkuess). 

394 " The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

65. Chondrioderma floriformf, (Bull.). 

Splmnocarpus floriformis Bull., t. 371. 
Diderma floriforme Pers., Syn., 164. 
Leangium floriforme Schw., Am. Bor., 2302. 
Leangium lepidotum Ditm., t. 21. 
Diderma concinnum B. and C, Grevillea, No. 343. 
Spores -01— •0125°° m . 
On trunks. Car. (Schw., Curt.); Bethlehem (Schw.). 

66. Chondrioderma laciniatum (Phil.). 
Diderma laciniatum Phillips, in Grevillea, V, t. 87, fig. 2. 

Spores dark violet, •013 mm . 
On dead wood. California (Harkness). 

67. Chondrioderma stipata (Schw.). 
Leangium stipatum Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2304. 
On rotten wood. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

68. Chondrioderma Crustacea (Peck). 
Diderma crustaceum Peck, in N. Y. Reports. 

Spores globose, •0125 mm . 
On sticks and leaves. N. York (Peck). 

69. Chondrioderma albuxa Howe. 
Diderma albulum Howe, Bulletin Torrey Bot. Club, pp. 30. 
On bark and wood of Ailanthus. N. York (Howe). 

These last three species can only be entered provisionally, 
until the examination of authentic specimens can determine 
their proper position, for which the descriptions are insuffi- 

Genus 14. Lepidoderma DeBary. 

70. Lepidoderma tigrinum (Schrad.). 

Didymium tigrinum Schrad., t. 6, f. 2, 3. 

Didymium rufipes Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 116. Curt., Cat., p. 111. 
Physarum squamulosum Pers., Syn., 174. Schw., Am. Bor., 2279. 
Physarum tigrinum Schw., Am. Bor., 2282. 

Spores -01— O^S""". 
On trunks. Car. (Curt., Schw.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United /States. 395 


Genus 15. Diachcea Fr. 
71. Diachcea leucopoda (Bull.). 

Trichia leucopoda Bull, t. 502, f. 2. 

Diachcea elegans Fr., Stirp., 84. Rav., Ex. i, 80. 

Diachcea leucostyla Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2312. 

Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; N. Eng. (Sprague) ; N. York (Peck). 

Genus 16. Spumaria Pers. 

72. Spumaria alba (Bull.). 

Spumaria mucilago Pers., Disp., t. i, f. a, b, c. Schw., Am. Bor., 2363. 
Didymium spumarioides Fr., Sys. Myc, ill, pp. 121. 
Car. (Schw.) ; N. York (Peck). 

73. Spumaria Micheneri Berk. In Grevillea, N. A. Fuugi, No. 311. 

Spores globose, -025 — •03 mm . 
On very rotten wood. Penn. (Michr.). 

Order III. Amaurochetese. 
Genus 17. Stemonitis Gled. 
74. Stemonitis fusca Roth., Mag. Bot. ; Lea, Cine, p. 69. 
Stemonitis fascicidata Pers., Syn., 187. Schw., Am. Bor., 2344. 
Spores -0066— -009 mm . 
On wood, leaves, etc. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Boston (Farlow) ; Ohio 
(Lea) ; N. York (Peck). 

75. Stemonitis ferruginea Ehr., Syl. Ber., f. vi. Curt., Cat., p. 112. 

Rav., Fun. Car., ii, 75. 
Stemonitis decipiens Nees, Leop. Car., XVI, 95. 
Stemonitis herbatica Peck, N. Y. Reports. 

Spores globose, -0053— -0075 mm . 
On carious wood, plants, etc. Car. (Curt.) ; Boston (Farlow). 

76. Stemonitis porphyra B. and Curt. 
In Grevillea, N. A. Fungi, No. 374, not Rav., Exs., ii, 77. 
On pine wood. Car. (Curt.). 

77. Stemonitis tubulina Schw., Am. Bor., 2345. 
Car. (Schw.); Penn. (Schw.). 

396 The Myxomyceles of the United States. 

78. Stemonitis maxima Scliw., Am. Bor., 2349. 
On old Polyporus. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

79. Stemonitis crypta Schw., Am. Bor., 2351. 
In cracks of rotten trunks. Nazareth (Schw.). 

Genus 18. Comatricha Preuss. 

80. Comatricha typhina (Roth.). 

Stemonitis typhina Roth., Fl. Germ., i, 547. Schw., Am. Bor., 2343. 
Stemonitis typhoides Dc. Fl. Fr., ii, 257. Rav., Ex., ii, 76. 
Stemonitis pumila Corda, Ic, V, 37. 

Spores -0046— •0067 mm . 
On wood, sticks, etc. Car. (Schw., Curt.); Penn. (Schw.); N. York 
(Peck); California (Harkness). 

81. Comatricha Friesiana DeBary. 

Stemonitis obfuscata Fr., Sym. Gast., 17. Lea, Cine. PL, p. 69. Rav., 

Fungi Car., V, 84. 
Stemonitis ovata Pers., Syn., 189. Schw., Am. Bor., 2347. 
Stemonitis globosa Schum., Saell. 

Spores -0083— •01 mm . 
Var. A. obovata. 
Var. B. oblonga. 

On dead wood. Ohio (Lea) ; Alabama (Peters) ; Car. (Curt., Schw.) ; 
Conn. (Wright) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; Maine (Morse) ; California (Harkness). 

82. Comatricha Persoonii R. 
Stemonitis oblonga Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 159. Curt., Cat., p. 112. 
Spores -0066— -0083 mm . 

83. Comatricha pulchella Bab. 

Stemonitis papillata Pers. Disp., t. i, f. 4. Schw., Am. Bor., 2348. 
Stemonitis pulchella Berk., Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1841, t. 12, f. 11. 
Stemonitis tenerrima Curt., in Sill. Journ., p. 349. B. and Curt., Grev., 
No. 373. 

A. obovata. 

B. oblonga. 

On bark, grass, etc. Car. (Curt., Schw.) ; N. York (Peck) ; Penn. (Schw.) 

84. Comatricha confluens C. and E. 
Stemonitis confluens Cooke and Ellis, in Grevillea, V, p. 51. 
On oak bark. N. Jersey (Ellis). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 397 

Genus 19. Lamproderma R. 

85. Lamproderma physaroides (A. and S.). 
Stemonitis physaroides A. and S., t. 11, f. 8. Schw., Am. Bor., 2346. 
Spores -012— -014 mm . 
On birch trunk. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Ohio (M. J. B.). 

86. Lamproderma columbina (Pers.). 

Physarum columbinum Pers., Syn., 173. Schw., Amer. Bor., 2284. 
Physarum bryophilum Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, p. 135. 
Spores -Oil— -014 mm . 
On dead wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Michr.) ; Boston (Farlow). 

87. Lamproderma arcyrioides (Som.). 
Stemonitis arcyrioides Sorumf., Tidschr. 
On leaves, wood, etc. California (Harkness). 

88. Lamproderma Ellisiana Cooke. 
Badhamia penetralis C. and E., Grevillea, V, p. 49. 
On pine boards. N. Jersey (Ellis). 

This is certainly not a species of Badhamia, according to 
the present estimation of that genus. The character of the 
capillitium is that of Lamproderma; but the conglutination 
of the spores is a feature not yet recognized in any other 
species of Lamproderma. The specimens from which the 
species was originally described were by no means good ; 
hence it requires further investigation. 


Genus 20. Enerthenema Bowm. 
89. Enerthenema Berkeleyana Rtfki. 

Stemonitis mammosa Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, p. 161. 
Enerthenema elegans Berk., Ann. N. H., No. 338 (not Bowm.). 
Spores -0086— -01 m,n . 
On boards, wood, etc. Car. (Curt., Rav.). 

398 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 


Genus 21. Amaurochcete R. 

90. Amaurochcete atra (A. and S.). 

Lycogala atrum A. and S., Consp., t. 3, f. 3. 

Reticularia atra Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 86. Curt., Cat., p. 111. 

Lachnobolus cribrosus Fr., Orb. Vet., 148. 

Spores -014— •015 mm . 
On logs. Car. (Curt.). 

Family 9. BEEFELDI ACEJ1. 

Genus 22. Brefeldia R. 

91. Brefeldia maxima (Fr.). 

Dermodium inquinans Fr., Gast., p. 9. 

Beticularia maxima Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 85. Schw., Am. Bor., 2375. 
On trunks. Bethlehem (Schwz.). 


Genus 23. Eckinostelium DeBary. 
Not represented in the United States. 

Sub-Division II. LAMPROSPOR.E. 
Spores diversely colored, never violet. 

Section A. ATB1CHJEJ. 
Sporangia without a capillitium. 

Order IV. Anemese. 
Genus 24. Dictyostelium Bref. 
Not yet recorded in the United States. 

Family 12. LICEACEJ!. 
Genus 25. Licea Schrad. 

92. Licea flexuosa Pers., Syn., t. 1, f. 5, 6. Schw., Am. Bor., 2315. 
Licea spadicea Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 197. 

Spores -0125— •014 mm . 

Car. (Schw.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 399 

93. Licea variabilis Schrad., t. b, f. 5, 6. Schw., Am. Bor., 2314. 
Ou trunks. Bethlehem (Schw., Curt.). 

94. Licea Lindheimeri Berk., in N. A. Fungi, No. 369. 
Spores globose, •0076 mm . 
On dead bark. Texas (Liudheimer). 

95. Licea fallax Schw., Am. Bor., 2313. 
Car. (Schw.) ; Perm. (Schw.). 

96. Licea ochracea Peck, N. Y. Reports. 
Ou grass aud club-moss. 

This is clearly not a Licea, but the description is too im- 
perfect to determine the genus. 

97. Licea epiphylla Schw., Am. Bor., 2318. 
On fallen leaves. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

98. Licea nitens Schw., Am. Bor., 2319. 
Ou bark. Bethlehem (Schwz.). 

Genus 26. Tubulina Pers. 

99. Tubulina cylindrica Bull. 

Tubulina fragiformis Pers., Disp. 

Licea tubulina Schrad., N. G., p. 16. 

Licea fragiformis Nees, f. 102. Schw., Am. Bor., 2312. 

Licea cylindrica Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 195. 

Licea microsperma B. aud C, Grew, No. 367. 

Spores -005— -0067 mm . 
On rotten wood, etc. Car. (Curt., Schw.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.) ; N. York 
(Berk., Peck); Peun. (Michr.) ; Boston (Farlow) ; New Jersey (Berk.). 

100. Tubulina stipitata (B. and Rav.) ; 

Licea stipitata B. and Rav., Linn. Soc. Journ., IX, p. 350. 
Spores pinkish umber, -0046 — 005""°. 
On dead wood. Car. (Rav.). 

400 The Myxomycetes of the United /States. 

Genus 27. Lindbladia Fr. 


Genus 28. Clathroptychium R. 

101. Clathroptychium rugulosum (Wall.). 

Beticularia plumbea Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 88. 
Licea applanata Berk., Hook. Jour. 1845, p. 66. 
Spores -0083— •01 mm . 
On bark of Quercus alba. Alabama (Peters) ; Car. (Rav.) ; N. Jersey 

Genus 29. Enteridium Ehr. 

102. Enteridium olivaceum Ehr. 

Beticularia applanata B. and Br., Ann. N. H., t. 11, f. 3. 
Badhamia uregularis C. and E., in Grevillea, V, p. 89. 
On pine wood. N. Jersey (Ellis). 

Sporidia at first agglutinated together from 4 to 20 in a 

Order V. HeterodermesB. 

Family 14. CRIBRARIAGE^G. 

Genus 30. Dictydium Schrad. 

103. Dictydium cernuum (Pers.). Schw., Am. Bor., 2355. 

Dictydium umbilicatum Schrad., t. 4, f. 1. Curt., Cat., p. 112. Rav., 

Fungi Car., ii, 78. 
Dictydium trichioides Chev., Fl. Par. Corda, Ic, V, f. 36. 
Car. (Schw., Curt.); Penn. (Schw.); Boston (Farlow). 


104. Dictydium microspermum Schw., Am. Bor., 2352. 
Car. (Schw.) ; Penn. (Schw.). 

105. Dictydium venosum. Schw., Am. Bor., 2354. 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.); Penn. (Schw.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 401 

Genus 31. HeterodictyonH. 
Genus 32. Cribraria Pers. 

106. Cribraria rufa (Roth.). 

Cribraria ritfescens Pers., Disp., t. 1, f. 5. Schw., Am. Bor., 2358. 
Cribraria fulv a Schrad, t. 1, fig. 1. 
Cribraria intermedia Schrad, t. 1, fig. 2. 

Spores -005— 0065 mffi . 
On the ground. Ohio (Schw.). 

107. Cribraria purpurea Schrad. Schw., Am. Bor., 2356. 
Spores -005— -0065 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Perm. (Schw.) ; Boston (Farlow). 

108. Cribraria vulgaris Schrad, t. 1, f. 5. Schw., Amer. Bor., 2360. 

Spores -005— -0065 mm . 
On rotten trunks. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; Boston (Farlow). 

109. Cribraria tenella Schrad, t. 3, f. 2, 3. Schw., Am. Bor., 2361. 

Spores -005— 0065 mm . 
On rotten wood. Penn. (Schw., Curt.). 

110. Cribraria microcarpa (Schrad). 

Dictydium microcarpon Schrad, t. 4, f. 3, 4. Curt., Cat., p. 112. 
Cribraria microcarpa Pers., Syn., 190. 

Spores -005— •0065 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Curt.). 

111. Cribraria splendens (Schrad.). 
Dictydium splendens Schrad, t. 4, f. 5, 6. Schw., Am. Bor., 2353. 

Spores -005— -0065 mm . 

On rotten wood. Bethlehem (Schw.). 


112. Cribraria intricata Schrad, t. 3, f. 1. Curt., Cat. Eav., Fungi 

Car., ii, 79. 

Spores -005— -0065 mm . 
On dead wood. Car. (Curt.) ; N. Eng. (Sprague). 

113. Cribraria macrocarpa Schrad, t. 2, f. 3, 4. Schw., Am. Bor., 2357. 

Spores -005— •0065 mm . 
On the ground. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Ohio (Schw.). 

402 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

114. Cribraria argillacea Pers. Schw., Am. Bor., 2359. 

Cribraria micropus Schrad, t. 2, f. 1, 2. 
Licea spermoides B. and Curt., Grevillea, No. 368. 
Spores -005— •0065 n,m . 
On rotten trunks. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.). 

115. Cribraria elegaxs B. and C. In Grevillea, N. A. Fungi, No. 362. 
On decayed wood. Car. (Curt.). 

116. Cribraria microscopica B. and C. In Grev., N. A. Fungi, No. 364. 
On shingles. Car. (Curt.). 

117. Cribraria mixutissima Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2362. 
Cribraria minima B. and C, Grevillea, No. 363. 
On rotten wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.); Penn. (Schw.). 


Sporangia constantly possessed of a capillitium. 

Order VI. Reticularis. 


Genus 33. Reticularia Bull. 

118. Reticularia lycoperdon Bull. 

Lycogala aryentea Pers., Disp., p. 7. Schw., Am. Bor., 2373. 
Beiicularia umbrina Fr., S. M., iii, 87. Curt., Cat., p. 111. 

Spores -008 mm . 
On rotten trunks. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.) ; N. Eng. 
(Murray); N. York (Peck). 


119. Reticularia affixis B. jfnd Curt. In N. A. Fungi, No. 340. Berk., 
in Journ. Linn. Soc, Vol. x, p. 347. 

Spores oblong, •01 mm . 
On dead trees. Car. (Curt.). 

120. Reticularia applaxata Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2376. 
On bark and wood of Salix. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

121. Reticularia stroxgylium Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2374. 

Car. (Schw.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 403 

Order VII. Calonenemese. 

Family 16. TRICHIACE^E. 

Genus 34. Trichia Hall. 
122. Trichia fallax Pers., Ohs., iii, t. 4, 5. Schw., Am., Bor., [2323. 

Trichia cerina Ditm., t. 25. 

Spores -01— •012 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; N. Eng. (Frost) ; 
California (Harkness). 

123. Trichia fragilis Sow., t. 279. 

Trichia botrytis Pers., Disp., 9. Schw., Am. Bor., 2320. 
Trichia serotina Schrad, Journ., t. 3, f. 1. Curt., Cat., p. 113. 
Trichia pyriformis Fries, Sys. Myc, iii, 184. 
C raterium jloriforme Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2307. 
Spores -Oil— 013 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Bethlehem (Schw.). 

124. Trichia varia Pers., var. genuina. Schw., Am. Bor., 2329. 

Spores -01— •014 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; Conn. (Wright) ; 
N. York (Peck). 

Trichia varia, var. nigripes. 

Trichia nigripes Pers., Syn., i, 78. Schw., Am. Bor., 2325. 
Trichia olivacea Pers., Obs., i, 62. Schw., Am. Bor., 2327. 
Spores -01— •014 tnm . 

On rotten wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; California 

125. Trichia scabra Rtfki., Mon., p. 258. 
Var. A. analogia C. 

The elaters are not so spinulose as in the typical form, 
being sometimes scarcely evident. 

Spores •01 mm . 
On rotten wood. New York (Peck, 285). 
June, 1877. 30 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. xi. 

404 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

Var. B. aurea C. 

Sporangia densely coespitose, sub-globose or obovate, shining golden 
yellow (resembling T. chrysosperma, but of a brighter, deeper yellow). 
Mass of spores and capilliliura of a deeper color, nearly orange. Elatera 
cylindrical, obtuse at the ends, terminating in a smooth point about as 
long as the diameter of the elater. Spirals three to four, with intervening 
depressions rather wider, scarcely prominent. Spores globose, minutely 
but thickly spiuulose, -013 mm . diam. Cooke, Brit. Mt/x., fig. 258. 

On rotten wood. Portland, Maine (Fuller). 

12G. Trichia abrupta Cooke. 

Sporangia clustered, globose or ovate, sessile on a delicate hypothallus, 
ochrey brown, or pale bay brown. Mass of spores and capillitium of 
nearly the same color. Elaters cylindrical, terminating in obtuse ends, 
with one, two, or three diverging acute spines as long as the diameter of 
the elaters. Spirals about four, with rather broader intervening depres- 
sions. Capillitium and spores dull yellow under transmitted light. Spores 
globose, delicately warted, -012 mm . diam. Cooke, Brit. Myx ,fig. 256. 

Ou rotten wood. Portland, Maine (Fuller). 

127. Trichia chrysosperma Bull. Curt., Cat., pp. 113. 

Triehia nitens Pers., Obs., i, 62. Schw., Am. Bor., 2328. 
Trichia turbinata With., Arr., iv, 180. Curt., Cat., p. 113. 
Triehia ovata Pers., Obs., ii, 35. Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2326. 
Spores -01— -012, rarely -015 mm . 
On wood and sticks. Car. (Curt., Schw.) ; Maine (E. C. B.) ; California 
(Harkness) ; Boston (Farlow) ; N. England (Russell) ; N. York (Peck) ; 
Penu. (Schw.). 


128. Trichia angulata Schw., Am. Bor., 2333. 

Licea angulata Fries, S. V. S. 
Inside fallen bark of Fraxinus. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

129. Trichia miniata Schw., Am. Bor., 2322. 
Ou bark. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

130. Trichia punctulata Schw., Am. Bor., 2330. 
On carious wood. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

131. Trichia difformis Schw., Am. Bor., 2334. 
On rotten wood of Jucjlans nigm. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United /States. 405 

132. Trichia rkniformis Peck, N. Y. Reports. 
Ou bark of Acer. N. York (Peck). 

Genus 35. Hemiprcyria R. 
133. Hemiarcvria rubiformis (Pers.). 

Trirliia rubiformis Pers., Disp.. t. 1, f. 3. Schw., Am. Bor., 2321. 
Trichia Neesiana Corda, Ic., i, 2S86. 
Trichia pyriformis Hoffin., V. Cry., t. i, f. 1. 

Spores -01— •0H mra . 
On rotten wood and moss. Car. (Sehw., Curt.); Bethlehem (Schw.); 
Canada (Dickie); Boston (Farlow) ; N. York (Peck). 

134. Hemiarcyria clavata (Pers.). 

Trichia clavata Pers., Disp., p. 11. Schw., Am. Bor., 2324. 
Trichia obtusa Wigand, t. 11, f. 4. 

Spores -O0S— -000""". 
Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penu. (Schw.) ; Boston (Farlow) ; Conn. (Wright) ; 
N. York (Peck). 

135. Hemiarcyria leiocarpa Cooke. 
Ilemiareyria paHidula Cooke in litt. 

Sporangia simple, obovate or pyriform, rarely almost globose, pallid, 
with a stem of the same color, as long as the diameter of the sporangia. 
Mass of spores and capillitium concolorous, or with a slight ochraceous 
tint. Capillitium sparse, forming a loose net. Tubes branched in a retic- 
ulate manner. Spirals three, thin, prominent along the convex side of 
the tubes, mixed with a few short obtuse spines. Spores globose, with a 
thin membrane, -0125 — -OU"" 11 . Coolie, Brit. Myx., fig. 252, 255. 

On decayed vegetable debris. Portland, Maine (Bolles). 

Many of the threads are attached to the inner wall of the 
sporangium, after the manner of Arct/via, short, few in 
number, and thin-walled, differing in this feature from H. 
clavata in a marked manner. 

136. Hemiarcyria serpula (Scop.). 

Trichia reticulata Pers., Disp., 10. Schw., Am. Bor., 2332. 
Trichia serpula Pers., Disp., 10. Schw., Am. Bor., 2331. 
Car. (Schw., Curt.); Bethlehem (Schw.); N. York (Peck). 

406 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

137. Hemiaecyria stipata (S.). 

Leangium stipatum Schwz., Am. Bor., No. 2304. 
Carolina (Schw.). 


Genus 36. Arcyria Hill. 

138. Arcyria punicea Pers., Disp., 10. Schw., Am. Bor., 2338. Rav., 
Fungi Car., ii, 80. 

Arcyria fusca Fr., Gast., 17. 
Arcyria vernicosa Rost., Supp. p. 36. 

Spores .0067— •0075 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; N. York 
(Peck) ; Boston (Farlow) ; California (Harkness). 

139. Arcyria pomiformis (Roth.). 

Arcyria umbrina Schum., Saell., 1479. Curt., Cat., p. 113. 
Arcyria ochroleuca Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 181. Curt., Cat., p. 113. 
Arcyria lutea Schwz., Syn. Car., 396. Schw., Am. Bor., 2339. 
Spores -0075— 008 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; California (Harkness). 

140. Arcyria stricta R. 

Arcyria cinerea Bull., Schw.,, Am. Bor., 2336. 
Arcyria pallida B. and C, Grevillea, No. 365. 
Arcyria trichioides Corda, la, 11, f. 86. 

Spores -0066— -0083 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Rav.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; Texas (Lindh.) ; 
Ohio (Lea) ; Boston (Farlow) ; N. Jersey (Berk.) . 

141. Arcyria digitata (Schw.). 

Stemonitis digitata Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2350. 
Arcyria Leprieuri Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., iii, (1855), p. 141. 
Arcyria bicolor B. and Br., Cub. Fung., ii, p. 86. 
Spores -0066— •0095 mm . 
On rotten wood. Car. (Schw.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; N. York (Peck). 

142. Arcyria incarnata Pers., Obs., t. v, f. 4, 5. Schw., Am. Bor., 2337. 

Arcyria carnea Schum., Saell., 1477. 
Arcyria adnata Rost., Supp., p. 37. 

Spores -0066— -0075 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.) ; N. York (Peck). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 407 

143. Arcyria nutans (Bull.) Curt., Cat., p. 113. 

Arcyria flava Pers., Obs., i, 85. Grev., t. 309. Schw., Am. Bor., 2335. 
Spores -0075— -0083 mm . 
On carious wood. Car. (Curt., Schw.) ; Boston (Farlow) ; Conn. 
(Wright); N. York (Peck, Schw.); Penn. (Schw.). 

144. Arcyria versicolor Phillips, Grevillea, v, p. 115, t. 88, fig. 8. 

Arcyria vitelline/, Phillips, in Grevillea, v, p. 115, t. 88, fig. 7 (exclusive of 
flg. d). 
On bark and logs. California (Harkness). 

From comparison of authentic specimens, we are convinced 
that there are no specific differences in the two forms A. 
versicolor and A. vitellina. In the threads of the latter we 
can find no structure like that of the figure 7, above cited in 

145. Arcyria minor Schw., Am. Bor., 2341. 
On soft wood. Bethlehem (Schw.). 

Genus 37. Lachnobolus Fr. 

146. Lachnobolus globosus (Schw.). 

Arcyria globosa Schw., Syn. Car., 400. Schw., Am. Bor., 2340. 
Craterium globositm'Fr., Sys. Myc, iii, 154. Curt., Cat., p. 112. 
Nassula globosa Fr., S. V. S. 

Spores •0067 mm . 
On corn-stalks, involucres of Castanea, etc. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. 
Schw.) ; N. York (Peck) ; Boston (Farlow). 


147. Lachnobolus cinereus Schw., Am. Bor., 2378. 
On stems. Salem (Schw.) ; Car. (Curt.). 

Genus 38. Dermodium Rtfki. 
Genus 39. Lycogala Mich. 

408 The Myxomycetes of the United States. 

148. Lycogala El'iDEKDRUM (Buxb.). Eav., Fungi Car., ii, 74. 

Lycogala miniatum Schw., Am. Bor., No. 22d9,. 
Lycogala punctata Pers., Syn. 158. Schw., Am. Bor., 22C9. 
Lycogala terrestre Fr., Sys. Myc, iii. Bav., Fungi Car., iv, 78. 
Spores -0035— -0058"™. 
Car. (Schw., Curt.); Penn. (Schw.); Ohio (Lea); Boston (Farlow). 

Genus 40. Cornuvia R. 
Genus 41. Oligonema R. 


Genus 42. Perichcena Fr. 


Perichcena popitlina Fr., Gast., 12. Curt., Cat., p. 113. 
Perichmna qwrcina Fr., Gast., 12. B. and Curt., N. A. Fungi. 
Physarum luteo-album Schum., Saell., 1430. 
Perichcena circumscissa Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2309. 
Perichcena artocreas B. and Bav., in N. A. Fungi, No. 370. 
Perichcena marginata Schwz., Am. Bor., 2310. 
Licea artocreas B. and Bav., Fungi Car., ii, 82. 
Spores -01 — 012 ra ™. 
On bark. Car. (Schw., Curt.) ; Penn. (Schw.). 

150. Perichcexa depressa Lib., Ex., iv, No. 378. 

Perichcena vaporaria Schw., Am. Bor., No. 2311. 
Perichcena marginata Schwz., Ainer. Bor., 2310. 
Spores -009— •011 mm . 
On branches. Car. (Schw., Curt.). 

151. Perichcena variabilis E. 

Ophiotheca umbrina B. and Curt., in N. A. Fungi, No. 372. Grevillea, V, 
p. 55. 

Spores globose, -00S3— -01 mm . 
Car. (Curt.) ; N. Jersey (Ellis). 

152. Perichcena veumicularis Schw. 

Physarum vermicular is Schwz., Am. Bor., No. 2296. 
Carolina (Schwz.). 

The Myxomycetes of the United States. 409 

153. Perichjena irregularis B. and Curt., in N. A. Fungi, No. 371. 

Spores globose, then broadly elliptic. 
On bark Car. (Curt.). 


154. Pericilena flavida Peck, in N. Y. Reports. 

On moss. N. York (Peck). 

[Perichcena strobilina Fr., S. M., iii, 191, is referred to Pleosporopsis 
strohilorum (Erst.] 

Note. Many species are inserted in this s}^nopsis, as for 
instance those ot'Schweinitz, provisionally and approximately, 
as the intimate structure is too little known to give them a 
definite position with any degree of certainty. Although 
these uncertain species are included under definite genera, it 
must not be supposed that these approximations are given 
with confidence as to their absolute accuracy. 



[The names of new species are printed in Roman letters ; synonyms and 
species to which reference is made are in Italics; names of sub-families, 
families, or higher divisions, in Small Capitals.] 


Abramis 343, 344 

Americanus 344 

versicolor 344 

Accipiter Cooperi 10, 145 

fuscus 10 

Acuatellln.e 191, 19-2, 1!):: 

Achatina Gundlachi 152, 153 

Aehatinella, 189, 190. 191, 192, 

193, 194 

acuminata 193 

acuta 193 

auricula 191, 192, 193 

bulbosa 193 

casta 193 

cit rum 193 

Oumingi 192 

decora 192 

gravida 192, 193 

magna 19:; 

marmorata 190 

obesa 191, 195 

oviformis 193 

picta 192, 193 

plumbea 190 

rosea 192 

sanguined 193 

soror 193 

Sowerbyana 193 

straminea 193 

tttrao 193 

iextilis 190, 195 

twrriteUa 193 

venusta 191, 193, 195 

virgulata 192 

vulpina 192 

Achat'nellastrnm 194 

Acicula 153 

Aeidaspis Trentonensis 150, 157 

Aeioi iscium 391 

Acronycta 302 


Acronycta brumosa 92, 93 

pudorata 93 

tritium 93 

VerriRi 92 

Aclitnrus Bartramius 11 

Aetodromas mi militia 11 

Adinia 322 

Adita 107, 109 

chionanthi 95, 109 

ZEgialites nivosus 11 

vociferus 10 

.■Ethalium candidum 389 

ferrincola 389 

flavum 389 

geophilum 389 

muscorum 386 

s( pticum 389 

vaporarium 389 

vwlaceum 389 

Agelseus phceniceus 7. 141, 142 

Agrotiphila montana 108 

Agrotis 107, 108 

acclivis 93 

annexa 94 

collaris 304 

conflua 304, 305 

cupida 305 

formalis 304 

hyprrborea 95 

islandica 95 

montana 94, 108 

okakensis 95 

opipara 95, 108 

perconflna 304 

placida 305 

rufipectus 304 

scropulana 95, 108 

venerabilis 94 

volubilis 94 

Aix sponsa 13 





Albertite 106 

Albuminoid ammonia 281 

Allmmellus 342, 343 

amabUis 343 

diledus 342 

jacvlus 342, 370 

megalops 343 

socius 343 

Alburnops 333, 334 

blennius 333 

Alburnus amabUis 343 

megalops 343 

socius 343 

Aj.cedinid^e 8, 143 

Alecto inflata 136 

Alethopteris Pennsylvanica 56 

Ak'tia argittacea 302 

Alosa sapidissima 366. 369 

' ' Alum Rocks " 15 

Alvordius aspro. . .310, 370, 373, 375 

evides 310, 375 

Amalia 23 

///(gates 22 

marginata 22 

Amastra.. 193, 194 

Amaurochcetace.e 398 

Amaurochcete atra 398 

Amaurochete/E 395 

Amaitrobfor.-e 383 

Amblodon concinnus 319 

grunniens 318, 319 

lineatus 319 

neglectus 319 

Ambloplites, 315. 316, 360, 361, 369 
370, 373, 376 

idhdoides 315, 316 

rupestris, 315, 316, 361, 369 
370, 373, 376 

Amblyura comsca 129 

Amia 58 

Amid.e 58 

Amiurus, 351, 366, 367, 368, 

369, 377 

albidus 367 

Antoniensis 351 

brunneus 366, 367, 369 

catus 367 

cupreus 351, 369, 377 

felinus 351 

Hvklus 368 

marmoratus 368 

melas 377 

nigricans 367 

jilaiycephalus 367 

vidpeculus 367 


Amiurus mnthocephalus 377 

Ammocoetes argenteus 377 

niger 377 

Ammonoceras 73, 86 

Amolita 104 

Ampelid^e 5, 139 

Ampelis cedrorum 5, 139 

Amphibulima 35, 46 

appendiculata 188 

depressa Ins 

pardalina 191) 

patula 188, 199 

Anadenus 180, 196 

Anarta, 94, 95, 107, 108, 109 

altjida 94 

amissa 191 

melanopa 105 

membrosa 101 

uivaria 107 

Anas boschas 12 

obscurus 12 

Anatid.e 12 

Aneme.e 398 

Angioridium sinuosum 386 

valvatum 386 

Anguilla vulgaris 352, 369, 373 

Anguillid.e 352 

Anomalocystites 156 

Anser hyperboreus 1 2 

Anthua Ludovicvanus '■'> 

Antrostomus Nviiali 8 

vociferus 143 

Apatela alni 302 

funeralis 302 

occidentalis 302 

psi 302 

Apex 191, 192, 193, 194 

Aphododerus Sayanus 368 

ApHtes '. 313 

Aplodinotus grunnkns 318, 319 

Apocope 330 

Apogon 58 

Apomotis cyaneUus 359, 376 

Aquila Canadensis 9 

chrysaetos 9 

ArcMbuteo/emtgrmettS 9 

lagopus 9 

Sancti-Johannis 9 

Arcyria adnata 406 

l)in,lor 406 

carnea 406 

cinerea 406 

digitata 406 

flava 407 

fusca 406 

globosa 407 

Iii (lex. 



Arcyria incarnate 406 

Leprieuri 406 

Mea 406 

minor 407 

nutans 406 

ochroleuca 406 

pallida 406 

pomiformis 406 

punicea 406 

stncta 406 

trichioides 406 

umbrina 406 

oernicosa 406 

versicolor 407 

vUdlina 407 

Arcyriace.e - 4( id 

Ardea coeruka ... 146 

kerodias 12 

uirescens 140 

Ardeid.e 12, 146 

Argyreus 331, 341 

lunatus 331 

obtusus 331 

rubripinnis 341 

Ariolimax 23, 181, 182 

Andersoni 181, 11).-), 196 

CaHfornicn* 181 

( blumbianus 181 

HemphiUi 181, 195, 196 

niger 181, 182 

Arion . Indersoni 182 

foliolatus 182 

Arionta 30, 178, 179, 180 

Arlina effulgens 311 

Asaphus giga.?, loo, 156, 157, 158, 159 

megistos loo, 156, 158, 159 

Asphaltic Coal 105, 106 

Asproperca 311, 312 

zebra 312 

Asternotremia mesolrema 368 

Atiieijinidje 376 

Athyris svbtUiia 16, 17, 18 


percentage of carbonic an- 
hydride in 276 

percentage of oxygen in. . 

2:o, 271 
Atmospheric ozone, 272, 273, 

274, 27.-) 

Atuich.e 383, 398 

Atrypa reticulasri 295 

Aulopora arachnoidea 156 

Auricula pettucens 87 

Auriculella 192, 193, 194 

Aviculopecten Wkitei 18 

Aythya Americana 13 


Aythya ferina 13 

Badhamia 390, 397, 400 

chrysotricha 390 

decipiens 390 

hyaUna 390 

inauraia 390 

irregularis 400 

papaverea 390 

penetralis 397 

iitrirnliifis 390 

Bellerophon 18, 117, 118 

Coutinhoanus 117, 118 

Gilletianus 118 

k<t« 117 

Montfortianits 18 

Morganianus 117 

percarinatus 18 

rotiformis 118 

Stevensanus 18 

trilohahts 118 

tumidus (var.) 118 

Beyrichia 127 

n< data 2H4 

Binneva notabUis 183, 184, 196 

Blob 321 

Blue Cat 351, 366 

Blue Minnow 375 

Bodianus achigan 315 

rupestris 315, 316 

Boleichthvs degans 308, 369 

Boleosoma, 308, 309, 311, 368, 369 
373, 375 

Barrattii 308 

brevipinne 311, 373 

effulgms 311 

maculaticeps 311 

macvtiaium 373, 375 

Olmstedi 368 

stigmamm 309, 311, 369 

tessdaium 311 

Bonasa umbeUoides : 10 

wmbdlus 10, 145 

Botaurus lenivginosns 12 

Branta ( 'anadensis 12 

Bream 361 

Bkefeldiace^e :!!ts 

Brefeldia maxima 398 

Brim 317, 375 

Brookville Coal 15, 17 

Brownsville Coal 47, 51, 52, 57 

Biyttus Floridensis 360 

melanops 359 

mineopas 359 

reticnlatas 360 

Bubo arrticus 9 

Virginiarms 9 



Bucephala albeola 



Bulimella 191, 192, 193, 

Bulimulus 33, 35, 46, 


cdtematus 37, 

Altoperuvianus . .34, 35, 37, 

auris-leporis 36, 40, 

Bahamensis 36, 187, 

chrysalis 37, 

annamomeo-lineaius . . ■ .37, 


dealbatus 37, 

durus 37, 



Guadalupensis 37, 

Jonasi 36, 

laticinctus 36, 37, 

liliaceus . -. 

limunceoides 186, 

Zobfri.... 33, 34, 35, 37, 44, 

membranaceus 36, 


pdUidior 37, 186, 187, 

papyraceus ... ... -36, 

Peruvianus, 35, 37, 40, 44, 

primularis 37, 44, 


rJiodolarynx 37, 44, 

sepulcralis 37, 

soluius 37, 

sporadicus 37, 








auris-silmi 33, 


foveolatus 32, 



































































Buteo borealis 10 

calurus . 10 

Swainsonii 10 

Calamites 16, 56 

Calamospiza bicolor.... 6 

Calcare.e 383 

Galliums . . 313, 315, 358, 359, 360 

Florvdmsis 358, 360 

gulosus 359 

melanops 359 

punctulatus, 313, 315, 358, 359 

Callocera 128 

Calocampa 99, 100 

dnentia 99 

curvimacula .99, 100 

exolda 100 

germana 99, 100 

nupera 99, 100 

solidaginis 100 

vetusta 100, 101 

Cai.oneme.e 403 

Calymene senaria 155, 156, 157 

Campostoma, 325, 326, 369, 370, 373 

375, 366 

anomalum, 325, 326, 369, 370 

373, 375, 376 

caUipteryx 326 

(labium 325 

formosulum 325 

gobioninum 326 

hippopus 326 

mormyrus 326 

nasutum 326 

prolixum 326, 369, 370 

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus 3 

Caprimui.oid.e 8, 143 

Caracolus 82 

Carbonic anhydride 

in the atmosphere 276 

in the ground 276. 277 

Carcerina spumanoides 392 

Carelia 193, 194 

adusta 193 

bicolor 193 

Cardihalis Virginiarms 140 

Carpiodes carpio 377 

cyprinus 368 

Carpodacus Cassiuii 5 

frontalis 5 

purpureas 140 

Cat Fish 366, 367 

Cathartes aura 10, 145 

(Mifornianus 10 

Cathartid^e 10, 145 

Catherpes conspersus 3 

Mexicanus 3 




Catocala/rcKcini 300 

marmorata 301 

rdicta 300, 301, 303 

CATOSTOMIDtE 345, 366, 377 

Catostomus, 312, 321, 332, 333, 345 

346, 347, 348, 349, 355, 369 

370, 373, 377 

Bostoniensis 345 

Duquesnii 349 

degans 347 

erythrurus 349 

Esopus 347 

Etowanus 345, 346, 369 

fasciatus 347 

fiisi-inliiris 347 

gibbosus 347 

Hudsonius 345, 348 

macidosiis 345 

megastomus 345 

mdanops .... 347 

melanotus 355 

nigricans, 312, 321, 345, 316 
369, 370, 373, 377 

oblongus 346 

planiceps 345 

teres . . .332, 345, 370, 373, 377 

tuberculatus 347 

r Hiatus 347 

xanthopus 345 

Cauda Galli Grit, 291, 292. 294, 297 
Centrarchus, 315, 316, 358, 359, 360 


ameus 316 

fasciatus 315 

gulosus 358, 359 

irideus 368 

macropterus 368 

obscurus 315 

penlacanthus 316 

viridis 358, 360 

Centrocercus urophasianus 10 

Centurus Oarolinus 144 

Ceratichtkys, 328, 329, 355, 356 

amblops 328, 329 

hii/iitlatiis 355 

cycloUs 356 

hyalinus 328, 329, 330 

hypsinotus 330 

labrosus 330 

mdanotus 355 

micropogon 356 

stigmaticus 356 

Oeraurus pleurexanthemus, 155, 156 


Certhia Americana 3 

famiharis 3 


Certhiid^e 3 

Ceryle alcyon 8, 143 

Cha3nobryttus, 317, 358, 359, 360 

368, 369 

charybdis 360 

Floridensis 360 

gulosus 358, 359, 361, 368 

OmU 360 

mdanops 317, 358, 359 

viridis 358, 359, 360 369 

Chaetetes 294 

Hdderbergia 295 

Chsetura pelasqia 143 

Channel Cat,' 351, 357, 366 


Chaulelasmus streperus 12 

Cheilonemus 327 

Cheirurus 155 

Chilodipterus affinis 58 

Chilomycterus orbitosus 69 

Choanopoma occidentale 85 

Chondestes grummaca 5 

Chondrioderma 392 

albescens 392 

albula 394 

brunneolwm 393 

crustacea 394 

difforme 393 

fioriforme 394 

gasterodes 393 

globosum 393 

lacinialmn. . , 394 

mdiatum 393 

spumarioides 392 

stijinta 394 

testaceum 393 

Chondropoma basicarinatum . ... 78 

chordiferum 78 

Santacruzense 78 

serraticosta 151 

Chondrostoma prolixum 326 

pullum 325 

Chonetes 296 

complanata 296 

mesoloba 18 

tenuistricUa 296 

Chordeiles Henry i 8 

popetue 8 

Virginianus 143 

Chraecocephalus Philaddphia. ... 13 

Chrosonms. . .,333 334, 338, 373, 377 

erythrogaster, 333, 334, 373, 377 

Chrysomitris pinus 5 

psaltria 5 

tristis 5, 140 

Cichla 313, 314, 315 

41 <> 



Cichla fasciata 




Cienkowskia reticulata 


Cincinnati Group 


Cinclus Mexicanus 

Cionella 153, 


Circus cyaneus 


Cistothorus paludicola 



Clarion Coal 15, 

Clathroptychiuni rugulosum .... 



Clupea Hudsonia 333, 

Clyde glacier 254, 

CoccyzAis American us 



aciciila 154, 

G-undlachi 185, 195, 

Colaptes Mexicanus 

Colaptus auratus 

Collurio borealis 

excubi tor ides 




Colymbus torquatus 






typhi na 

Common eel 

Contopus borealis 

Richardsonii .... ... 

virens 7, 

Conularia Trentonensis 

Coralline Limestone 298, 

Cornil'erous Limestone 290, 


Corvid.b 7, 

Corvina grisea - 




Corvus American us 7, 















































Corvus corax 7 

Cottid/E 320, 376 

Cottogaster aurantiacus 309 

tessellatus 31 1 

Cottus gobio 320 

meridkmahs 320 

Coturniculus passerinus 5 

perpallidus 5 

Cotyle riparia 4 

Crania Trentonensis 156 

Grassatella ampla 260 

Crateriachea 388 

mutabilis 388 

Craterium 388 

flonforme 408 

globosum 40? 

leucocephalum 388 

leucosUdum 388 

minimum 388 

obovatwm 388 

peduncitlatmu 388 

porphyrium 388 

pruinosum 888 

vulgare 388 

Crawl-a-bottom 811, 312, 844 

Creek chub 375 

Cribraria argillaeea 402 

elegans 402 

/"'Ira 401 

intermedia 401 

intricata 401 401 

mien tear pa 401 

micropus 402 

microsccpica 402 

minutissima 402 

purpurea 401 

rufa 401 

rufescena 401 

splendens 401 

tenella 401 

vulgaris 401 


Cucullea alia 259 

Worth ingtoni 259 

Crcri.iD.E . . .' 8, 144 

Curenia 61, 63, 64 

Cyanocitta argcntigula 88 

armillata 163 

Floridana 7 

nana 89 

ornata 88 

jniliiira 163 

pnmila 89 

Wbodhousei 7 

( lyanocorax bellus 165 




Cyanocorax cayanus 164 

mystaccdis 164 

Ortoul 166 

urolencus 164 

Cyanospiza amoena 6 

cyanea 140 

Cyanura macrolophus 7 

Stelleri 7 

Cyanurus cristatus 142 

Cyclostomua Aminensis 151 

Cyclotus floccosus 150 

Cygnus Americanus 12 

Cylindrella 33, 35, 46, 76, 186 

brevis 34, 44 

degans 187 

gracilicoUis 82, 151 

Hjalmarsoni 83 

ornaia 187, 196 

Poeyana 187, 196 

SaUeana 83 

sanguined 34, 44 

Cyprinella . . .336, 337, 339, 364, 377 

analostana ...339, 377 

calliura 339 

catosicmus 345 

cercostigma 339 

chrysoleucus 327, 344 

cornutus 340 

corporalis 327 

crysoleucas 344 

hemiplus 344 

Hudsonius 345 

longirostrum 345 

megalops 341 

melanurus 341 

nigricans -545 

oblongus. 346 

Whipplei 364 

CypriniDvE 325, 376 

Cyprinodon 322 

(yprinodontid.e 321, 376 

Cyprinus, 327, 340, 341, 343, 344, 

345, 346 

Americanus 344 

atromaeulatus 327 

atronasus 331 

Brama 343 

Cypselid.e 8, 143 

Cyrtia rostrata 296 

Dafila acuta 12 

Dalmania 110, 111 

Boolhii 114 

Paitiina Ill, 114 

Dalmanites 156, 157 

dentata 294, 296 

pleuroptyx 295, 296 


Daudebardia 183 

Decactylus Bostoniensis 345 

Delthyris Shale 294, 296 

Demas 92 

Dendroeca 336 

(estiva 4, 135 

Audubonii 4 

Blackbumiw 4, 135, 136 

ccerulea 135 

ccerulescens 135 

castanea 136 

coronata 135, 138 

maculosa 136, 138 

nigrescens 4 

Pennsylvanica 135 

pinus 136 

virens 133, 135 

Dentellarle 26, 27, 173 

Dermodium 407 

inquinans 398 

Diachcea degans 395 

leucopoda 395 

leucostyla 395 

Dianthoecia capsularis 306 

Diapterus 60 

Lefroyi 59 

Dictydium cernuum 400 

microcarpon 401 

microspermum 400 

splendens 401 

trichioides 400 

umbilicatum 400 

venosum 400 


Dictyostelium 398 

Diderma 393 

albescens 392 

albulum 394 

brunneolum 393 

cUrinum 384 

continuum 394 

conglomeratum. ... . . 386 

contextum 386 

crustaceum 394 

cyanescens 393 

difforme 393 

farinaceum 392 

flamdum 386 

floriforme ' 394 

gasterodes 393 

globosum 393 

granulatum 386 

latiniaium 394 

Marice Wilsoni 393 

oblongum 384 

pallidum 386 




Diderma reticulatum 383 

spumarioides 392 

squamulosum 391 

testaceum 393 

umbUicatum 393 

valvatwn 386 

vemicosum 389 


Didymium 391 

chrysopeplum 384 

cinereum 385 

claims 391 

confluens 392 

congestion 384 

connatum , 386 

costatum 391 

croceo-flavum 385 

Gurtisii 390 

difforme 393 

effusum 392 

erythrinum 385 

farinaceum 391 

flavidum 392 

fulvipes 385 

furfuraceum 389 

glaucum 384 

globosum 393 

granuliferum 391 

herbarum 391 

leucopus 385, 391 

lobatum 391 

luteo-yriseum 386 

megalospornm 391 

melanopus 391 

melleum 384 

microcarpon 391 

necirieeforme 385 

nigripes 391 

obrusseum 387 

oxcdinum ■ 392 

physari >ides (Fr.) 391 

physarioides (KM.) 391 

polycephalum (B. & C.) 388 

polycepikalum t,Rav.) 386 

polymorphum 386 

proximum 392 

pusfflum 392 

Ravenalii 385 

rufipes 394 

svmulans 392 

spumarioides 395 

squamulosum 391 

steOare 393 

subroseum 392 

lenerrimum 387 

temgenum 385 


Didymium testaceum 393 

tigrinum 394 

xanthopus 391 

Diloba 92 


Dioplites 313, 314 

Nuecensis 314 

salmoides 314 

trecvlii 314 

variabdis 314 

Diplesium 370, 373, 376 

blennioides 311, 376 

simoterum. 370, 373 

Discina Ill 

Conradi , 296 

discus 296 

Discus 168 

Diseases, catarrhal 273, 274 

malarial 273 

zymotic 278, 279 

relation of, to ozone, 

273, 274, 275 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 7, 141 

Dollardee 375 

Dorysoma cepedianum 368 

keterurum 368 

Drinking-water, analysis of, 280, 281 
impurities in, 

283, 284, 285, 286, 287 

Drum 319 

Drymaeus 34, 35, 84 • 

Dryocampa Ucolor 303 

Eatonia medialis 295 

peculiaris 297 

singularis 295 

Eburnella 192 


Echinostelium 398 

Edema 91 

albifrons 91, 92 

Pa'ckardii 92 

Edmondia 121, 123 

Pondiana 121 

Sylvana 122 

Eel 352 

Ellobium Ceylanicum 87 

Empidouax Acadicus 143 

difficilis 8 

flavivmtris 8 

Hammondii 8 

minimus 143 

obscurus 8 

piisilhis 8 

Traillii 8 

Encrinal Limestone 294 

Endodonta incerta 171, 196 




Endodonta lumuhides 171 

Endospore.e 383 

Enerthenema Berkeleyana 397 

elegans 397 

Enerthenemac 'e.e 397 

Enteridlum olivaceum (Ehr.) 400 

ohvaceum (Schw.) 387 

Episema 363. 364, 369, 377 

ariomma 377 

callisema 363, 364, 369 

scabriceps 363, 377 

Eremophila aipestris 6 

chrysolcvma I! 

occidentalis 6 

Ereunetes pusillus 11 

Ericosma evides 375 

Ericymba buccata 376 

Erimyzon, 346, 347, 357, 365, 368 

369. 370, 373, 377 

oblongus, 346, 347. 357, 365, 369 

370, 373, :!77 

mdanops, 347, 348, 368, 369 


sucetta 348 

Eriaemus 328 

Erismatura rubida 13 

Esocid^e 324, 376 

Esox. . . . 324, 353, 36-2. 368, 369. 376 

afflnis 304. 305. 362, 369 

luclus 324 

osseus 353 

pkaleratus 324 

Ravendi 368 

rdiculatus. . .324, 325, 362, 369 

salmoneus 324, 376 

tridecemlineabus 324 

tridecemradiatus 324 

Estrella atromaculaia 311 

Etheostoma . .310. 312, 315, 373, 375 

bimacidalum 312 

cdlliura 315 

caprodes 311, 312 

flabeltare 373, 375 

nebulosum 312 

nigrqfasciatum 310 

semifasciatum 311, 312 

zebra 312 

Eucalyptra 103 

bipuncta 104 

Eueinostomus 59 

productus 59 

Euomphalus rugosus 17 

Euparthenos nvbiiis 301 

Eupomotis paMidus 368 

Euparypha 180 

Eurycratera 148, 174 


Eurystomus megasiomus 345 

Eutricopis 102 

nexilis 102 

Exoglossum 325, 345 

dubium 325 

Lesueurianum 325 

maeropterum 345 

spinicephcdum 325 

Exospore^ 383 

Fabatana oviplagalis 128 

Falco anatum 9 

communis 9 

polyagrus 9 

Fafa'Onifxe 9, 145 

"Favosite Limestone " 294, 298 

Favosites conica 296 

Helderbergia 295. 298 

Niagarensis 294, 295, 298 

Ferriferous Limestone 15, 17 

Francis Joseph glacier 254 

Freepoi't Limestone 15, 16 

Frickella 193, 194^; o, 140 

Fulica Americana 11 

Fuligo varians 389 

Fulix affinis 13 

collaris 13 

marila 13 

Fundulus 322, 323 

call natas 323 

Gaeotis 35, 46 

Galeoscoptes Carolinensis 2 

Gallinago WUsonii 11 

Gambusia 1 322 

Gar Pike 353 

Geomalaeus maculosus 31, 45 

Geophila 183 

Geostilbia 153 

GundlacM 152, 154 

Geothlj'pis MacgUlivrayi 4 

Philadelphia 4, 137 

trichas 4, 137 

Geotrygon rnfiventris 90 

Girardinichthys 322 

Girardinus 322 

Glandina truncata 167, 195 

Glossoplites 358, 359, 360 

Gfflii 360 

mdanops 358, 359 

Glyptocrinns 156 

Glyptocystites 156 

Gobio vernalis 328 

Gongylostoma 187 

Goniaphea Ludomciana 140 

Graculus dilophus 13 

Grahamite 106 


I iith'.i 


Grammysia 120 

paraMa 120, 121 

Ground-atmosphere 276, 27? 

GlUID.K 12 

Grus Canadensis 12 

Grystes 313, 314, 315 

fasckUus 315 

megasioma 314 

nigricans 314, 315 

nobilior 314 

Nuecensis 314 

salmoides 313, 314 

salmonoides 315 

Guesteria Powisiana 78, 79 

Gymnokitta cyanocephala 7 

Gymnothorax polygonius 68 

umbrosus 07 

Fladena adjuncta 90 

Hillii 305 

leucoscelis 306 

Hadropterus 309 


309, 310. 357, 369 

Haliaetus leucocephalus J) 

Hamilton Group 290, 292 

Haploidonotus 318 

concinnus 319 

gnmniens, 318, 319, 369, 370 

lineatus 319 

neglectus 319 

Harporhynehus crissalis 2 

rufus 132 

Hedimeles melanocephdla 6 

Helicacea 77 

Ilt.iit ID.+; 32, 36 

Hki.icin.k, 33, 36, 37, 38, 40, 147 

152, 171. is; 

Helicina Columbiana 87 

Gumingiana 150 

Oumingii 150 

Guadelupensis 200 

intusplicata 14!), 150 

nemoralis 87 

Paivana 151 

picta 200 

rugosa 151, 198 

Smithiana 149, 150 

Heliconid^e 95, 108 

Heliolonche 102 

Helioperca, 355 

obscura 3(38, 369 

pallida, 355, 361, 309, 375, 376 

llKMOTIIin.K 10? 

Heliothis 103, 108 

modicella 102 


Helix albolabr'is 178 

aUernala 196 

ammonoceras 86 

angidata 148, 149 

angustata 148 

Arangiana 197, 198 

arrosa 179. 195 

aspera 147, 148, 173, 195 

Audebardi 82, 149 

auriculata 176, 196 

Ayresiana 179 

badia 26 

barbigera 174 

bizonalis 81, 82, 148, 19? 

Booihiana 198 

bracteola 79 

Californiensis 30 

caracolla 82 

Carpenteri 178, 196 

Carpenleriana 177, 195 

cepa 151, 19s 

cereolus 177. 196 

Clarki 28, 29, 45 

elausa 29. 45 

conspersula 82 

crispata 81, 151, 174, 195 

derdiens !?:'>. 196 

Diabloensis 179. 196 

discolor 27, 44. 14? 

Thiclosiana 80 

exarata 179 

exoleta 178, 190 

facta 179. 190 

'fallax 174. 190, 200 

Febigeri. 177 

fringilla 173. 175, 195, 190 

fusco-cincta 82 

'Gaskoini 80. 81, 19? 

Ghiesbreghti 34 

Harfordiana. . . .- 17"), 196 

Hopeionensis I?'"), 196 

Hubbardi 86 

indistincla 151 

Ingersolli 151, 171. 190 

introferens 200 


140, 147. 148, 173, 19.1 

Josephince 27, 4:>. 78, 200 

KeMetti 30, 31. 178 

labyrinlhica 8(3 

Lansingi 152, 154, 185 

leporina 176, 196 

LuquiUensis 78, 82. 149 

marginata 81 

marginella 80, 81, 82 

margineUoides 197 




Helix montetaurina 198 

muscarum 26, 14(5, 147 

Nickliniana ITS, L79 

nucleoid 27. 44 

nust-denticulaia 26, 45 

obliterate 148, 149 

paUiata 88 

pdludosa SO 

paucispira 74 

Pennsylvanica 29, 45 

pida. 26, 146, 1 17 

platysiykx 82 

Powisiana 78 

pubescens 151, 172, 196 

ramentosa 178 

rufescens 172, 19(5 

ruficincta 178, ISO, 195 

rufo-apicaia 20, 45 

Rugeli 175, li)(i 

Sagemon si, 82, 197, 198 

Sargenti 79 

septemvolva 170, 177. 195 

spinosa 174, 195 

Stearnsiana 30, 45, 180 

stenotrema 174 

Strebeli 86 

Studeriana 172. 195 

sulphurosa 14(5 

thyroides 29 

Townsendiana 179 

TrasH 30, 45, 179 

tridentala 174. 175. 196 

TroosUana 28, 45 

Tryoni 180, 196 

uvulifera 170 

Van Nostrandi. .17."), 196, 200 

Vendryesiana so 

volvoxis 177 

vortex, 79, 198 

vuttuosa 200 

Wetherbyi 45 

Wheatleyi 29 

Helmitherus vermiixyrus 134, 137 

Helminthophaga celata 3 

ruficapiUa 3, 135 

Virginke 3 

Hemiarcyria 405 

clavata 405 

hiocarpa 405 

paUidvla 405 

rvbiformis 405 

serpula 405 

stipata 400 

Hemipronites crassus 18 

Hemitremia vittata 373 

Hemitrochus 26, 147 


Hemitrochus gaUopavonis 26 

graminicola 26 

Troscheli 20 

varians 26 

Herodias egretta 12 

Heterocrinus 156 

IIetkkodekme.e 400 

Heterodictyon 401 

Heynemannia 23 

Himantopus nigricollis 12 


Hirundo horreorum 4, 139 

lie:; .Molly 312, 346 

Hog Sucker 340 

Hololepis 308 

Holopea 115, 290 

antiqua 294 

dongata 294 

Furmaniana 115 

Homalonotus 110, 114 

Oiara 114 

Dekayi 114 

Vanuxemi 290 

Hopladelus 374 

Hudsonius amarus 302 

flumaMis 302 

Huro nigricans 313, 314 

Huron Shale 105, 106 

Hyalina 73, 74 

Bermudensis 77, 78 

caduca 73 

Nelsoni 77 

Hybognathus argyritis 376 

Hybopsis, 328, 329, 330, 333. 334. 362 

amarus 302, 303, 369 

chUiticus 334 

chioi'ocephaius 334 

chrosomus 333, 369 

gracilis 333, 300 

Hudsonius 362, 363, 369 

phaenna 302 

rubricroceus 334 

stramineus 377 

WincheM 328, 329 

xa3nocephalus...334, 368, 369 

Hyborhynchus notatus 373, 376 

Hydrargyra 322. 323 

catenata 323 

Hydrochelidon^ssipcs 13 

Hylomyzon nigricans 345 

Hylotomus pUeatus 144 

Hymenophyllitea 16 

HyoUthes 290, 299 

centennialis 299 

Hypentelium 345 

macropterum 345 




Hypentelium uitjrictins 345 

Hypotriorchis columbarius 9 

Hypsilepis 340, 841 

cerasinus 341 

conn/Ins 341 

cyaneus 341 

frontalis 341 

tjihhits 341 

gracilis 341 

obesus 341 

Hypsolepis 340, 341 

cornutus 340 

gibbosus 341 

Ibis alba 12 

Ordii 12 

Ictalurus 350, 351 

ccerulescens 350 

furcifer 351 

olivaceus 351 

punctalus 350 

Simpsoni 351 

Icteria longicauda 4 

virens 4, 137 

I('TK1UD/K 7, 141 

Icterus Baltimore 142 

Bullockii 7 

spurius 141 

IchthaJurus. 350, 357, 366, 80S, 369 

870. :>,?? 

cmrulescens 350 

punetatus, 350, 857, 366, 80S 

369, 370, 877 

Icthelis 316, 317, 318, 359, 361 

auritus 861 

cyanellus 359 

erythrops 316 

incisor 316 

inscriptus 31 S 

macrochira 317 

megalotis 81 7 

rubricauda 8,61 

"Indian (huh" 375 

Intricaria reticulata 156 

'•Jack" 862 

"Jumper" 375 

"Jumping Mullet" 810 

"Jumping Pearch" 375 

Junco caniceps 6 

hyemalis 6, 140 

Oregonus 6 

Kittaning Coal 15, 16 

Labeo. 8,46, 847 

tin Jll Its 347 

Esopus 347 

gibbosus 347 

oblongus 346 


Labidesthes 334, 376 

siccttltis 376 

Labiella 191, 193, 194 

Labrus 313, 314, 816, 355, 361 

appendix 316 

auritus 316, 361 

pallidus 316, 855 

sal untitles 313 

Lachnobolus 407 

cinereus 407 

cribrosus 80S 

globosus 407 

Lake Wakatipu, 256, 257, 258, 259 

260. 261. 262, 268 

Laminella 191. 192, 193, 194 

Lamproderma 89? 

arci/ritiiths 89? 

ciiltintliiita 397 

Ellisiana 8,9? 

physarioides 897 

Lamphospok.k 89N 


L.vum.K 18 

Larus Californicus 13 

Delawarensis 13 

Leangium 398 

floriforme 894 

lepidotum 894 

stipaium 394. 400 

vernicosum 389 

Leiocraterium 388 

Leocarpus 389 

contextus 386 

fragilis 389 

vernicosus 389 

Leperditia alia 294 

Lepidoderma 894 

tit/riruint 894 

Lepidosteid^e 858. 377 

Lepidosteus 853 

I'tipi'i :J54 

Huronensis 354. 377 

Lesueurii 854 

osseus 858, 368, 869. 877 

otarius 858, 354 

oxyurus 354 

Treculii 358, 854 

Lepiopomus 316. 317. 855. 861 

auritus 861. 869 

incisor 8,1 S 

ischyrus 855 

macrochirus 376 

nephelus 876 

obscurus 8)1? 

pallidus 811), 31 7 

Lepisosteus gavialis 858 




Lepomis, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 358 

359, 360, 361 

avhigan 315 

appendix 361 

ardesiacus :!1 ? 

auritus 316, 361 

charybdix 860 

flexuolaris 313, 315 

Floridensis '.fox 

GUlii 358, 360 

gulosus 359 

ichtheloides 315, 316 

incisor 316, 817. 318, 855 

niii/flhifis 317 

noiutus 315 

pallidus 814 

pnrpurascens 317 

rubricauda 361 

salmonia 315 

trifasciata 315 

Lepomus 316 

Leptachatina, L90, 191, 192. 193, 194 

Leptsena concava 295 

sericea 153 

Leptina 98, 99 

formosa its 

Leptoloma 82 

Leucarctia acrct>a 129 

Leueiscus, 326, 327, 335, 340, 841 

844, 355, 356, 362 

Americanus 844 

argenteus 327 

(Uromacidatiis 327 

biguttatus 355 

rephalus 327 

chrysoleucus 344 

eornutus 340 

corporalis 327 

(Toceus 356 

diplemia 341 

dorsalis 327 

frontalis 341 

gibbosus 341 

gracilis 341 

Hudsonius 800 

iris 327 

vbesus 844 

plagyrus 340. 841 

plargyrus 341 

prolixus 326 

pulchelloides 807 

pidcheUus 327 

rotengulus 807 

Storeri 807 

versicolor 344 

Leucosomus 827, 328, 344 


Leucosomus Americanus 344 

atromaculatus 807 

chrysoleucus 327 

corporalis 32? 

crysoleucas 344 

incrassatus 327 

macrocephalus 327 

pallidus 328 

Licea angulata 404 

applanata 400 

artocreas 408 

cylindrica 399 

epiphylia 399 

fallax 399 

flexuosa 398 

fragiformis 399 

Lindheimeri 399 

yiicrosperma 399 

nitens 399 

ochracea 399 

pusilla 383 

spadicea 398 

spermoides 402 

sfipitata 89!) 

tubuKna 399 

variabilis 8!)!) 

Lll'KACK.K 80S 

Lichas pustulosus 295 

Liguus 38, 40. 42 

fasciatus 30. 40, 41. 40 

virgineus, 80. 40, 41. 42, 44 

45, ION 

Liinax 00. 03 

agrestis . .'. 01. 08. 04 

campestris 08, 04. 10!) 

casianeus L69 

flavus 00. 01. 00. 03 

'Hewstoni 00 

TngersoUi 10!) 

maximus 2-> 

moivtanus 16!), 195, 196 

Weinlandi 24 

Lindbladia 400 

Lingula 111. 095 

quadrata 151? 

Liochila 146. 147 

Lithomia 100 

Liza 00 

"Log Perch" 875 

Loj liit bicolor 133 

inornatus ... 2 

Lophodytes cucuUatus 13 

Lophopnyllum proliferum 17 

Lophortyx Oalifornianus 10 

Gambdii 10 

Lower Freeport Coal 15, 16 




Lower Helderberg Group, 

291, '2'.)2, 297 
Lower Pentamerus Limestone.. 294 

Loxonema Mchiana 294, 296 

obtusa 294 

Lucania 322 

Lucioperca sandra 813 

Leueostiete tephrocoiis 5 

Luxilus, 323, 339, 340, 344, 356, 357 

Americowus 344 

chrysocepkdhis 340, 341 

coccogenis , .356, 370 

comulus, 340, 341, 356, 357 
369, 370, 373, 377 

crysoleucas 344 

galacturus. . . 339, 370, 373, 875 

Kentuckiensis 375 

obesus 344 

seco 344 

Lycogala 407 

argerdea 402 

id mm 398 

epidendrum 408 

minUxbum 408 

punctatum 408 

terrestre 408 

Lycoperdon radialum 393 

Ly thrums 336, 338, 842 

ardens 342, 373, 375 

diplcemius 338, 342, 877 

Macroceramus 46 

Gundlachi 198 

Hermanni 88 

IIjiiIiiKii-soiii .' 83 

Klatteanus 88. 151 

Swifti 83 

tenuiplicatus 84 

Macrocyclis 26, 73 

Baudoni 70, 73 

concava 74 

concolor 74, 78 

Duranti 74 

euspira 73 

laxata 74 

sporteMa 74 

Vancouverensis 74 

Voyana 74 

Macrorhamphus griseus 11 

Mahoning Sandstone 14, 15 

Malacolimax 23 

Mamestra adjuncta 96 

brass/fa' 96 

curta 96 

promulsa 97 

Mareca Americana 12 

Medina Sandstone 291 


Megambonia ovo'tdea 294 

Melampus bidentatus 87 

coniformis 87 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus . . . .9, 144 

torquaids 9 

Melospiza/aJta; 6 

TAncolnU 6 

lilt Iniliil 6, 140 

palustris 6, 140 

Mergus merganser 13 

serralor 18 

Merista tei-is 295 

Meristella 297 

Merope 175 

Mesembrinus 37 

Mesodon 28, 29, 178 

Micristius 322 

Microperca punctulata 809, 875 

Microphysa 79, 151, 171 

Micropterus. .313, 314, 815, 855, 358 

achigan 815 

dolomieu 313, 314 

faseiahis 815 

Floridnnus 814 

pallidus 814, 869, 373, 376 

salmoides, 813, 814, 855. 358 

369, 370, 378. 376 

Mimus Carolinensis 132 

Minnilus 309, 885. 842, 8(54 

lirus 309 

axenwnts 364 

" Minny " 375 

Miselia 96 

Mniotilla varia 134, 135 

Modiomorpha 123. 124 

Pinientana 128 

Moharra de ley til 

Mollienesia 822 

Molothrus pecoris 7, 141 

Monoderma 892 

Mnrchia 74 


Mount Arrowsmith 252 

Aspiring 252 

Cook..'. 252. 258, 259 

Earn slaw, 

257. 25s. 259, 260, 262 

Egmont 251 

Ruapebu 251 

Tasman 252, 253, 254 

Tongario 251 

Tyndall 254 

Moxostonia. ..84(1, 347, 84s, 849, 365 

anisurus 347, 348 

Campbelli 347 

cervinum 365 




Moxostoma Duquesnii 349 

Kennerlyi 847 

melanops 347 

oblongum 340, -'47 

Victories 847 

■■ Muffle-Jaw," 321 

Mugrl Brasiliensis, 

61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 

' hirema 61, 04 


61,63, 64, 65, 66 

incilis 61 

Lebranchus (52 

Liza 63 

petrosus 61, 04 

trickodon 66 

Mullet 346 

Muraeua anguiUa 352 

Myiarchus r.rinitus 145 

Mycetozoa 383 

Myiadestes Townserulii 5 


Myarchus cinerascens 7 

flammulatus 71 

Lavorencii 71 

Myiodioctes Canadensis 138 

mvbratus 132, 138 

pusiilus 4 

Myxogasteres 383 

Myxogastkes 383 

Myxomyceteb 383 

Myxostoma, 348, 349, 357, 365, 366 

bucco 348 

cervinum 365, 369 

Duquesnii, 349, 350, 357, 369 
370, 87:!. 377 

erytkrurum 84!). 350 

euryops 848, 369 

iachrymalis 349, 350, 869 

papillosum 366, 80!) 

Nanina nalculosa 168 

conula 168 

radians 168, 196 

Nassula globosa 407 

Nautilus occidentalis is 

Neoconger 07 

perloogus 07 

Nemocampsia 313 

Nettion Carolinensis 12 

Neuropteris 16 

hirsuta 52, 56 

Loschii 50 

Newcombia 191, 192, 1!)4 

Noeomis, 82s, 880, 888. 355, 356, 362 

amblops 82s, 82!), 880, 869 

870. 87(1 


Noeomis bellicus 356 

biguttatus, 82!). 355, 369, 370 

878. 375, 376 

dissimilis 329, 376 

Nebrascensis 328, 356 

rubrifrons. . .82s. 8:i(). 362, 80!) 

Winchelli.. ..328, 88,0. 88,8, 80!) 

Xocnili.E 10!) 

Notemigonus 848, 841, 804, 368 

Americanus 844, 804 

865, 369. 877 

auratiis 841 

ischanus,. . .804, 365, 368, 809 

leptosomus 365 

lucidus 365 

occidentalis 365 

seco 865 

Nothonotus camurus 375 

Nototropis.. .884. 880. 887, 842, 848 

atherinoides 842 

dinemus 870, 873, 877 

lirus 842, 30!) 

matviinus 842 

micropteryx 878, 375 

photogenis 343, 370 

rubeUus 343, 877 

rubrifrons 884, 8; ; 

stilb'ius 348, 80!) 

N< tturus 352 

eleuiherus 370, 871, 372 

exilis 871, 872 

flams 352, 871, 872, 377 

gyrinus 871 


352, 369, 371, 872, 877 

marginatus 371. 8 72 

miurus 870, 371, 877 

occidentalis 8,72 

platycepkalus 87~> 

sialis 377 

Nucula anodonioides 18 

veniHcosa 18 

Nuculana bellistriata is 

Nuculitcs 119, 120 

Ererensis 120 

' 115, 116, 118, 119, 120. 124 

Numenius longirostris 11 

Nyctiardea grisea 12 

nirrlii 12 

Oleacina 151 

flexuosa 72 

oleacea 198 

< Higonema 408 

Omia 102 

Oncocnemis 109 




Oneida Conglomerate. 
Onondaga Limestone . 


Opniotheca umbrina. . 

< tphisures 

Oporornis agilis 


Oreoscoptes monlanus 

Oriskany Sandstone . . . '292. 294, 

( h'phnus 


Orthalicus....38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

gallina sultana . .38, 41. 42, 

iostomus .5!). 40. 


mekinochitus 39, 

obductus 87. 

undatus, 39, 40. 41, 42, 181, 


Oil his lynx 


oblata 295, 





Ortyx Virginianus 10, 

Ostrea Wullerstorfii 

( Mils r iili // iris 


Oxygen, percentage of in the 

atmosphere 270, 

Ozone, relations of i<> disease, 
278. 274. 

( ►zonoraetry 

Palseaneilo. 124, 


sulcata 124, 


Wetherbyi 31, 

Pandion Oarolinensis 


Panopsea i>lic<il<i 

Panyptila saxatilis 

Paradiodon hystrix 

Paimd.k 2, 


Partula 45, 40. 




Partulina, 189, 190, 191, 192, 1!):!. 

Parula Americana 134, 

Parus atricapillus 2, 

i 'arolinensis 


















29i ; 







2i I 




















Parus septentrionalis 2 

Passerculus alaudinus 5 

savanna ■"> 

Passerella iliaca 142 



Patula aliernata WO. 171 

Oumberlandiana . .170. 171. 190 

Huahinmsis 171. 196 

mordax 170 

solUaria 170 

Pecopteris 10. 50 

arbores<xns 56 

Pedioccetes ( 'olumbiamis 10 

phasianellus 10 

Pegediethys 320 

ictalurops 320 

Pi:i,K( AN1D.K lo 

Pelecanus eruthrorkynckus 13 

Pelecychilus 33 

Pelodichthys. . . . 370, 872, 878. 874 

ulii-aris 870. 878. 374 

Pentacmerusrya/f«<«.s-.. . .294. 21.5, 298 

Porta ". 311, 812, 313 

lucioperca 313 

nebidosa 311 

nigropunctuta 313 

salmonea 313, 315 

Pkkctd.k 308, :!7.-> 

Percina 810. 811. 812. 81,9 

birnaculata 812 


811, 812, 809, 878. 375, 870 

carbbnaria 312 

nebidosa 812 

semifasciaia 312 

zebra 812 

Perdicella 192 

Pekdich>jE 10 

Perichsena ariocreas 408 

circumscissa 408 

corticalis 408 

depressa 408 

flavida 409 

irregularis 409 

marginata 40«s 

populina 408 

guercina 40cS 

slrobUina 409 

vaporaria 408 

variabilis 408 

vermicularis 408 A( k.k 408 

Perisoreus Canadensis 7 

capitalis 7 

Petrochelidon lunifrons 4. 189 




PetkomyzontidvK 377 

Phacops 295 

cdtticephalus 156 

Logani 295 

Phoenicothraupis cristata 70 

fuscieauda 70, 71 

Phalacbocobacid^! 13 

Phala?na chionanthi 109 


Phalaropus WUsonii 11 

Phenacobius 332. 333. 3(5!) 

catostomus 332, 333, 369 

liostemus 333 

mirabUis 333 

scopiferus 333 

teretulus 333 

uranops 332, 333. 370. 373 

Philohela minor 14(5 

Pholadella 121 

parallela 120 

Pbotogenis, 335, 33(5. 337, 33S. 339 
356, 357, 3(13, 3(54, 368 

(iiKtlostantis 33S, 340 

callistius...337. 340. 3(54. 369 

caerukms, 337, 338. 339. 3(53 

3(51. 3(59 

cornuius 337, 340 

eurystomus..3d&, 340, 35(5, 369 

grandipinnis 33(5, 339, 368 

leucops 343, 370 

pyrrhomelas, 33(5, 337, 339, 3(54 

scabriceps 363 

spUopterus. ..335, 339, 340, 377 

stigmaturus, 337, 338. 340, 35(5 

3(53, 3(59 

xcenurus 336, 339. 3(54. 369 

Physabace^e 384 

Physarum 384 

album 393 

dtnini 387 

avrantiacum 389 

aureum 389 

auriscalpium 384 

BerMeyi 385 

bivalve 386 

bryophilum 397 

butbiforme 388 

buUatum 385 

ccesium 39:5 

ehrysotrichum 390 

cinereum 385 

citrinum 384 

davus 391 

ccespitosum 387 

colunibhium 397 

compactum 384 


Physarum confluens 392 

conglomeratum 386 

connatum 388 

contextum 386 

cupriceps 385 

eupripes 385 

decipiens 390 

ilidrrmoides 384 

Ditmari 385 

effusum 384 

elegans 387 

eUipsosporum 387 

flarinaceum 391 

Farlowi 386 

,flavicomurn 385 

genuinum 386 

gracUientum 389 

griseum 384 

gyrosttm 386 

hyalinum 390 

intermedium 386 

leucopus 385 

licea 383 

Ihridum 384 

luteo-album 408 

Intel, -valve 385 

melanopus 391 

membranaceum 390 

mlcrocarpon 391 

musclcola 387 

nutans 388, 389 

obrusseum 387 

Petersii 386 

plumbeum 385 

polyosdron 387 

polymorphum 386 

psUtacinum 385 

pvdcherrimum 385 

pulclierripes 385 

reticukttum 383 

roseum 385 

rubiginosum 390 

Schumacheri 384 

Schweinitzii 387 

simile 387 

s'muusitrn 386 

Squamulosum 394 

striatum 389 

sutphureum 384 

thejoteum 385 

tigrinum 394 

utriculare 390 

vermicularis 408 

virescens 385 

viride 389 

xanthopus 391 




Pica caudata 7 

Sudsonvca 7 

Picicofvus Colurribianus 7 

Picidje 9, 144 

Picorellus 324 

affinis 324 

reticulatus 824 

Picas Gairdneri 9 

Harrisii 9 

pubescens 9, 144 

viMosus 9, 144 

PiebuDjE 95, 108 

Pileoina 811, 312 

caprddes 312 

semifasriahim 312 

zebra 312 

Pimelodus 350, 351 , 367 

Antoniensis 351 

drgyrus 351 

cauaafurcatus 351 

cervlescens 350 

cupreus 351 

felinus 351 

furcifer 351 

Hammondi 351 

maculatus 350 

olivaceus 351 

pallidus 350 

puma 367 

vulpeculus 367 

Pineda 46 

Pipilo Aberii 6 

chlororus 6 

eryfhropthalmus 141 

maculatus 6 

megalonyx (5 

Pitangus caudifasciatus 289 

Gabbii. 288 

Taytori 289 

Pittsburg Coal, 47, 48, 54. 55, 56, 57 

Pittsburg Sandstone 56 

Plagioptycha 80 

Plargyrus 335, 340. 341, 344 

Americanus 344 

Bowmani 341 

chrysoleUcas 344 

cornutus 340 

frontalis 341 

gibbosus 341 

gracilis 341 

typicus 341 

"Plateado" 61, 62 

Platyceras 17, 116 

Gebhardii 296, 297 

retrorsum 295, 296 

symmetricum 116 


Platyostoma ventricosum 297 

Plectostylus 35 

Pleosporopsis strobilorum 409 

Plesioperca 309 

anceps 310 

Pleurolepis peUucidus 375 

Pleurotomaria 114, 115, 116 

carbonaria is 

OrayvUliensis 17, 18 

perhumerosa IT 

Rochana 114 

turbinella 17 

Plusia 98, 99 

alUcokt 99 

ampin 98 

concha 99 

formosa 98 

Hbchenworthi 99 

ignea 99 

Ulustris 99 

laticlavia 98 

parilis 99 

precationis 98 

purpurigena 98 

Pcecilia catenata 323 

Poecilichtliys spedabUis 375 

variatus 375 

Podiceps cornutus 14 

occidentals 14 

Pomeii'iD.K 14 

P'odilymbus podiceps 14 

Polia confragosa 306 

medialis 306 

Polioptila cd'rulea 132 

Pollution of drinking water, 283, 284 
285, 28(5, 287 

Polyangium viietlinum 387 

Polygyra 28, 176, 177 

Polymita 26, 147 

Polyodon/oKwwj 377 

Polyodontid.k 377 

Polyphemopsis peracuta 17 

Pomacampsis 313 


316, 317. 318, 355. 358, 359, 361 

appendix 310. 3H1 

auritus 316, 361 

fattax 318 

gulosus 359 

incisor 316, 355 

inscriptus 318 

obscurus 317, 355 

rubneauda 361 

sanguinolenius 318 

vulgaris 358 

Pomoxys. 358. 370 




Pomoxys annularis 868, 376 

hexacanthus 368, 376 

PoocaStes confinis 5 

gramineus 5 

Poospiza belli 6 

bttineata 6 

Nevadensis 6 

Porzana albigularis 91 

( 'arolina 11 

cinereiceps 90 

Jamaicensis 11 

rubra 91 

Potamocottus 320, 369, 370, 376 

Alvordii 320 

Carolines 820, 870, 376 

meridionalis 320 

WUsonii 376 

zopherus 320, 321, 369 

Product us costatus 16 

longispinus 17 

Nebrascensis 16, 17, 18 

Prattenianus 16 

semi-reticulatus 16, 17 

Proetus parviusculus 156, 157 

Progne purpurea 139 

subis 4 

Propagation of disease 278 

Prophysaon Uemphilli 182 

Protoderma pusiUa 383 

ProtodermacEjE 383 

Pkotodkkmk.k 383 

Psaltriparus plumbeus 3 

Pseudobalea 85 

Pterinea 295 

aremtria (var. ) 297 

textiiis 296, 297 

Ptilodictya acuta 156 

recta 156 

Pt yehostomus, 347, 348, 349, 365, 366 

aureolus 348 

iucco 348 

cervinus 365 

DuquesnU 349 

erytkrurus 348 

fanciatus 347 

Uuihrymalis 349 

melanops 347 

papuTosus 366 

Pulmonata 20 

Pylodictis 374 

Pyu.vlidks 128 

Pyranga cestiva 138 

Ludoviciana 5 

rubra 138 

" Quarry Limestone," 293 

Querquedula cyanoptera 12 


Querquedula discors 12 

Quiscalus purpureus 142 

Rallid.e 11 

Rallus elegans 11 

Virginianus 11 

Recurvirostra Americana 12 


"Red-eye" 361 

' ' Red horse " 350 

" Red minnow " 375 

Redstone Coal 48, 55, 56 

Refuse of manufactories.. . .283, 286 
Regeneration of polluted waters, 

284, 285, 286, 287 

Regulus calendula 2, 132 

Rensselaeria mutabUis 295, 296 

ovovdes 297 

Reticularia afflnis 402 

applanata 400, 402 

atra 398 

lycoperdon 402 

maxima 398 

muscorum 386 

plumbea 400 

'■'{fa 389 

strongylium 402 

umbrina 402 

Reticularis 402 

Reticulahiace.e 402 

Rheocrypta Gopelandi 376 

Rhiniehthys 331, 369, 377 

aironasus 331, 369 

I iimdus 331 

obtusus 331, 332, 369, 377 

Rhyacophilus solitarius 11 

Rhynchonella recurvirostra 156 

ventricosa 295 

"River Chub" 375 

River-pollution. ...280, 285, 286, 287 

"Roach" 343 

Rutilus 325, 329, 344 

amblops 329 

anomalus 325 

chrysoleucus 344 

Salpinctes obsoletus 3 

Sandrus 313 

"Sand Sucker" 348 

Sanitary Science, scope of. 266, 267 

classification of 288, 289 

Sarcidium 332, 333 

Saxicolids 2, 132 

Say onus fuscus 143 

Sayus 7 

Sehilbeodes 352 

gyrinus 352 

Schoharie Grit 292 




Scirena 312, 318, 319 

caprodes 311 

</risea 319 

oscula 319 

SCEENID.E 318, 376 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus . ... 7 

ScolopaCid^e 11, 146 

Scopelosoma devva 97 

Scops asio 144 

Scutalus 36, 37 

Scyphium Curtisii 390 

rubiginoswm 390 

Seiurus aurocapiUus 136, 137 

Lmloi-irianus 136 

Nbveboracensis 136 

Selasphorus pktfycercus 8 

Semotilus, 327,' 328, 341, 344. 355 

362, 368 

airomacukdus 327 

biguitatus 328, 355 

cepkalus 327 

corporalis ..327, 328, 362, 369 

373, 375, 376 

dipkmia 341 

dorsalis 327 

Hammohdi 328 

macrocephatus 327 

pallidus 32S 

speciosus 32s 

Thoreauianus 368 

Setophaga rutiG&la 4, 138 

Sewage, disposal of. 283, 284, 286, 287 

Sewer-gases 279 

Sewiekly Coal 48, 55 

Shad 366 

Shawangunk Grit 291 

Sialia ardica 2 

sialis 132 

Sigillaria 16, 56 

Silurid.-e 350, 377 

Silurus 350, 351 

argenlinus 351 

cerviescens 350 

cupreus 351 

maculatus 350 

pallidus 350 

pundatus 350 

Simpulopsis Dominicensis 79 

SIllcillllSII 40 

Siparocera nobilis 128 

Sitta aculeate 3 

GaroUnensis 3, 133 

pygmcea 3 

Stttid.e 3, 133 

Southern Alps, 

252, 253, 254, 256, 259 


Spatula clypeata 12 

" Speck " 311 

Speotyto hypogcea 9 

Sphoerocarpus floriformis 394 

Sphenophylhim 16 

jtliculinus 56 

Spherocoryphe 158 

Sphingicampa distigma 303 

Sphyrapieus thyroideus 9 

Spiraxis 193 

Spirifer arennsus 297 

arrectus 297 

concinnus 29ti 

cyclopterus 295, 296 

lineatus 17 

macroplewrus 295 

modestus 295 

perlameilosus 295 

planoconvexuH 16, 18 

Vanuxemi 294 

Spirifera Pedroana, 114, 116. 117. 119 
120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126 

Spirorbis carbonarius 18 

Spizella Arizona? (i 

Brevoeri (j 

pallida (> 

pusilla 140 

socialis 6, 135, 140 

" Sp,»t-tail" 337 

"Spotted-tail minnow" 33? 

Spumaria nllm 395 

licheniformis 384 

Michmeri 395 

mucilago 395 

physarioides 391 

Spumariace.e 39.") 

"Steel-backed minnow," 375 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis 4, 139 

Stellipora antheloidea 156 

Stellula calliope 8 

Stemonitace.e 395 

Stemonitis 395 

arcyrioides 39? 

confluens 396 

<Ti/)iti( 390 

decipiens 395 

diyitata 406 

fasiculala 39.1 

ferruginea 395 

fusca • 395 

globosa 396 

kerbaUca 395 

marmnosa 39? 

maxima 390 

obfuscata 300 

oblonga 396 




Stemonitis ovata 396 

papillaia 390 

physarioides 397 

porphyra 395 

palchella 396 

pumila 396 

tenerrima 396 

tubulin!! 395 

typhina 396 

typkoides 396 

Stenaster 156 

Btenogyra decollata 85 

Dominicensis 85 

hasta 154, 186, 198 

juncea 186 

Stenopora.ft'Vo.w 156 

lycoperdon 156, 15 7 

Stenopsis albicauda 89 

( 'ayenm nsLf '.(() 

Stenotrema 174 

Sterna Dougalli 204 

Forsieri 13 

hirundo, 301, 202, 203, 205, 206 

macrura 203, 204, 205, 206 


231, 202, 203, -204, 206 

regia 13 

Stictopora elegantula 156 

Stilbe 344 

Americana 344 

chrysoleuca 344 

dbesa 344 

Stilbius 344 

Americ tmts 344 

Stizostedion salmoneum 313 

Stizostedium salmoneum 313 

Stizostethium 313 

salmoneum 313, 369 

vitreum 313 

Streptelasma stricta 295 

Streptorhynchus Agassizii, 

115, 120, 125 

Stkicid.k !). 144 

" Striped Sucker " 348 

Strobila sii 

Stromatopora 01)4, 296 

Strophia calcarea 85 

incana 186, 195 

iostoma 31, 44, 85 

microstoma 198 

striateUa 195 

Stropkomena alternata 156 

( bnradi 090 

rhomboidalis 295, 2915 

Strophodonta Bvi-hii 295 

cavumbona 296 


Strophodonta punchdifera 095 

varistriata .' . .093, 294, 095 

"Studdy-Pearch," 304 

"Stud-fish," 324 

Sturnella magna 7, 141 

tieglecta 7 

Sub-Carboniferous Limestone, 18 19 

Succinea 151, 188 

campestris 189 

obliqua 43, 189 

ochracina 198 

ovalis 43, 189 

pallida 189, 196 

papiMata 189, 196 

"Sun-fish," 355, 358, 361 

"Sun-Perch," 318 

Syi.yicolid.e 3, 134 

Syi.viid.e 2, 130 

Syniphemia semipaimaia 11 

Tachycineta bicohr 4, 139 

thalassbia 4 

Tamias striates 137 

Tana<;i;iixe 5, 70, 138 

Tantalid.e 12 

Tantalus loculator 12 

Tasman glacier 053 

Tebennophorus 32 

Caroiiniensis 30, 3,1, 30 

Telesilla cinereola 103 

vesca 103 

Tentaculite Limestone 093, 099 

Tentaculites 110, 126, 296 

Eldredgianus 100 

elongalus 295, 097 

gyracanihus 0'.»4 

Teretulus 348, 349, 365, 366 

aureolus 348 

cervinus 305 

Duquesnii 349 

papUlosus 366 

Tetrao obscurus 10 

Tki kaonid.e 10, 145 

Thaumatopsis 104 

Thelidomus 07, 146, 147, 173 

Thryothorus BewicJcii 3 

leucogaster 3 

Ludovicianus 134. 140 

Tilmadoche eemua 388 

gracQenta 389 

mulabilis 389 

initials 388 

nhtniiqa 389 

soluta 389 

Tinnunculus sparverius 9 

Tionesta Sandstone 14, 15, 18 

Tornatellina aperta 189 




Tornatellina oblonga 189, 190 

Tortrix BUeyana 303 


Totanus Havipes, 11, 146 

melanoleuca 11 

solitarius 146 

Trachycraterium 388 

Trematis fihsa 156 

Trematospira mvMistriata 295 

Trichamphora 890 

oblongum 389 

Trichia abrwpta 404 

anguiata 404 

botrylis 403 

cerina 403 

chrysosperma 404 

cktvata 405 

difformis 404 

fatlax 403 

fragilis 403 

leucopoda 395 

miniata 4()4 

Neesiana 405 

nigripes 403 

miens 404 

obtusa 405 

olivacea 403 

ontia 404 

punctulata 4u4 

piriformis 403, 405 

reniformis 405 

reticulata 405 

rubiformis 405 

scabra 403 

serotina 403 

serpula 405 

turbinate 404 

varia 403 

Trichiace^e 403 

Tkichopiiok.k 383, 402 

Ti inga alpina 1 1 

. Imericana 11 

Tringoides macularius 11, 146 

Triodopsis 28, 29, 174, 175 

Trociiilid.e 8, 143 

Trochilus Alexandri 8 

nihil, ris 143 

Trochomorpha Oressida 168, 196 

TroglodytidiE 3, 134 

Troglodytes cedon 3, 134 

Parkmanii 3 

Tropidonolus sipedon 370 

Trout.....* 314, 358 

Tubulina 399 

cylindrica 399 

fragiformis 399 


Tubuilna sHpitata 399 

TuRDnxaE 2, 131 

Tardus Audubonii 2 

fuscescens 2, 131 

migratorius 2, 131 

mustelinus 131 

Pallusit 2. 132 

Swainsonii 2, 181 

Tyrannise 7, 70, 142 

Tyrannus Carolinensis . . . .7, 142, 290 

intrepvdus 289 

matutinus 289 

verticdlis 7 

Umbra limi 376 

UmbridjE 376 

Uniontown Coal 55 

Upper Barren Coal Measures, 

46, 49, 50, 57 

Upper Coal Measures 46, 48 

Upper Freeport Coal 15 

Upper Pentamerus Limestone, 

294, 295, 296, 297, 298 

Ventilation 277 

Vireo flavifrons 189 

gilvus 4, 189 

Noveboracensis 140 

olivaceus 4, 189 

plumbeus 5 

solitarius 5, 140 

Swainsonii 4 

Vireonid.e 4, 139 

Vitrina 79 


Vitrinea 77 

Water analysis 280, 281, 286 

Water-supply of New Jersey, 

283, 2S4, 286 
Waynesburg Coal, 47. 48, 51, 

52, 58, 54, 56, 57 

"White Cat," 366 

White Island 251 

" White Sucker," 350, 866 

Xanthoeephalus icterocephalus . . . 7 

Xanthonyx 183 

Xema Sabine! 13 

Xenisma ..321, 322, 828 

catenata 823, 324, 370 

stellifera ...821. 822. 823, 869 

Xenotis, 818 

a ureal us 376 

inscriptus 318, 369, 376 

lythrocMoris 376 

megalotis, 378, 875, 376 

sanguinolmius . . . . 318, 368, 369 

"Yellow Cat," 351, 368 

Zeacrinus mucrospinus 16 




Zenaidura Carolinensis 10, 145 

Zonites 26 

capnodes 24, 25 

cerinoideus 169, 195 

EUiotti 25 

fridbilis 24, 25, 45 

fuliginosus 24 

GuncUachi 198 

indentotus 77 

i n< Hindus 24, 25, 45 

interims 26 

Uxevigatus 24, 73 

Lansingi 74, 75, 76 

Itgerus 169 

luciibratus 24 

midtidentatus 75 

scxdptilis 25, 44 


Zonotrichia dlbicoUis 140 

intermedwi 6 

leucophrys 5, 140 

Zygonectes. 322, 323, :!7<i 

catenatus 323 

notaius -376 

Zymotic diseases 278, 279 


Under Amphibulima, add — 


187, L88, 195, 199, 200 
rubescens 187, 188, 199 

■m Errata. 


Page 45, line 9 from the bottom, for " Partula," read " Partulse." 

Page 4(i, line 7 from the top, for "Mall." read " Mai." 

Page 112, line 7 from the bottom, for "axal," read "axial." 

Page 116, line 17 from the top, for "tangentically," read " tangentially. 

Page 195, line 5) from the bottom, for " fringiila," read ■' fringilla." 

Page 306, line 17 from the bottom, for "zigzig," read "zigzag." 

For errata in Article XXIII, "Index to the Literature of Manganese, 
see page 250. 

For addendum to Index, see page 433. 






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■■:/ " ^ 

Hleporin C.HIr.---- 

I e u Z 

-'-_: . Efei hilli 

New York Academy of Sciences, 

No, 12 WEST ^Ist STREET, 



in sending herewith the first numbers of the Annals of 
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The Index number, which will complete the last volume 
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August, is; 8. 




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I.— An Annotated List of the Birds of Utah. By H. W. Hen- 

shaw, 1 

II. — Notes on the Coal Measures of Beaver County, Pennsyl- 
vania. By I. C. White, 14 

III.— Observations on Some Irregularities of the Floor of the 
Coal Measures of Eastern Kentucky. By R. P. Ste- 
vens, 18 

IV. — On the Genitalia and Lingual Dentition of Pulmonata. By 

W. G. Binney. (With six plates), 20 

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and Pennsylvania. By I. C. White, 46 


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XI. — On an Asphaltic Coal from the Shale of the Huron Eiver, 
Ohio, containing Seams of Sulphate of Baryta. By 
Prof. Albert R. Leeds. (With a Geological Note 
by Dr. J. S. Newberry.) 105 

XII. — On a New Species of Anarta, and on an Allied Genus, with 

a Note on the Genus Adita. By Aug. R. Grote, . . 107 

XIII. — Morgan Expeditions, 1870-71. On the Devonian Trilo- 
bites and Mollusks of Erere, Province of Para, Brazil. 
i. . By Ch. Fred Hartt and Richard Rathbun, ... 110 

XIV. — Note on a Name in Entomology proposed by the late Cole- 
man Towhsend Robinson. By Aug. R. Grote, . . . 128 

XV. — Some Observations on the Birds of Ritchie County, West 

Virginia. By William Brewster, 129 

XVI. — Notes on the Sub-Generic Character of Helix Jamaicensis, 
Chemn., and on Certain Terrestrial Mollusks from 
Haiti ; with Description of a New Species of Helix 
from Colorado. By Thomas Bland, 146 



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XVII. — Notes on Ceraurus pleurexnnthemus, Green. By C D. 

XVIII. — Description of the Interior Surface of the Dorsal Shell 
of Ceraurus pleurexanthemus. By C. D. Walcott 
(with plate), 

Description of a New Species of Jay of the Genus Cya- 
nocitta; also of a supposed Mew Species of the 
Genus Cyanocorax. By George N. Lawrence, . . 

On the Genitalia, Jaw, and Lingual Dentition of certain 
species of Pulmonata. By W. G Binney. (With a 
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of a new species of the Genus Amphibuliina. By 
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XXII. — Some Additional Light on the so-called Sterna Port- 
landica, Ridgway. By Wm. Brewster, .... 

XXIII. Index to the Literature of Manganese, 1596-1874. By H. 
Carrington Bolton 









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XXV. — Recent Progress in Sanitary Science. By Albert 
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XXVI.— Description of a New Species of Bird of the Genus 
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XXIX. — A Partial Synopsis of the Fishes of Upper Georgia. 

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XXX.— The Myxomycetes of the United States. By M. C. 

Cooke 378 






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Title, Contents, and List of Plates, Vol XI. 

Index to the Volume 


.411— 483